Articles | Volume 6, issue 3
Research article 30 Sep 2015
Research article | 30 Sep 2015
Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in Cameroon
D. Tsozué et al.
Related subject area
Soil System ScienceDiscussing the genesis of karst rocky desertification research based on the correlations between cropland and settlements in typical peak-cluster depressionsDeterminants of farmers' tree-planting investment decisions as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of EthiopiaThe effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in northeastern ChinaRangeland degradation assessment: a new strategy based on the ecological knowledge of indigenous pastoralistsThe role of sexual vs. asexual recruitment of Artemisia wudanica in transition zone habitats between inter-dune lowlands and active dunes in Inner Mongolia, ChinaEffect of soil coarseness on soil base cations and available micronutrients in a semi-arid sandy grasslandThe effectiveness of jute and coir blankets for erosion control in different field and laboratory conditionsIon association in water solution of soil and vadose zone of chestnut saline solonetz as a driver of terrestrial carbon sinkSoil indicators to assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in dryland ecosystemsAlleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate applicationModeling the contributing factors of desertification and evaluating their relationships to the soil degradation process through geomatic techniquesExamining the fixation kinetics of chelated and non-chelated copper and the applications to micronutrient management in semiarid alkaline soilsDistribution of inorganic phosphorus in profiles and particle fractions of Anthrosols across an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake (China)Soil contamination in landfills: a case study of a landfill in Czech RepublicAtmospheric significance of aeolian salts in the sandy deserts of northwestern ChinaEvaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approachIntegrating a mini catchment with mulching for soil water management in a sloping jujube orchard on the semiarid Loess Plateau of ChinaStability and biodegradability of organic matter from Arctic soils of Western Siberia: insights from 13C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysisEffects of vegetation restoration on the aggregate stability and distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in a typical karst gorge regionX-ray microtomography analysis of soil structure deformation caused by centrifugationTrail impact monitoring in Rocky Mountain National Park, USACO2 emission and structural characteristics of two calcareous soils amended with municipal solid waste and plant residueQuantifying the impact of land degradation on crop production: the case of SenegalEffects of pumice mining on soil qualityGrazing effects on soil characteristics and vegetation of grassland in northern ChinaThe challenge and future of rocky desertification control in karst areas in southwest ChinaIdentification of areas vulnerable to soil erosion risk in India using GIS methodsPredicting parameters of degradation succession processes of Tibetan Kobresia grasslandsInfluence of humic acid applications on modulus of rupture, aggregate stability, electrical conductivity, carbon and nitrogen content of a crusting problem soilShort-term grazing exclusion has no impact on soil properties and nutrients of degraded alpine grassland in Tibet, ChinaMODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenology dynamics in the Inner Mongolia grasslandAnalysis of soil moisture condition under different land uses in the arid region of Horqin sandy land, northern ChinaLand use effects on soil organic carbon sequestration in calcareous Leptosols in former pastureland – a case study from the Tatra Mountains (Poland)Precision of farmer-based fertility ratings and soil organic carbon for crop production on a FerralsolSocioeconomic modifications of the universal soil loss equationA fuzzy intelligent system for land consolidation – a case study in Shunde, ChinaKarst bare slope soil erosion and soil quality: a simulation case studyLandfill site suitability assessment by means of geographic information system analysisRelationship between hydraulic properties and plant coverage of the closed-landfill soils in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy)Effects of land use changes and soil conservation intervention on soil properties as indicators for land degradation under a Mediterranean climateAssessment of environmental soil quality around Sonepur Bazari mine of Raniganj coalfield, IndiaVegetation in karst terrain of southwestern China allocates more biomass to rootsVolcanic soils and landslides: a case study of the island of Ischia (southern Italy) and its relationship with other Campania eventsLinking soil erosion to on-site financial cost: lessons from watersheds in the Blue Nile basinComparison of wheat and safflower cultivation areas in terms of total carbon and some soil properties under semi-arid climate conditionsUnderstanding the factors influencing rill erosion on roadcuts in the south eastern region of South AfricaRemediation of degraded arable steppe soils in Moldova using vetch as green manureResponses of vertical soil moisture to rainfall pulses and land uses in a typical loess hilly area, ChinaSoil–landform–plant-community relationships of a periglacial landscape on Potter Peninsula, maritime AntarcticaEvaluation of soil fertility in the succession of karst rocky desertification using principal component analysis
Yang Bing Li, Qiong Yao Li, Guang Jie Luo, Xiao Yong Bai, Yong Yan Wang, Shi Jie Wang, Jing Xie, and Guang Bin Yang
Solid Earth, 7, 741–750,Short summary
In karst mountainous areas in Southwest China, sloping land is overly reclaimed. Why are farmers doing this? Through typical case studies of peak-cluster depression areas, we found that low land carrying capacity and high population pressure where farmers carry out extreme steep reclamation activities are the main reasons for desert-like landscapes; this is a kind of land degradation which occurs in vulnerable karst dryland socioecological systems.
Berhan Gessesse, Woldeamlak Bewket, and Achim Bräuning
Solid Earth, 7, 639–650,Short summary
The Modjo watershed is facing land degradation challenges, which in turn have had adverse effects on its agricultural productivity. Data were modelled using a binary logistic regression model. The findings revealed that local land users’ willingness to adopt tree growing is a function of many factors, however, labour force availability, the disparity of schooling age and land tenure systems have significant influence on tree-planting investment decisions.
M. Zhang, J. Wu, and Y. Tang
Solid Earth, 7, 631–637,Short summary
The aim was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. A point pattern method was used to analyze elm trees within different diameter classes in both grazed and fenced plots, located in Horqin Sandy Land, China. Effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm were not reported. This study is helpful for understanding the formation of the spatial pattern of the elm population in sparse woodland steppes.
Bahareh Behmanesh, Hossein Barani, Ahmad Abedi Sarvestani, Mohammad Reza Shahraki, and Mohsen Sharafatmandrad
Solid Earth, 7, 611–619,Short summary
The study deals with incorporating indigenous ecological knowledge alongside scientific knowledge to identify and test rangeland degradation indicators for two sites in Golestan National Park, NE Iran. The area pastoralists are asked to introduce and test rangeland degradation indicators and to assess degradation on their own rangelands. The final analysis identified 17 indicators that are usable by the pastoralists themselves and could be integrated into land degradation assessment plans.
