13 Jan 2021

13 Jan 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal SE.

An Analytical Framework for Stress Shadow Analysis During Hydraulic Fracturing – Applied to the Bakken Formation, Saskatchewan, Canada

Mostafa Gorjian1, Sepidehalsadat Hendi1, and Christopher D. Hawkes2 Mostafa Gorjian et al.
  • 1Geological Engineering, Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
  • 2Geological Engineering, Department of Civil, Geological, and Environmental Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

Abstract. This paper presents selected results of a broader research project pertaining to the hydraulic fracturing of oil reservoirs hosted in the siltstones and fine grained sandstones of the Bakken Formation in southeast Saskatchewan, Canada. The Bakken Formation contains significant volumes of hydrocarbon, but large-scale hydraulic fracturing is required to achieve economic production rates. The performance of hydraulic fractures is strongly dependent on fracture attributes such as length and width, which in turn are dependent on in-situ stresses.

This paper reviews methods for estimating changes to the in-situ stress field (stress shadow) resulting from mechanical effects (fracture opening), poro-elastic effects, and thermo-elastic effects associated with fluid injection for hydraulic fracturing. The application of this method is illustrated for a multi-stage hydraulic fracturing operation, to predict principal horizontal stress magnitudes and orientations at each stage. A methodology is also presented for using stress shadow models to assess the potential for inducing shear failure on natural fractures.

The results obtained in this work suggest that thermo and poro-elastic stresses are negligible for hydraulic fracturing in the Bakken Formation of southeast Saskatchewan, hence a mechanical stress shadow formulation is used for analyzing multistage hydraulic fracture treatments. This formulation (and a simplified version of the formulation) predicts an increase in instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP) that is consistent with field observations (i.e., ISIP increasing from roughly 21.6 MPa to values slightly greater than 26 MPa) for a 30-stage fracture treatment. The size of predicted zones of shear failure on natural fractures are comparable with the event clouds observed in microseismic monitoring when assumed values of 115°/65° are used for natural fracture strike/dip; however, more data on natural fracture attributes and more microseismic monitoring data for the area are required before rigorous assessment of the model is possible.

Mostafa Gorjian et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on se-2021-1', Anonymous Referee #1, 24 Feb 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Mostafa Gorjian, 04 Apr 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on se-2021-1', Anonymous Referee #2, 08 Mar 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Mostafa Gorjian, 04 Apr 2021
  • EC1: 'Comment on se-2021-1', Federico Rossetti, 07 Apr 2021

Mostafa Gorjian et al.

Mostafa Gorjian et al.


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Short summary
Through this research, the practical toolbox was developed to analyze thermo-hydro-mechanical stress shadow during multistage hydraulic fracturing within 30 stages. In fact, to the best of authors' knowledge, no core-based measurements had been published for the Bakken Formation from the Canadian portion of the Williston Basin prior to this research. All the mechanical, thermal, hydraulic, and natural fracture data were measured by the authors in the studied area.