02 Feb 2022
02 Feb 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal SE.

Tectonic evolution of the Indio Hills segment of the San Andreas fault in southern California

Jean-Baptiste Koehl1,2,3,4, Steffen Bergh2,3, and Arthur G. Sylvester5 Jean-Baptiste Koehl et al.
  • 1Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, (CEED), University of Oslo, N-0315 Oslo, Norway
  • 2Department of Geosciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway in Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
  • 3Research Center for Arctic Petroleum Exploration (ARCEx), UiT The Arctic University of Norway
  • 4CAGE – Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate, UiT The Arctic University of Norway
  • 5Department of Earth Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA

Abstract. Transpressional uplift domains of inverted Miocene–Pliocene basin fill along the San Andreas fault zone in Coachella Valley, southern California, are characterized by fault linkage and segmentation and deformation partitioning. The Indio Hills wedge-shaped uplift block is located in between two boundary fault strands, the Indio Hills fault to the northeast and the Banning fault to the southwest, which merge to the southeast. Uplift commenced about 2.2–0.76 million years ago and involved progressive fold and faulting stages caused by a change from distributed strain to partly partitioned right-slip and reverse/thrust displacement on the bounding faults when approaching the fault junction. Major fold structures in the study area include oblique, right-stepping, partly overturned en echelon macro-folds that tighten and bend into parallelism with the Indio Hills fault to the east and become more open towards the Banning fault to the west, indicating an early and close relationship of the macro-folds with the Indio Hills fault and a late initiation of the Banning fault. Sets of strike-slip to reverse step-over and right- and left-lateral cross faults and conjugate kink bands affect the entire uplifted area, and locally offset the en echelon macro-folds. Comparison with the Mecca Hills and Durmid Hills uplifts farther southeast in Coachella Valley reveals notable similarities, but also differences in fault architectures, spatial and temporal evolution, and deformation mechanisms.

Jean-Baptiste Koehl et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on se-2022-9', Anonymous Referee #1, 11 Mar 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Jean-Baptiste Koehl, 12 May 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on se-2022-9', Jonathan Matti, 12 Mar 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Jean-Baptiste Koehl, 12 May 2022

Jean-Baptiste Koehl et al.

Data sets

Replication data for "Tectonic evolution of the Indio Hills segment of the San Andreas fault in southern California" Jean-Baptiste P. Koehl

Jean-Baptiste Koehl et al.


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Short summary
The San Andreas fault is a major active fault associated with ongoing earthquake sequences in southern California. The present study investigates the development of the Indio Hills area in the Coachella Valley along the Banning fault segment of the San Andreas fault and the Indio Hills fault. The Indio Hills area is located near an area with high ongoing earthquake activity (Brawley seismic zone) and its recent tectonic evolution therefore has implications for earthquake prediction.