Articles | Volume 6, issue 2
Research article 21 May 2015
Research article | 21 May 2015
Evaluation of soil fertility in the succession of karst rocky desertification using principal component analysis
L. W. Xie et al.
Related subject area
Soil System ScienceDiscussing the genesis of karst rocky desertification research based on the correlations between cropland and settlements in typical peak-cluster depressionsDeterminants of farmers' tree-planting investment decisions as a degraded landscape management strategy in the central highlands of EthiopiaThe effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in northeastern ChinaRangeland degradation assessment: a new strategy based on the ecological knowledge of indigenous pastoralistsThe role of sexual vs. asexual recruitment of Artemisia wudanica in transition zone habitats between inter-dune lowlands and active dunes in Inner Mongolia, ChinaEffect of soil coarseness on soil base cations and available micronutrients in a semi-arid sandy grasslandThe effectiveness of jute and coir blankets for erosion control in different field and laboratory conditionsIon association in water solution of soil and vadose zone of chestnut saline solonetz as a driver of terrestrial carbon sinkSoil indicators to assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in dryland ecosystemsAlleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate applicationModeling the contributing factors of desertification and evaluating their relationships to the soil degradation process through geomatic techniquesExamining the fixation kinetics of chelated and non-chelated copper and the applications to micronutrient management in semiarid alkaline soilsDistribution of inorganic phosphorus in profiles and particle fractions of Anthrosols across an established riparian buffer and adjacent cropped area at the Dian lake (China)Soil contamination in landfills: a case study of a landfill in Czech RepublicAtmospheric significance of aeolian salts in the sandy deserts of northwestern ChinaEvaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approachIntegrating a mini catchment with mulching for soil water management in a sloping jujube orchard on the semiarid Loess Plateau of ChinaStability and biodegradability of organic matter from Arctic soils of Western Siberia: insights from 13C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysisEffects of vegetation restoration on the aggregate stability and distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in a typical karst gorge regionX-ray microtomography analysis of soil structure deformation caused by centrifugationTrail impact monitoring in Rocky Mountain National Park, USACO2 emission and structural characteristics of two calcareous soils amended with municipal solid waste and plant residueQuantifying the impact of land degradation on crop production: the case of SenegalEffects of pumice mining on soil qualityGrazing effects on soil characteristics and vegetation of grassland in northern ChinaThe challenge and future of rocky desertification control in karst areas in southwest ChinaIdentification of areas vulnerable to soil erosion risk in India using GIS methodsPredicting parameters of degradation succession processes of Tibetan Kobresia grasslandsInfluence of humic acid applications on modulus of rupture, aggregate stability, electrical conductivity, carbon and nitrogen content of a crusting problem soilShort-term grazing exclusion has no impact on soil properties and nutrients of degraded alpine grassland in Tibet, ChinaMODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenology dynamics in the Inner Mongolia grasslandAnalysis of soil moisture condition under different land uses in the arid region of Horqin sandy land, northern ChinaLand use effects on soil organic carbon sequestration in calcareous Leptosols in former pastureland – a case study from the Tatra Mountains (Poland)Impact of land management system on crop yields and soil fertility in CameroonPrecision of farmer-based fertility ratings and soil organic carbon for crop production on a FerralsolSocioeconomic modifications of the universal soil loss equationA fuzzy intelligent system for land consolidation – a case study in Shunde, ChinaKarst bare slope soil erosion and soil quality: a simulation case studyLandfill site suitability assessment by means of geographic information system analysisRelationship between hydraulic properties and plant coverage of the closed-landfill soils in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy)Effects of land use changes and soil conservation intervention on soil properties as indicators for land degradation under a Mediterranean climateAssessment of environmental soil quality around Sonepur Bazari mine of Raniganj coalfield, IndiaVegetation in karst terrain of southwestern China allocates more biomass to rootsVolcanic soils and landslides: a case study of the island of Ischia (southern Italy) and its relationship with other Campania eventsLinking soil erosion to on-site financial cost: lessons from watersheds in the Blue Nile basinComparison of wheat and safflower cultivation areas in terms of total carbon and some soil properties under semi-arid climate conditionsUnderstanding the factors influencing rill erosion on roadcuts in the south eastern region of South AfricaRemediation of degraded arable steppe soils in Moldova using vetch as green manureResponses of vertical soil moisture to rainfall pulses and land uses in a typical loess hilly area, ChinaSoil–landform–plant-community relationships of a periglacial landscape on Potter Peninsula, maritime Antarctica
Yang Bing Li, Qiong Yao Li, Guang Jie Luo, Xiao Yong Bai, Yong Yan Wang, Shi Jie Wang, Jing Xie, and Guang Bin Yang
Solid Earth, 7, 741–750,Short summary
In karst mountainous areas in Southwest China, sloping land is overly reclaimed. Why are farmers doing this? Through typical case studies of peak-cluster depression areas, we found that low land carrying capacity and high population pressure where farmers carry out extreme steep reclamation activities are the main reasons for desert-like landscapes; this is a kind of land degradation which occurs in vulnerable karst dryland socioecological systems.
