Dilatant normal faulting in jointed cohesive rocks: a physical model study
Abstract. Dilatant faults often form in rocks containing pre-existing joints, but the effects of joints on fault segment linkage and fracture connectivity are not well understood. We present an analogue modeling study using cohesive powder with pre-formed joint sets in the upper layer, varying the angle between joints and a rigid basement fault. We analyze interpreted map-view photographs at maximum displacement for damage zone width, number of connected joints, number of secondary fractures, degree of segmentation and area fraction of massively dilatant fractures. Particle imaging velocimetry provides insight into the deformation history of the experiments and illustrates the localization pattern of fault segments. Results show that with increasing angle between joint-set and basement-fault strike the number of secondary fractures and the number of connected joints increase, while the area fraction of massively dilatant fractures shows only a minor increase. Models without pre-existing joints show far lower area fractions of massively dilatant fractures while forming distinctly more secondary fractures.