Yongcui Wang, Busso Carlos Alberto, Deming Jiang, Musa Ala, Xuehua Li, Quanlai Zhou, Jixiang Lin, Guohua Ren, and Lian Jia
Solid Earth, 7, 621–629,
Linyou Lü, Ruzhen Wang, Heyong Liu, Jinfei Yin, Jiangtao Xiao, Zhengwen Wang, Yan Zhao, Guoqing Yu, Xingguo Han, and Yong Jiang
Solid Earth, 7, 549–556,Short summary
Soil coarseness is the main process decreasing soil organic matter and threatening the productivity of sandy grasslands. Previous studies demonstrated negative effect of soil coarseness on soil carbon storage, but less is known about how soil base cations (exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na) and available micronutrients (available Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) response to soil coarseness. In a semi-arid grassland of northern China, a field experiment was initiated in 2011 to solve this problem.
Jana Kalibová, Lukáš Jačka, and Jan Petrů
Solid Earth, 7, 469–479,Short summary
Jute and coir geotextiles (GTXs) significantly reduced the volume of surface run-off induced by simulated rainfall. “No-soil” conditions used during the laboratory experiment guarantee data based on GTX properties only. Contrary to our expectations, the performance ranking of GTXs in the laboratory did not match the field records. Soil did not influence all GTX samples equally. Further research may shed light on the variability of GTX effectiveness reported in available studies.
Abdul-Malik A. Batukaev, Anatoly P. Endovitsky, Andrey G. Andreev, Valery P. Kalinichenko, Tatiana M. Minkina, Zaurbek S. Dikaev, Saglara S. Mandzhieva, and Svetlana N. Sushkova
Solid Earth, 7, 415–423,Short summary
Calcium carbonate equilibrium in a solution of soil and vadose zone is a factor of geochemical cycle of the terrestrial system. The analytical concentration of ions was determined. The algorithm of computer program was developed to calculate the real equilibrium forms of ions. The concentration and mobility of ions in solution of soil and vadose zone is much higher compared to solubility product, and it promotes flux of carbon from soil.
Edoardo A. C. Costantini, Cristina Branquinho, Alice Nunes, Gudrun Schwilch, Ilan Stavi, Alejandro Valdecantos, and Claudio Zucca
Solid Earth, 7, 397–414,Short summary
The success of restoration projects relies on a proper understanding of the relationships between soil, plants, hydrology, climate, and land management at different scales, which are particularly complex in drylands. Several soil indicators, which can be used to assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in dryland ecosystems at different spatial and temporal scales, are discussed from different viewpoints of pedology, ecology, hydrology, and land management.
A. A. Elisa, S. Ninomiya, J. Shamshuddin, and I. Roslan
Solid Earth, 7, 367–374,Short summary
The main problem of acid sulfate soil is that it has a low soil pH and contains a high amount of aluminum (Al). There have been several approaches to improve this soil. In this study, the application of calcium silicate was found to be a suitable soil ameliorant as it alleviated Al toxicity below the critical level for rice production, as well as also providing a sufficient amount of silicon (Si) and calcium (Ca), which are also needed for rice growth.
P. Shoba and S. S. Ramakrishnan
Solid Earth, 7, 341–354,Short summary
The paper systematically illustrates and identifies the causative factors of desertification processes through use of a geostatistical model. This paper also concentrates on studying and identifying the possible soil degradation processes which have been caused by prime factors. As such, this paper should be of interest to a broad readership including those interested in land degradation, environmental deterioration, desertification, remote sensing and geostatistical modeling.
T. K. Udeigwe, M. B. Eichmann, M. C. Menkiti, and N. Y. O. Kusi
Solid Earth, 7, 311–321,Short summary
Fixation pattern and kinetics of chelated and non-chelated Cu compounds in semiarid soils were examined. 22% more Cu was fixed in the non-chelated system within the first 14 days (difference of only 7% by day 90). The slope of change in Cu in respect to other nutrients was higher in the non-chelated system. Fixation of Cu was better described by the power function and second-order models in the non-chelated and chelated systems, respectively. Findings are vital for improved nutrient management.
Guo Sheng Zhang and Jian Cha Li
Solid Earth, 7, 301–310,
D. Adamcová, M. D. Vaverková, S. Bartoň, Z. Havlíček, and E. Břoušková
Solid Earth, 7, 239–247,Short summary
Phytotoxicity test was determined to assess ecotoxicity of landfill soil. Sinapis alba L. was used. Soil samples meet the limits for Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn specified in the legislation. An increase in plant biomass was observed in plants growing on soil samples, but no changes in appearance, slow growth, or necrotic lesions appeared. The tested soils reach high percentage values of germination capacity of seeds. Plant growth test can be good protocol to assess the phytotoxicity of landfill soil.
Solid Earth, 7, 191–203,Short summary
Salt archives in sediments are critical to understanding a number of geochemical processes in the earth surface conditions. This study presents a physical and geochemical survey into aeolian salts in the Chinese deserts to explore their possible climatic implications. The results suggest the aeolian salts are atmospheric origin without local geological limits. It is a latent indicator in onefold depositional environment but not so in diverse conditions. Palaeoenvironmental use should be careful.
I. S. Panagea, I. N. Daliakopoulos, I. K. Tsanis, and G. Schwilch
Solid Earth, 7, 177–190,Short summary
The application of a participatory approach towards sustainable solutions against the soil salinisation threat in arid environments is described. Three sustainable land management (SLM) technologies are evaluated using the WOCAT framework. This work presents considerations for the adoption of SLM practices and insights into the stakeholder preferences for the selection of available and new amelioration methods, and it hints on how a participatory learning process can raise awareness.