Berhan Gessesse, Woldeamlak Bewket, and Achim Bräuning
Solid Earth, 7, 639–650,Short summary
The Modjo watershed is facing land degradation challenges, which in turn have had adverse effects on its agricultural productivity. Data were modelled using a binary logistic regression model. The findings revealed that local land users’ willingness to adopt tree growing is a function of many factors, however, labour force availability, the disparity of schooling age and land tenure systems have significant influence on tree-planting investment decisions.
M. Zhang, J. Wu, and Y. Tang
Solid Earth, 7, 631–637,Short summary
The aim was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. A point pattern method was used to analyze elm trees within different diameter classes in both grazed and fenced plots, located in Horqin Sandy Land, China. Effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm were not reported. This study is helpful for understanding the formation of the spatial pattern of the elm population in sparse woodland steppes.
Bahareh Behmanesh, Hossein Barani, Ahmad Abedi Sarvestani, Mohammad Reza Shahraki, and Mohsen Sharafatmandrad
Solid Earth, 7, 611–619,Short summary
The study deals with incorporating indigenous ecological knowledge alongside scientific knowledge to identify and test rangeland degradation indicators for two sites in Golestan National Park, NE Iran. The area pastoralists are asked to introduce and test rangeland degradation indicators and to assess degradation on their own rangelands. The final analysis identified 17 indicators that are usable by the pastoralists themselves and could be integrated into land degradation assessment plans.
Yongcui Wang, Busso Carlos Alberto, Deming Jiang, Musa Ala, Xuehua Li, Quanlai Zhou, Jixiang Lin, Guohua Ren, and Lian Jia
Solid Earth, 7, 621–629,
Linyou Lü, Ruzhen Wang, Heyong Liu, Jinfei Yin, Jiangtao Xiao, Zhengwen Wang, Yan Zhao, Guoqing Yu, Xingguo Han, and Yong Jiang
Solid Earth, 7, 549–556,Short summary
Soil coarseness is the main process decreasing soil organic matter and threatening the productivity of sandy grasslands. Previous studies demonstrated negative effect of soil coarseness on soil carbon storage, but less is known about how soil base cations (exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na) and available micronutrients (available Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn) response to soil coarseness. In a semi-arid grassland of northern China, a field experiment was initiated in 2011 to solve this problem.
Jana Kalibová, Lukáš Jačka, and Jan Petrů
Solid Earth, 7, 469–479,Short summary
Jute and coir geotextiles (GTXs) significantly reduced the volume of surface run-off induced by simulated rainfall. “No-soil” conditions used during the laboratory experiment guarantee data based on GTX properties only. Contrary to our expectations, the performance ranking of GTXs in the laboratory did not match the field records. Soil did not influence all GTX samples equally. Further research may shed light on the variability of GTX effectiveness reported in available studies.
