14 Dec 2021

14 Dec 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal SE.

Reflection imaging of complex geology in crystalline environment using virtual-source seismology: case study from the Kylylahti polymetallic mine, Finland

Michal Chamarczuk1, Michal Malinowski1,2, Deyan Draganov3, Emilia Koivisto4, Suvi Heinonen2, and Sanna Rötsä5 Michal Chamarczuk et al.
  • 1Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-452, Warsaw, Poland
  • 2Geological Survey of Finland, FI-02151, Espoo, Finland
  • 3Department of Geoscience and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, the Netherlands
  • 4Department of Geosciences and Geography, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland
  • 5Boliden Kevitsa Mining Oy, FIN-99670 Petkula, Finland

Abstract. For the first time, we apply a full-scale 3D seismic virtual-source survey (VSS) for the purpose of near-mine mineral exploration. The data was acquired directly above the Kylylahti underground mine in Finland. Recorded ambient noise (AN) data is characterized using power-spectral density (PSD) and beamforming. Data has most energy at frequencies 25–90 Hz and arrivals with velocities higher than 4 km/s have wide range of azimuths. Based on the PSD and beamforming results, we created 10-days subset of AN recordings that were dominated by multi-azimuth high-velocity arrivals. We use illumination-diagnosis technique and location procedure to show that the AN recordings associated with high apparent velocities are related to body-wave events. Next, we produce 994 virtual-source gathers by applying seismic-interferometry processing by cross-correlating AN at all receivers resulting in full 3D VSS. We apply standard 3D time-domain reflection seismic data processing and imaging using both a selectively stacked subset and full passive data, and validate the results against a pre-existing detailed geological information and 3D active-source survey data processed in the same way as the passive data. The resulting post-stack migrated sections show agreement of reflections between the passive and active data and indicate that VSS provide images where the active-source data are not available due to terrain restrictions. We conclude that while the all-noise approach provides some higher quality reflections related to the inner geological contacts within the target formation and the general dipping trend of the formation, the selected subset is most efficient in resolving the base of formation.

Michal Chamarczuk et al.

Status: open (until 28 Jan 2022)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on se-2021-142', Anonymous Referee #1, 15 Jan 2022 reply

Michal Chamarczuk et al.

Data sets

Kylylahti 3D virtual seismic survey (unprocessed ambient-noise recordings) Michał Chamarczuk and Emilia Koivisto

Kylylahti 3D virtual seismic survey Michal Chamarczuk, Michal Malinowski, Deyan Draganov, Emilia Koivisto, Suvi Heinonen and Sanna Rötsä

Michal Chamarczuk et al.


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Short summary
In passive seismic measurement, all noise sources from environment, such as traffic, vibrations caused by distant excavation and explosive work from underground mine are utilized. In the Kylylahti experiment, receivers were recording ambient noise (AN) sources for 30 days. These recordings were subjected to data analysis and processing using novel methodology developed in our study and used for imaging of the subsurface geology of the Kylylahti mine area.