H. C. Li, X. D. Gao, X. N. Zhao, P. T. Wu, L. S. Li, Q. Ling, and W. H. Sun
Solid Earth, 7, 167–175,Short summary
We integrated fish-scale pits with mulching to test whether this integration could improve soil water conservation. The results showed that integrating fish-scale pits with mulching could conserve significantly more soil water by increasing infiltration and decreasing evaporation, and showed greater soil water storage and degree of soil water compensation compared to fish-scale pits alone. In addition, jujube branches exerted better mulching effects than maize straw.
E. Ejarque and E. Abakumov
Solid Earth, 7, 153–165,Short summary
This study presents, for the first time, a characterisation of soil organic matter from the Gydan Peninsula in the Yamal Region, Western Siberia, Russia. We provide evidences that soils in this region accumulate lowly decomposed organic matter with a high mineralisation potential. This emphasises the vulnerability of this soil carbon pool to be remobilised as CO2 to the atmosphere under climate warming effects.
F. K. Tang, M. Cui, Q. Lu, Y. G. Liu, H. Y. Guo, and J. X. Zhou
Solid Earth, 7, 141–151,Short summary
A study of vegetation restoration's effects on soil aggregate stability and SOC sequestration was carried out in a typical karst region (China). We found that revegetation promoted soil stability and accumulation of total SOC and SOC associated in water stable aggregates (WSA). WSA < 0.25 mm has the greatest contribution to total SOC. Fractal dimensions could objectively and comprehensively reflect soil stability. Promoting natural restoration is the ideal method to restore ecology in karst region.
S. Schlüter, F. Leuther, S. Vogler, and H.-J. Vogel
Solid Earth, 7, 129–140,Short summary
A new protocol for digital volume correlation facilitates detailed insights into internal deformation of soil. Structure deformation during centrifugation is revealed by comparing X-ray CT images before and after centrifugation. Quantitative image analysis reveals that soil structure changes are driven by soil shrinkage due to drying and soil compaction due to compression.
J. Svajda, S. Korony, I. Brighton, S. Esser, and S. Ciapala
Solid Earth, 7, 115–128,Short summary
Rocky Mountain National Park is one of the most visited national parks in the United States. 95 % of the park is managed as wilderness. This paper examines the impacts of trampling on the vegetation and soil along selected trails. Trail widening and soil loss are the most visible types of trail degradation. Insights into the influence of different factors (use level, topography) can lead to the selection of appropriate management measures to avoid or minimize negative consequences.
Solid Earth, 7, 105–114,Short summary
Following the application of organic amendment treatments, the increased organic carbon and total porosity values, as compared to the control treatment, were greater in the loamy sand soil than in the clay loam soil. Moreover, compared to the microbial respiration of control plots, the application of municipal solid waste resulted in higher levels of microbial respiration from the clay loam soil than from the loamy sand soil, whereas the reverse was found for alfalfa residue.
B. G. J. S. Sonneveld, M. A. Keyzer, and D. Ndiaye
Solid Earth, 7, 93–103,Short summary
We found a plausible relationship between crop yield and a land degradation index based on expert judgements and affected area share. A pseudo-experiment was designed that for sites with otherwise similar circumstances compares the yield of a site with and one without land degradation. Our overall conclusion is that yield reduction is associated with higher levels of land degradation, irrespective of whether fertilizer is being applied or not.
A. Cruz-Ruíz, E. Cruz-Ruíz, R. Vaca, P. Del Aguila, and J. Lugo
Solid Earth, 7, 1–9,Short summary
The main aim was to assess agriculture soils differing in elapsed time since pumice mining in Mexico. The study sites in 0, 4, 10 and 15 year old reclaimed soils were compared with an adjacent undisturbed site. A general trend of recovery towards the undisturbed condition with reclamation age was found after disturbance. The multivariate analysis applied indicates that the most appropriate indicators to diagnose the quality of the soils were total N, urease and available phosphorus.
Z. Wang, D. A. Johnson, Y. Rong, and K. Wang
Solid Earth, 7, 55–65,Short summary
Grazing increased diversity, but heavy grazing decreased aboveground biomass and increased the non-grass component. Overgrazing homogenized soil characteristics at a 10m scale. Therefore, moderate grazing was recommended as the preferred management alternative for grasslands in northern China because of increased plant diversity without negative consequences related to decreased forage quality forage quantity and soil heterogeneity in northern China's grasslands.
J. Y. Zhang, M. H. Dai, L. C. Wang, C. F. Zeng, and W. C. Su
Solid Earth, 7, 83–91,
H. Biswas, A. Raizada, D. Mandal, S. Kumar, S. Srinivas, and P. K. Mishra
Solid Earth, 6, 1247–1257,Short summary
The paper presents a simple and novel approach to prioritize districts (or subregions) of a state (or region) for implementing soil conservation measures through computation of weighted soil erosion risk (WSER), by deducting soil loss tolerance limit values from soil erosion rates. WSER values obtained for the districts of Telangana state, India, led us to identify Adilabad, Warangal, and Khammam as the districts calling for the urgent attention of policymakers for natural resource conservation.
L. Lin, Y. K. Li, X. L. Xu, F. W. Zhang, Y. G. Du, S. L. Liu, X. W. Guo, and G. M. Cao
Solid Earth, 6, 1237–1246,Short summary
We investigated environmental factors and plant functional groups to quantity and identify factors during alpine grassland succession processes. The degree of degradation of alpine meadows may be delineated by development of mattic epipedon and PFG composition. Because relatively few environmental factors are investigated, this approach can save time and labor to formulate a conservation management plan for degraded alpine meadows.
İ. Gümüş and C. Şeker
Solid Earth, 6, 1231–1236,
X. Lu, Y. Yan, J. Sun, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, X. Wang, and G. Cheng
Solid Earth, 6, 1195–1205,Short summary
Grazing exclusion has been widely adopted to restore degraded grasslands in Tibet. We investigated soil properties and nutrients by comparing free-grazing and grazing exclusion grasslands. The results showed that grazing exclusion had no impact on most soil properties and nutrients, and even caused a considerable decrease in soil TN and TP in the soil surface layer. Nevertheless, climate conditions during the growing season played an important role in controlling the soil quality status.
