Defining a mid-Holocene earthquake through speleoseismological and independent data: implications for the outer Central Apennines (Italy) seismotectonic framework
Abstract. A speleoseismological study has been conducted in the Cavallone Cave, located in the easternmost carbonate sector of the Central Apennines (Maiella Massif), in a seismically active region interposed between the post-orogenic extensional domain, to the west, and the contractional one, to the east. The occurrence of active
silent normal faults, to the west, close to blind thrusts, to the east, raises critical questions about the seismic hazard for this transitional zone. Large collapses of cave ceilings, fractures, broken speleothems with new re-growing stalagmites on their top, preferential orientation of fallen stalagmites and the absence of thin and long concretions have been observed in many portions of the karst conduit. This may indicate that the cave suffered sudden deformation events likely linked to the occurrence of past strong earthquakes. Radiocarbon dating and, above all, the robust correspondence with other coeval on-fault and off-fault geological data collected in surrounding areas outside the cave, provide important constraints for the individuation of a mid-Holocene paleoearthquake around 4.6–4.8 kyr BP. On the basis of the available paleoseismological data, possible seismogenic sources can be identified with the Sulmona normal fault and other active normal fault segments along its southern prosecution, which recorded synchronous strong paleoevents. Although the correlation between speleotectonic observations and quantitative modeling is disputed, studies on possible effects of earthquake on karstic landforms and features, when corroborated by independent data collected outside caves, can provide a useful contribution in discovering past earthquakes.