Articles | Volume 7, issue 4
Solid Earth, 7, 1171–1183, 2016

Special issue: Pore-scale tomography & imaging - applications, techniques...

Solid Earth, 7, 1171–1183, 2016

Method article 03 Aug 2016

Method article | 03 Aug 2016

X-ray computed tomography investigation of structures in Opalinus Clay from large-scale to small-scale after mechanical testing

Annette Kaufhold1,2, Matthias Halisch3, Gerhard Zacher4, and Stephan Kaufhold1 Annette Kaufhold et al.
  • 1Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hanover, Germany
  • 2Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BFS), Willy-Brandt-Straße 5, 38226 Salzgitter, Germany
  • 3Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG), Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hanover, Germany
  • 4GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies GmbH, Niels-Bohr-Straße 7, 31515 Wunstorf, Germany

Abstract. In the past years X-ray computed tomography (CT) has became more and more common for geoscientific applications and is used from the µm-scale (e.g. for investigations of microfossils or pore-scale structures) up to the dm-scale (full drill cores or soil columns). In this paper we present results from CT imaging and mineralogical investigations of an Opalinus Clay core on different scales and different regions of interest, emphasizing especially the 3-D evaluation and distribution of cracks and their impact on mechanical testing of such material. Enhanced knowledge of the testing behaviour of the Opalinus Clay is of great interest, especially since this material is considered for a long-term radioactive waste disposal and storage facility in Switzerland. Hence, results are compared regarding the mineral (i.e. phase) contrast resolution, the spatial resolution, and the overall scanning speed.

With this extensive interdisciplinary scale-down approach it has been possible to characterize the general fracture propagation in comparison to mineralogical and textural features of the Opalinus Clay. Additionally, and as far as we know, a so-called mylonitic zone, located at an intersect of two main fractures, has been observed for the first time for an experimentally deformed Opalinus sample. The multi-scale results are in good accordance to data from naturally deformed Opalinus Clay samples, which enables us to perform systematical research under controlled laboratory conditions. Accompanying 3-D imaging greatly enhances the capability of data interpretation and assessment of such a material.

Short summary
The OPA material has been intensively studied by a variety of multiple scale and non-destructive 3-D X-ray CT investigations, following a consequent top-down approach to identify specific regions of interest. According to the mechanical experiment, it has been observed that the shear failure is located in a clay-rich area. Within the intersecting area of the two main fractures, a so called mylonitic zone with a particle reduction was observed on the open shear failure using CT and SEM techniques.