Z. Gong, K. Kawamura, N. Ishikawa, M. Goto, T. Wulan, D. Alateng, T. Yin, and Y. Ito
Solid Earth, 6, 1185–1194,Short summary
This study evaluated trends in vegetation cover and phenology dynamics in the Inner Mongolia grassland by applying a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series obtained by the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) during 2002–2014. The positive trends of the cumulative annual NDVI (77.10%) could be interpreted as an increase in plant productivity in the Inner Mongolia permanent grassland. And the growing season has lengthened by 10.86 days.
C. Y. Niu, A. Musa, and Y. Liu
Solid Earth, 6, 1157–1167,Short summary
The higher soil moisture content among different land uses was exhibited by the grassland, and followed by cropland, poplar land, inter-dunes and shrub land. The temporal variations of soil moisture in different land uses were not always consistent with the rainfall due to the dry sequence. The infiltration depth exhibited a positive correlation with precipitation under all land uses. This study provided an insight into the implications for land and agricultural water management in this area.
K. Wasak and M. Drewnik
Solid Earth, 6, 1103–1115,Short summary
The paper shows soil organic carbon sequestration (SOC) rates in calcareous shallow soils in reforested areas in the Tatra Mts., with a particular focus on the different forms of organic matter (OM) storage. Fifty years after the conversion of pastureland to grassland, the emergence of dwarf pine shrub, larch forest, the development of genetic soil horizons as well as SOC sequestration and the occurrence of OM forms in soil, are related to plant community.
P. Musinguzi, P. Ebanyat, J. S. Tenywa, T. A. Basamba, M. M. Tenywa, and D. Mubiru
Solid Earth, 6, 1063–1073,Short summary
This study showed that resource-poor smallholder farmers can ably rate fields for soil fertility as poor or good but had difficulties in identifying medium-fertility fields. Rating with SOC improved precision to rate medium-fertility fields. SOC and clay content explained the highest yield variances in heterogeneous smallholder farms. A combination of SOC and farmers' field experiences can be affordable approaches to guide fertility management and fertilizer application.
A. Erol, Ö. Koşkan, and M. A. Başaran
Solid Earth, 6, 1025–1035,Short summary
In addition to physical factors, socioeconomic factors have crucial effects on soil erosion, although the joint study of physical and socioeconomic factors has been limited to date. To address this, the present study aimed to determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on soil loss and, in turn, to modify the universal soil loss equation (USLE).
J. Wang, A. Ge, Y. Hu, C. Li, and L. Wang
Solid Earth, 6, 997–1006,Short summary
A fuzzy intelligent system based on a fuzzy decision tree was established for land potential evaluation. We proposed one new model for feature selection based on the fuzzy measure using the L1-norm method, which can help to construct an index system for intelligent evaluation. The data comes from the “Three Old” project of Shunde, China. It is huge and heterogeneous and is therefore used first for research. The fuzzy intelligent system shows good performance for land potential evaluation.
Q. Dai, Z. Liu, H. Shao, and Z. Yang
Solid Earth, 6, 985–995,
M. Yazdani, S. M. Monavari, G. A. Omrani, M. Shariat, and S. M. Hosseini
Solid Earth, 6, 945–956,
C. Cassinari, P. Manfredi, L. Giupponi, M. Trevisan, and C. Piccini
Solid Earth, 6, 929–943,Short summary
The amount of water available to plants in a closed landfill soil is analyzed by laboratory analyses, by using pedotransfer functions (PTFs) and by studying plant coverage. The laboratory analyses and PTFs highlighted the soil's inability to hold water. The closed landfill plant coverage consists of annual species (therophytes) typical of disturbed environments. The soil's low-water content, together with other degraded soil characters, justifies the plant coverage.
Y. Mohawesh, A. Taimeh, and F. Ziadat
Solid Earth, 6, 857–868,
R. E. Masto, S. Sheik, G. Nehru, V. A. Selvi, J. George, and L. C. Ram
Solid Earth, 6, 811–821,Short summary
Impact of coal mining on soil was assessed through an integrated environmental soil quality index (ESQI). Biological activity was higher in underground mine (UGM) soil. As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb were higher in opencast mine (OCM) soil, whereas Cd was higher in UGM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in UGM soil. Calculated ESQI, based on total PAHs, loss on ignition, bulk density, Be, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, and microbial quotient, was higher for UGM (+10.1%) than OCM soils.
J. Ni, D. H. Luo, J. Xia, Z. H. Zhang, and G. Hu
Solid Earth, 6, 799–810,Short summary
The root biomass study of karst (limestone and dolomite) vegetation in southwestern China and even in the word’s karst regions is rarely investigated. The mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest in karst terrain of SW China has higher root biomass, but very high ratio of root to aboveground biomass compared to non-karst subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests. Such findings have significant ecological meanings for vegetation restoration and carbon increment.
S. Vingiani, G. Mele, R. De Mascellis, F. Terribile, and A. Basile
Solid Earth, 6, 783–797,Short summary
An integrated soil study was carried out on landslides which have occurred on the steep northern slopes of Mt. Vezzi on the island of Ischia (Italy). The studied soils showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity in all the studied properties along a buried fine ash layer (namely, the 2C horizon). Nevertheless, only the identification of a layer of thin, finely stratified ash on the top of 2C, by optical microscopy, enabled us to assume this interface to be an impeding layer for water fluxes.
T. Erkossa, A. Wudneh, B. Desalegn, and G. Taye
Solid Earth, 6, 765–774,Short summary
The paper reviews global and regional literature related to soil erosion and crop productivity. It argues that the cost of not replacing the nutrient lost due to erosion is more meaningful in areas where farmers do not apply the recommended rate of fertilizers. Thus, it established a functional relationship between the nutrients and yield of major crops based on data from three watersheds in the Nile basin and estimated the annual financial loss based on the local market price of the crops.
