Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/se-2021-1
https://doi.org/10.5194/se-2021-1
13 Jan 2021
 | 13 Jan 2021
Status: this preprint has been withdrawn by the authors.

An Analytical Framework for Stress Shadow Analysis During Hydraulic Fracturing – Applied to the Bakken Formation, Saskatchewan, Canada

Mostafa Gorjian, Sepidehalsadat Hendi, and Christopher D. Hawkes

Abstract. This paper presents selected results of a broader research project pertaining to the hydraulic fracturing of oil reservoirs hosted in the siltstones and fine grained sandstones of the Bakken Formation in southeast Saskatchewan, Canada. The Bakken Formation contains significant volumes of hydrocarbon, but large-scale hydraulic fracturing is required to achieve economic production rates. The performance of hydraulic fractures is strongly dependent on fracture attributes such as length and width, which in turn are dependent on in-situ stresses.

This paper reviews methods for estimating changes to the in-situ stress field (stress shadow) resulting from mechanical effects (fracture opening), poro-elastic effects, and thermo-elastic effects associated with fluid injection for hydraulic fracturing. The application of this method is illustrated for a multi-stage hydraulic fracturing operation, to predict principal horizontal stress magnitudes and orientations at each stage. A methodology is also presented for using stress shadow models to assess the potential for inducing shear failure on natural fractures.

The results obtained in this work suggest that thermo and poro-elastic stresses are negligible for hydraulic fracturing in the Bakken Formation of southeast Saskatchewan, hence a mechanical stress shadow formulation is used for analyzing multistage hydraulic fracture treatments. This formulation (and a simplified version of the formulation) predicts an increase in instantaneous shut-in pressure (ISIP) that is consistent with field observations (i.e., ISIP increasing from roughly 21.6 MPa to values slightly greater than 26 MPa) for a 30-stage fracture treatment. The size of predicted zones of shear failure on natural fractures are comparable with the event clouds observed in microseismic monitoring when assumed values of 115°/65° are used for natural fracture strike/dip; however, more data on natural fracture attributes and more microseismic monitoring data for the area are required before rigorous assessment of the model is possible.

This preprint has been withdrawn.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Mostafa Gorjian, Sepidehalsadat Hendi, and Christopher D. Hawkes

Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on se-2021-1', Anonymous Referee #1, 24 Feb 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Mostafa Gorjian, 04 Apr 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on se-2021-1', Anonymous Referee #2, 08 Mar 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Mostafa Gorjian, 04 Apr 2021
  • EC1: 'Comment on se-2021-1', Federico Rossetti, 07 Apr 2021

Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on se-2021-1', Anonymous Referee #1, 24 Feb 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Mostafa Gorjian, 04 Apr 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on se-2021-1', Anonymous Referee #2, 08 Mar 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Mostafa Gorjian, 04 Apr 2021
  • EC1: 'Comment on se-2021-1', Federico Rossetti, 07 Apr 2021
Mostafa Gorjian, Sepidehalsadat Hendi, and Christopher D. Hawkes
Mostafa Gorjian, Sepidehalsadat Hendi, and Christopher D. Hawkes

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Latest update: 16 Jun 2024
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This preprint has been withdrawn.

Short summary
Through this research, the practical toolbox was developed to analyze thermo-hydro-mechanical stress shadow during multistage hydraulic fracturing within 30 stages. In fact, to the best of authors' knowledge, no core-based measurements had been published for the Bakken Formation from the Canadian portion of the Williston Basin prior to this research. All the mechanical, thermal, hydraulic, and natural fracture data were measured by the authors in the studied area.