Abdul-Malik A. Batukaev, Anatoly P. Endovitsky, Andrey G. Andreev, Valery P. Kalinichenko, Tatiana M. Minkina, Zaurbek S. Dikaev, Saglara S. Mandzhieva, and Svetlana N. Sushkova
Solid Earth, 7, 415–423,Short summary
Calcium carbonate equilibrium in a solution of soil and vadose zone is a factor of geochemical cycle of the terrestrial system. The analytical concentration of ions was determined. The algorithm of computer program was developed to calculate the real equilibrium forms of ions. The concentration and mobility of ions in solution of soil and vadose zone is much higher compared to solubility product, and it promotes flux of carbon from soil.
Edoardo A. C. Costantini, Cristina Branquinho, Alice Nunes, Gudrun Schwilch, Ilan Stavi, Alejandro Valdecantos, and Claudio Zucca
Solid Earth, 7, 397–414,Short summary
The success of restoration projects relies on a proper understanding of the relationships between soil, plants, hydrology, climate, and land management at different scales, which are particularly complex in drylands. Several soil indicators, which can be used to assess the effectiveness of restoration strategies in dryland ecosystems at different spatial and temporal scales, are discussed from different viewpoints of pedology, ecology, hydrology, and land management.
A. A. Elisa, S. Ninomiya, J. Shamshuddin, and I. Roslan
Solid Earth, 7, 367–374,Short summary
The main problem of acid sulfate soil is that it has a low soil pH and contains a high amount of aluminum (Al). There have been several approaches to improve this soil. In this study, the application of calcium silicate was found to be a suitable soil ameliorant as it alleviated Al toxicity below the critical level for rice production, as well as also providing a sufficient amount of silicon (Si) and calcium (Ca), which are also needed for rice growth.
P. Shoba and S. S. Ramakrishnan
Solid Earth, 7, 341–354,Short summary
The paper systematically illustrates and identifies the causative factors of desertification processes through use of a geostatistical model. This paper also concentrates on studying and identifying the possible soil degradation processes which have been caused by prime factors. As such, this paper should be of interest to a broad readership including those interested in land degradation, environmental deterioration, desertification, remote sensing and geostatistical modeling.
T. K. Udeigwe, M. B. Eichmann, M. C. Menkiti, and N. Y. O. Kusi
Solid Earth, 7, 311–321,Short summary
Fixation pattern and kinetics of chelated and non-chelated Cu compounds in semiarid soils were examined. 22% more Cu was fixed in the non-chelated system within the first 14 days (difference of only 7% by day 90). The slope of change in Cu in respect to other nutrients was higher in the non-chelated system. Fixation of Cu was better described by the power function and second-order models in the non-chelated and chelated systems, respectively. Findings are vital for improved nutrient management.
Guo Sheng Zhang and Jian Cha Li
Solid Earth, 7, 301–310,
D. Adamcová, M. D. Vaverková, S. Bartoň, Z. Havlíček, and E. Břoušková
Solid Earth, 7, 239–247,Short summary
Phytotoxicity test was determined to assess ecotoxicity of landfill soil. Sinapis alba L. was used. Soil samples meet the limits for Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn specified in the legislation. An increase in plant biomass was observed in plants growing on soil samples, but no changes in appearance, slow growth, or necrotic lesions appeared. The tested soils reach high percentage values of germination capacity of seeds. Plant growth test can be good protocol to assess the phytotoxicity of landfill soil.
Solid Earth, 7, 191–203,Short summary
Salt archives in sediments are critical to understanding a number of geochemical processes in the earth surface conditions. This study presents a physical and geochemical survey into aeolian salts in the Chinese deserts to explore their possible climatic implications. The results suggest the aeolian salts are atmospheric origin without local geological limits. It is a latent indicator in onefold depositional environment but not so in diverse conditions. Palaeoenvironmental use should be careful.
I. S. Panagea, I. N. Daliakopoulos, I. K. Tsanis, and G. Schwilch
Solid Earth, 7, 177–190,Short summary
The application of a participatory approach towards sustainable solutions against the soil salinisation threat in arid environments is described. Three sustainable land management (SLM) technologies are evaluated using the WOCAT framework. This work presents considerations for the adoption of SLM practices and insights into the stakeholder preferences for the selection of available and new amelioration methods, and it hints on how a participatory learning process can raise awareness.