Solid Earth, 6, 719–725,
K. E. Seutloali and H. R. Beckedahl
Solid Earth, 6, 633–641,
M. Wiesmeier, M. Lungu, R. Hübner, and V. Cerbari
Solid Earth, 6, 609–620,
Y. Yu, W. Wei, L. D. Chen, F. Y. Jia, L. Yang, H. D. Zhang, and T. J. Feng
Solid Earth, 6, 595–608,
E. L. Poelking, C. E. R. Schaefer, E. I. Fernandes Filho, A. M. de Andrade, and A. A. Spielmann
Solid Earth, 6, 583–594,
L. W. Xie, J. Zhong, F. F. Chen, F. X. Cao, J. J. Li, and L. C. Wu
Solid Earth, 6, 515–524,
Abrecht, D. G and Bristow, K. L.: Maize seedling response to the soil environment at varying distances from a mulched soil-bare soil boundary, Soil Till. Res., 15, 205–216, 1990.
AFD/FFEM: Direct Seeding Much-Based Cropping Systems (DMC), Paris, France, 2007.
Araya, A., Keesstra, S. D., and Stroosnijder, L.: Simulating yield response to water of Teff (Eragrostis tef) with FAO's AquaCrop model, Field Crops Res., 116, 196–204, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.12.010, 2010.
Araya, A., Stroosnijder, L., Girmay, G., and Keesstra, S. D.: Crop coefficient, yield response to water stress and water productivity of teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), Agricult. Water Manage., 98, 775–783, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2010.12.001, 2011.
Asadu, C. L. A., Diels, J., and Vanlauwe, B.: A comparison of the contributions of clay, silt and organic matter to effective CEC of soils of sub-Saharan Africa, Soil Sci., 162, 785–794, 1997.
Asuming-Brempong, S.: Sustainable growth of rice in Ghana: the role of biofertilizers (Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and Azolla anabaena) to rice improvement, Global Adv. Res. J. Agricult. Sci., 3, 1–7, 2014.
Augusto, L., Delerue, F., Gallet-Budynek, A., and Achat, D. L.: Global assessment of limitation to symbiotic nitrogen fixation by phosphorus availability in terrestrial ecosystems using a meta-analysis approach, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 27, 804–815, https://doi.org/10.1002/gbc.20069, 2013.
Barruiso, E., Calvet, R., and Cure, B.: Incidence de la simplification du travail du sol sur le comportement des produits phytosanitaires: conséquence sur les risques de pollution, in: Simplification du travail du sol (Éd), Paris, France, 16 Mai 1991, 105–124, 1994.
Bikay, S.: Inventaire de la macrofaune en culture cotonnier sous quatre modes de gestion des sols: Cas de Windé Pintchoumba (Nord) et Zouana (Extrême-Nord), Mémoire d'ingénieur agronome, Université de Dschang, Faculté d'Agronomie et des Sciences Agricoles (FASA), Cameroun, CIRAD, 2004.
Bilgo, A., Serpantié, G., Masse, D., Fournier, J., and Hien, V.: Carbon, Nitrogen, and fine particles removed by water erosion on crops, fallows, and mixed plots in Sudanese savannas (Burkina Fasso), edited by: Roose, E. J., Lal, R., Feller, C., Barthès B, and Stewart, B. A., CRC, Taylor and Francis, 125–142, 2006.
Biro, K., Pradhan, B., Buchroithner, M., and Makeschin, F.: Land use/land cover change analysis an its impact on soil properties in the Northern part of Gadarif region, Sudan, Land Degrad. Dev., 24, 90–102, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.1116, 2013.
Blancaneaux, P., De Freitas, P. L., Amabile, R. F., and De Carvalho, A.: Le semis direct comme pratique de conservation des sols des cerrados du Brésil central, Cahier Orstom, Série Pédologie, 28, 253–275, 1993.
Boli Baboule, Z., Bep Aziem, A., and Roose, E.: Enquête sur l'érosion en région cotonnière du Nord Cameroun, Bull-Réseau Erosion, 127–138, 1991.
Boli Baboule, Z.: Fonctionnement des sols sableux et optimisation des pratiques culturales en zone soudanienne humide du Nord-Cameroun, Thèse de doctorat en Sciences de la Terre, ORSTOM, Montpellier, France, 1996.
Bray, R. H. and Kurtz, L. T.: Determination of total organic and available forms of phosphorus in soils, Soil Sci., 59, 22–229, 1945.
Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., and Van Oost, K.: The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL, SOIL, 1, 117–129, https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-1-117-2015, 2015.
Brown, G. G., Benito, N. P., Pasini, A., Sauter, K. D., Guimaraes, M. F., and Torres, E.: No-tillage greatly increases earthworm populations in Parana state, Brazil, Pedobiologia, 47, 764–771, 2002.
Bruun, T. B., Elberling, B., de Neergaard, A., and Magid, J.: Organic carbon dynamics in different soil types after conversion of forest to agriculture, Land Degrad. Dev., 26, 272–283, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2205, 2015.
Caravaca, F., Lax, A., and Albaladejo, J.: Organic matter, nutrient contents and cation exchange capacity in fine fractions from semiarid calcareous soils, Geoderma, 93, 161–176, 1999.
Cerdà, A.: Aggregate stability against water forces under different climates on agriculture land and scrubland in southern Bolivia, Soil Till. Res., 36, 1–8, 2000.
Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D. C., le Bissonnais, Y., and Boardman, J.: Soil erosion and agriculture, Soil Till. Res., 106, 107–108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2009.10.006, 2009a.
Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A., and Bodí, M. B.: Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 34, 1822–1830, 2009b.
Cerri, C. C., Victória, R. L., Andreux, F., Vitorello, V. A., and Feller, C.: Organic matter and natural carbon-13 distribution in forested and cultivated oxisols, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 53, 773– 778 1989.
Chabanne, A., Boyer, J., and Séguy, L.: Impact of plant covers on Pelargonium × asperum yields and soil biology (macrofauna) in Réunion (France), in: Conservation Agriculture, A Worldwide Challenge, edited by: Garcia Torres, L., Benites, J., and Martínez Vilela, A., First World Congress on conservation agriculture proceedings, Madrid, Spain, 1–5 October 2001, 1, 85–92, 2001.
Christensen, B. T.: Decomposability of organic matter in particle size fractions from field soils with straw incorporation, Soil Biol. Biochem., 19, 429–435, 1987.
Costa, J. L., Aparicio, V., and Cerdà, A.: Soil physical quality changes under different management systems after 10 years in the Argentine humid pampa, Solid Earth, 6, 361–371, https://doi.org/10.5194/se-6-361-2015, 2015.
Derpsch, R. and Friedrich, T.: Development and Current Status of No-till Adoption in the World, Proceedings on CD, 18th Triennial Conference of the International Soil Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO), Izmir, Turkey, 15–19 June, 2009.
Dongmo Ngoutsop, A.-L.: Territoires, troupeaux et biomasses: enjeux de gestion pour un usage durable des ressources au Nord-Cameroun, Thèse Doctorat, Institut des Sciences et Industries du Vivant et de l'Environnement (Agro Paris Tech), Paris, France, 2009.
Ehabe, E. E., Bidzanga, N. L., Mba, C., Njukeng, J. N., de Barros, I., and Enjalric, F.: Nutrient flows in perennial crop-based farming systems in the humid forests of Cameroon, Am. J. Plant Sci., 1, 38–46, 2010.
Fageria, N. K., Dos Santos, A. B., and Moraes, M. F.: Influence of urea and ammonium sulfate on soil acidity indices in lowland rice production, Commun. Soil Sci. Plan., 41, 1565–1575, 2010.
Fischer, R. A., Santiveri, F., and Vidal, I. R.: Crop rotation, tillage and crop residue management for wheat and maize in the sub-humid tropical highlands – Part I: Wheat and legume performance, II: Maize and system performance, Field Crop. Res., 79, 107–137, 2002.
Gabathuler, E., Liniger, H. P., Hauert, C., and Giger, M.: Benefits of sustainable land management, WOCAT/UNCCD, University of Bern, Switzerland, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), 2009.
Gao, X., Wu, P., Zhao, X., Wang, J., and Shi, Y.: Effects of land use on soil moisture variation in a semi-arid catchment: implications for land and agricultural water management, Land Degrad. Dev., 25, 163–172, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.1156, 2014.
García-Orenes, F., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Bodí, M. B., Arcenegui, V., Zornoza, R., and Sempere, J. G.: Effects of agricultural management on surface soil properties and soil-water losses in eastern Spain, Soil Till. Res., 106, 117–123, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2009.06.002, 2009.
García-Orenes, F., Guerrero, C., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Zornoza, R., Bárcenas, G., and Caravaca, F.: Soil microbial biomass and activity under different agricultural management systems in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem, Soil Till. Res., 109, 110–115, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2010.05.005, 2010.
Greenwood, D. J., Cleaver, T. J., Turner, M. K., Hunt, J., Niendorf, K. B., and Loquens, S. M. H.: Comparison of the effects of nitrogen fertilizer on the yield, nitrogen content and quality of 21 different vegetable and agricultural crops, J. Agricult. Sci., 95, 471–485, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600039514, 1980.
Harmand, J. M., Njitti, C. F., Bernard Reversat, F., Feller, C., and Oliver, R.: Variations de stock de carbone dans le sol au cours du cycle jachère arborée culture, Zone soudanienne du Cameroun, in La Jachère en Afrique Tropicale, J. Libbey, Eurotext, Paris, 706–713, 2000.
Hassink, J.: The capacity of soils to preserve organic C and N by their association with clay and silt particles, Plant Soil, 191, 77–87, 1997..
Houyou, Z., Bielders, C. L., Benhorma, H. A., Dellal, A., and Boutemdjet, A.: Evidence of strong land degradation by wind erosion as a result of rainfed cropping in the algerian steppe: a case study at Laghouat, Land Degrad. Dev., https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2295, online first, 2014.
Husson, O., Charpentier, H., Razanamparany, C., Moussa, N., Michellon, R., Naudin, K., Razafintsalama, H., Rakotoarinivo, C., Rakotondramanana, and Séguy, L.: Brachiaria sp, B. ruziziensis, B. brizantha, B. decumbens, B. humidicola: Chapitre 3.4.1. Fiches techniques plantes de couverture: légumineuses pérennes Brachiaria sp: B. ruziziensis, B. brizantha, B. decumbens, B. humidicola, in: Manuel pratique du semis direct à Madagascar, Antananarivo, CIRAD III, 2008.
Jones, M. J.: Effects of three nitrogen fertilizers and lime on pH and exchangeable cation content of different depths in cropped soils at two sites in the Nigerian Savanna, Trop. Agr., 53, 243–254, 1976.
Jordan, C. F.: Nutrient Cycling in Tropical Forest Ecosystems, J. Wiley, New York, 1985.
Kang, B. T. and Juo, A. S.: Effect of Forest Clearing on Chemical Properties and Crop Performance, IITA, Ibadan, 1982.
Kendall, H. W. and Pimentel, D.: Constraints on the expansion of the global food supply, Ambio, 23, 198–205, 1994.
Lal, R.: Effects of macrofauna on soil properties in tropical ecosystems, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 24, 101–116, 1988.
Landais, E. and Lhoste, P.: L'association agriculture-élevage en Afrique intertropicale: un mythe techniciste confronté aux réalités du terrain, Cahier Orstom, Série Science Humaine, 26, 217–235, 1990.
Leh, M., Bajwa, S., and Chaubey, I.: Impact of land use change on erosion risk: and integrated remote sensing geopraphic information system and modeling methodology, Land Degrad. Dev., 24, 409–421, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.1137, 2013.
Lemenih, M.: Effects of land use changes on soil quality and native flora degradation and restoration in the highlands of Ethiopia. Implications for sustainable land management, PhD thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, 2004.
Letouzey, R.: Notice de la Carte Phytogéographique du Cameroun au 1 : 500 000, Domaine Sahélien et Soudanien, Herbier National IRA, Yaoundé, Institut de la Carte Internationale de la Végétation, Toulouse, France, 1985.
Lieskovský, J. P. and Kenderessy, P.: Modelling the effect of vegetation cover and different tillage practices on soil erosion in vineyards: a case study in Vráble (Slovakia) using watem/sedem, Land Degrad. Dev., 25, 288–296, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2162, 2014.