H. C. Li, X. D. Gao, X. N. Zhao, P. T. Wu, L. S. Li, Q. Ling, and W. H. Sun
Solid Earth, 7, 167–175,Short summary
We integrated fish-scale pits with mulching to test whether this integration could improve soil water conservation. The results showed that integrating fish-scale pits with mulching could conserve significantly more soil water by increasing infiltration and decreasing evaporation, and showed greater soil water storage and degree of soil water compensation compared to fish-scale pits alone. In addition, jujube branches exerted better mulching effects than maize straw.
E. Ejarque and E. Abakumov
Solid Earth, 7, 153–165,Short summary
This study presents, for the first time, a characterisation of soil organic matter from the Gydan Peninsula in the Yamal Region, Western Siberia, Russia. We provide evidences that soils in this region accumulate lowly decomposed organic matter with a high mineralisation potential. This emphasises the vulnerability of this soil carbon pool to be remobilised as CO2 to the atmosphere under climate warming effects.
F. K. Tang, M. Cui, Q. Lu, Y. G. Liu, H. Y. Guo, and J. X. Zhou
Solid Earth, 7, 141–151,Short summary
A study of vegetation restoration's effects on soil aggregate stability and SOC sequestration was carried out in a typical karst region (China). We found that revegetation promoted soil stability and accumulation of total SOC and SOC associated in water stable aggregates (WSA). WSA < 0.25 mm has the greatest contribution to total SOC. Fractal dimensions could objectively and comprehensively reflect soil stability. Promoting natural restoration is the ideal method to restore ecology in karst region.
S. Schlüter, F. Leuther, S. Vogler, and H.-J. Vogel
Solid Earth, 7, 129–140,Short summary
A new protocol for digital volume correlation facilitates detailed insights into internal deformation of soil. Structure deformation during centrifugation is revealed by comparing X-ray CT images before and after centrifugation. Quantitative image analysis reveals that soil structure changes are driven by soil shrinkage due to drying and soil compaction due to compression.
J. Svajda, S. Korony, I. Brighton, S. Esser, and S. Ciapala
Solid Earth, 7, 115–128,Short summary
Rocky Mountain National Park is one of the most visited national parks in the United States. 95 % of the park is managed as wilderness. This paper examines the impacts of trampling on the vegetation and soil along selected trails. Trail widening and soil loss are the most visible types of trail degradation. Insights into the influence of different factors (use level, topography) can lead to the selection of appropriate management measures to avoid or minimize negative consequences.
Solid Earth, 7, 105–114,Short summary
Following the application of organic amendment treatments, the increased organic carbon and total porosity values, as compared to the control treatment, were greater in the loamy sand soil than in the clay loam soil. Moreover, compared to the microbial respiration of control plots, the application of municipal solid waste resulted in higher levels of microbial respiration from the clay loam soil than from the loamy sand soil, whereas the reverse was found for alfalfa residue.
B. G. J. S. Sonneveld, M. A. Keyzer, and D. Ndiaye
Solid Earth, 7, 93–103,Short summary
We found a plausible relationship between crop yield and a land degradation index based on expert judgements and affected area share. A pseudo-experiment was designed that for sites with otherwise similar circumstances compares the yield of a site with and one without land degradation. Our overall conclusion is that yield reduction is associated with higher levels of land degradation, irrespective of whether fertilizer is being applied or not.
A. Cruz-Ruíz, E. Cruz-Ruíz, R. Vaca, P. Del Aguila, and J. Lugo
Solid Earth, 7, 1–9,Short summary
The main aim was to assess agriculture soils differing in elapsed time since pumice mining in Mexico. The study sites in 0, 4, 10 and 15 year old reclaimed soils were compared with an adjacent undisturbed site. A general trend of recovery towards the undisturbed condition with reclamation age was found after disturbance. The multivariate analysis applied indicates that the most appropriate indicators to diagnose the quality of the soils were total N, urease and available phosphorus.