Maltas, A., Corbeels, M., Scopel, E., Wery, J., and Macena da Silva, F. A.: Cover crop and nitrogen. Effects on maize productivity in no-tillage systems of the brazilian cerrados, Agron. J., 101, 1036–1046, 2009.
Mandal, D. and Sharda, V. N.: Appraisal of soil erosion risk in the Eastern Himalayan region of India for soil conservation planning, Land Degrad. Dev., 24, 430–437, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.1139, 2013.
Marasas, M. E., Sarandón, S. J., and Cicchino, A. C.: Changes in soil arthropod functional group in wheat crop under conventional and no tillage systems in Argentina, Appl. Soil Ecol., 18, 61–68, 2001.
Mekuria, W. and Aynekulu, E.: Exclosure land management for restoration of the soils in degrade communal grazing lands in Northern Ethiopia, Land Degrad. Dev., 24, 528–538, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.1146, 2013.
Michellon, R., Husson, O., Moussa, N., Randrianjafizanaka, M. T., Naudin, K., Letourmy, P., Andrianaivo, A.-P., Rakotondramanana, R., Raveloarijoana, N., Enjalric, F., Penot, E., and Séguy, L.: Striga asiatica: a driving-force for dissemination of conservation agriculture systems based on Stylosanthes guianensis in Madagascar, in: Resilient food systems for a changing world/5th World Congress of Conservation Agriculture (WCCA) incorporating 3rd Farming System Design Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 26–29 September 2011, 213–214, 2011.
Muluneh, A., Biazin, B., Stroosnijder, L., Bewket, W., and Keesstra, S.: Impact of predicted changes in rainfall and atmospheric carbon dioxide on maize and wheat yields in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, Reg. Environ. Change, 15, 1105–1119, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-014-0685-x, 2014.
Myers, N.: Gaia: An Atlas of Planet Management, Anchor Press/Doubleday, Garden City, NY, 1993.
Naudin, K., Adoum, O., Soutou, G., and Scopel, E.: Labour biologique contre labour mécanique: comparaison de leurs effets sur la structure du sol au Nord Cameroun, Cirad, 2005.
Naudin, K., Gozé, E., Balarabe, O., Giller, K. E., and Scopel, E.: Impact of no tillage and mulching practices on cotton production in North Cameroon: a multilocational on-farm assessment, Soil Till. Res., 108, 67–68, 2010.
Naudin, K., Scopel, E., Andriamandroso, A. L. H, Rakotosolofo, M., Andriamarosoa Ratsimbazafy, N. R. S., Rakotozandriny, J. N., Salgado, P., and Giller, K. E.: Trade-offs between biomass use and soil cover, the case of rice-based cropping systems in the lake Alaotra region of Madagascar, Exp. Agr., 48, 194–209, 2011.
Naudin, K.: You can not eat your mulch and have it too – Cropping system design and trade-offs around biomass use for Conservation Agriculture in Cameroon and Madagascar, PhD thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 2012.
Ndah, H. T., Schuler, J., Uthes, S., Zander, P., Triomphe, B., Mkomwa, S., and Corbeels, M.: Adoption potential for conservation agriculture in Africa: a newly developed assessment approach (QAToCA) applied in Kenya and Tanzania, Land Degrad. Dev., 26, 133–141, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2191, 2015.
Neto, M. S., Scopel, E., Corbeels, M., Cardoso, A. N., Douzet, J.-M., Feller, C., Piccolo, M. D. C. C., Cerri, C. C., and Bernoux, M.: Soil carbon stocks under no-tillage mulch-based cropping systems in the Brazilian Cerrado: an on-farm synchronic assessment, Soil Till. Res., 110, 187–195, 2010.
Novara, A., Gristina, L., Guaitoli, F., Santoro, A., and Cerdà, A.: Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards, Solid Earth, 4, 255–262, https://doi.org/10.5194/se-4-255-2013, 2013.
Olang, L. O., Kundu, P. M., Ouma, G., and Fürst J.: Impacts of land cover change scenarios on storm runoff generation: a basis for management of the Nyando basin, Kenya, Land Degrad. Dev., 25, 267–277, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2140, 2014.
Pallo, F.-J., Sawadago, N., Sawadago, L., Sedogo, M., and Assa, A.: Statut de la matière organique des sols dans la zone sud-soudanienne au Burkina-faso, Biotechnology, Agronnmy Society and Environment, 12, 291–301, 2008.
Perkins, J., Reed, M., Akanyang, L., Atlhopheng, J., Chanda, R., Magole, L., Mphinyane, W., Mulale, K., Sebego, R., Fleskens, L., Irvine, B., and Kirkby, M.: Making land management more sustainable: experience implementing a new methodological framework in Botswana, Land Degrad. Dev., 24, 463–477, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.1142, 2013.
Pimental, D., Harvey, C., Resosudarmo, P., Sinclair, K., Kurz, D., Mcnair, M., Crist, S., Sphpritz, L., Fitton, L., Saffouri, R., and Blair, R.: Environmental and economic cost of soil erosion and conservation benefits, Science, 267, 1117–1123, 1995.
Pimentel, D.: Soil erosion: a food and environmental threat, Environmental, Development and Sustainnability, 8, 119–137, 2006.
Reboul, J. L.: Systèmes de cultures sans labour par semis direct sur couvertures permanentes des sols, adaptation et diffusion à Madagascar, CIRAD, 441–455, 1997.
Roose, E.: Introduction à la gestion conservatoire de l'eau, de la biomasse et de la fertilité des sols (GCES), Bulletin pédologique de la FAO, 70, 14–17, 1994.
Scopel, E. and Findeling, A.: Conservation tillage impact on rainfed maize production in semi-arid zones of western Mexico: importance of runoff reduction, in: Conservation Agriculture, A Worldwide Challenge, edited by: Garcia Torres, L., Benites, J., and Martínez Vilela, A., First World Congress on conservation agriculture proceedings, Madrid, Spain, 1–5 October, 1, 85–92, 2001.
Scopel, E., Chavez Guerra, E., and Arreola Tostado, J. M.: Direct seeding with crop residue mulch in western Mexico: can it improve soil water contents, Agricult. Dev., 21, 71–86, 1999.
Séguy, L., Bouzinac, S., and Maronezzi, A. C.: Cropping systems and organic matter dynamics, in: Conservation Agriculture, A Worldwide Challenge, edited by: Garcia Torres, L., Benites, J., and Martínez Vilela, A., First World Congress on conservation agriculture proceedings, Madrid, Spain, 1–5 October 2001, 2, 301–305, 2001.
Shamsuddin, T. and Bhatti, A.: Physical properties of soil, in: Soil Science, edited by: Basher, E. and Bantal, R., National Book Foundation, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2001.
Silburn, D. M. and Hunter, H. M.: Management practices for control of runoff losses from cotton furrows under storm rainfall. III. Cover and wheel traffic effects on nutrients (N and P) in runoff from a black Vertosol, Aust. J. Soil Res., 47, 221–233, 2009.
Silva, J. E., Lemainski, J., and Resck, D. V. S.: Perdas de matéria orgânica e suas relações com a capacidade de troca catiônica em solos da região de cerrados do oeste baiano, Rev. Bras. Cienc. Solo, 18, 541–547, 1994.
Singh, K., Mishra, A. K., Singh, B., Singh, R. P., and Patra, D. D.: Tillage effects on crop yield and physicochemical properties of sodic soils, Land Degrad. Dev., https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2266, online first, 2014.
Smaling, E. M. A.: The soil nutrient balance: an indicator of sustainable agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa, The Fertilizer Society, Proceedings, 340, 1–18, 1993.
Soutou, G., Naudin, K., and Scopel, E.: Crop water balance in conventional and direct seeding mulch-based cotton cropping systems in North Cameroon, in: 3rd World Congress on Conservation Agriculture, Naïrobi, Kenya, 3–7 October, 2005.
Sri Adiningsih, J., Diah Setyorini, D. S., and Saenong, S.: Fertilizer Management to Improve Soil Fertility and Yield in Indonesia, INSFFER Planning Meeting Work-Shop, New Delhi, India, 20 September–October, 1987.
Suchel, J. B.: Les climats du Cameroun, Thèse Doct.ès-Lettres, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France, III, 1987.
Sudjadi, M., Putu, I., Widjaja-Adhi, G., and Sri Adiningsih, J.: Management of nitrogen to improve its use efficiency in lowland and upland soils of indonesia, in: Proceedings of the Symposium: "Nutrient Management for Food Crop Production in Tropical Farming Systems", Universitas Brawijaya, MaLang, Indonesia, 19–24 October 1987, edited by: van der Helde, J., published jointly by: Institute for Soil Fertility (IB), 9750 RA, Haren, the Netherlands, and Universitas Brawijaya, Jalan Mayor Jenderal Haryono 163, Malang, Indonesia, Haren, the Netherlands, 95–108, 1989.
Sys, C., Van Ranst, E., and Debaveye, J.: Land evaluation – Part I: Principles in land evaluation and crop production calculation, General Administration for development cooperation, Agricultural Publication No. 7, Brussels, Belgium, 1991a.
Sys, C., Van Ranst, E., and Debaveye, J.: Land evaluation – Part II: Methods in land evaluation, General Administration for development cooperation, Agricultural Publication No. 7, Brussels, Belgium, 1991b.
Sys, C., Van Ranst, E., and Debaveye, J.: Land evaluation – Part III: Crop Requirements, International Training Center for Post Graduate Soil Scientists, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium, 1993.
Tabi, F. O., Omoko, M., Boukong, A., Mvondo, Ze, A. D., Bitondo, D., and Fuh Che, C.: Evaluation of lowland rice (Oryza sativa) production system and management recommendations for Logone and Chari flood plain – Republic of Cameroon, Agricult. Sci. Res. J., 2, 261–273, 2012.
Tabi, F. O., Bitondo, D., Yinda, G. S., Kengmegne, S. S. A., and Ngoucheme, M.: Effect of long-term integrated soil fertility management by local farmers on nutrient status of a Typic Dystrandept under potato-based cropping system, Int. Res. J. Agr. Sci. Soil Sci., 3, 134–140, 2013.
Thapa, G. B. and Yila, O. M.: Farmers' land management practices and status of agricultural land in the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, Land Degrad. Dev., 23, 263–277, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.1079, 2012.
Thompson, M. L., Zhang, H., Kazemi, M., and Sandor, J. A.: Contribution of organic matter to cation exchange capacity and specific surface area of fractionated soil materials, Soil Sci., 148, 205–257, 1989.
Tiessen, H. and Stewart, J.: Particle-size fractions and their use in studies of soil organic matter. I I. Cultivation effects on organic matter composition in size fractions, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 47, 509–14, 1983.
Tsozué, D., Haiwe, B. R., Louleo, J., and Nghonda, J. P.: Local initiatives of land rehabilitation in the Sudano-Sahelian region: case of hardé soils in the far north region of Cameroon, J. Soil Sci., 4, 6–16, https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2014.41002, 2014.
Van Leeuwen, J. P., Lehtinen, T., Lair, G. J., Bloem, J., Hemerik, L., Ragnarsdóttir, K. V., Gísladóttir, G., Newton, J. S., and de Ruiter, P. C.: An ecosystem approach to assess soil quality in organically and conventionally managed farms in Iceland and Austria, SOIL, 1, 83–101, https://doi.org/10.5194/soil-1-83-2015, 2015.
Walkey, A. and Black, I. A.: Determination of organic matter in soil, Soil Sci., 37, 549–556, 1934.
WRB.: World reference base for soil resources 2006, World Soil Resources Reports No. 103, FAO, Rome, 2006.
WRI.: World Resources Institute, Oxford University Press, New York, 1994.
Zhao, G., Mu, X., Wen, Z., Wang, F., and Gao, P.: Soil erosion, conservation, and eco-environment changes in the Loess Plateau of China, Land Degrad. Dev., 24, 499–510, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2246, 2013.