Z. Wang, D. A. Johnson, Y. Rong, and K. Wang
Solid Earth, 7, 55–65,Short summary
Grazing increased diversity, but heavy grazing decreased aboveground biomass and increased the non-grass component. Overgrazing homogenized soil characteristics at a 10m scale. Therefore, moderate grazing was recommended as the preferred management alternative for grasslands in northern China because of increased plant diversity without negative consequences related to decreased forage quality forage quantity and soil heterogeneity in northern China's grasslands.
J. Y. Zhang, M. H. Dai, L. C. Wang, C. F. Zeng, and W. C. Su
Solid Earth, 7, 83–91,
H. Biswas, A. Raizada, D. Mandal, S. Kumar, S. Srinivas, and P. K. Mishra
Solid Earth, 6, 1247–1257,Short summary
The paper presents a simple and novel approach to prioritize districts (or subregions) of a state (or region) for implementing soil conservation measures through computation of weighted soil erosion risk (WSER), by deducting soil loss tolerance limit values from soil erosion rates. WSER values obtained for the districts of Telangana state, India, led us to identify Adilabad, Warangal, and Khammam as the districts calling for the urgent attention of policymakers for natural resource conservation.
L. Lin, Y. K. Li, X. L. Xu, F. W. Zhang, Y. G. Du, S. L. Liu, X. W. Guo, and G. M. Cao
Solid Earth, 6, 1237–1246,Short summary
We investigated environmental factors and plant functional groups to quantity and identify factors during alpine grassland succession processes. The degree of degradation of alpine meadows may be delineated by development of mattic epipedon and PFG composition. Because relatively few environmental factors are investigated, this approach can save time and labor to formulate a conservation management plan for degraded alpine meadows.
İ. Gümüş and C. Şeker
Solid Earth, 6, 1231–1236,
X. Lu, Y. Yan, J. Sun, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, X. Wang, and G. Cheng
Solid Earth, 6, 1195–1205,Short summary
Grazing exclusion has been widely adopted to restore degraded grasslands in Tibet. We investigated soil properties and nutrients by comparing free-grazing and grazing exclusion grasslands. The results showed that grazing exclusion had no impact on most soil properties and nutrients, and even caused a considerable decrease in soil TN and TP in the soil surface layer. Nevertheless, climate conditions during the growing season played an important role in controlling the soil quality status.
Z. Gong, K. Kawamura, N. Ishikawa, M. Goto, T. Wulan, D. Alateng, T. Yin, and Y. Ito
Solid Earth, 6, 1185–1194,Short summary
This study evaluated trends in vegetation cover and phenology dynamics in the Inner Mongolia grassland by applying a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series obtained by the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) during 2002–2014. The positive trends of the cumulative annual NDVI (77.10%) could be interpreted as an increase in plant productivity in the Inner Mongolia permanent grassland. And the growing season has lengthened by 10.86 days.
C. Y. Niu, A. Musa, and Y. Liu
Solid Earth, 6, 1157–1167,Short summary
The higher soil moisture content among different land uses was exhibited by the grassland, and followed by cropland, poplar land, inter-dunes and shrub land. The temporal variations of soil moisture in different land uses were not always consistent with the rainfall due to the dry sequence. The infiltration depth exhibited a positive correlation with precipitation under all land uses. This study provided an insight into the implications for land and agricultural water management in this area.
K. Wasak and M. Drewnik
Solid Earth, 6, 1103–1115,Short summary
The paper shows soil organic carbon sequestration (SOC) rates in calcareous shallow soils in reforested areas in the Tatra Mts., with a particular focus on the different forms of organic matter (OM) storage. Fifty years after the conversion of pastureland to grassland, the emergence of dwarf pine shrub, larch forest, the development of genetic soil horizons as well as SOC sequestration and the occurrence of OM forms in soil, are related to plant community.
D. Tsozué, J. P. Nghonda, and D. L. Mekem
Solid Earth, 6, 1087–1101,
P. Musinguzi, P. Ebanyat, J. S. Tenywa, T. A. Basamba, M. M. Tenywa, and D. Mubiru
Solid Earth, 6, 1063–1073,Short summary
This study showed that resource-poor smallholder farmers can ably rate fields for soil fertility as poor or good but had difficulties in identifying medium-fertility fields. Rating with SOC improved precision to rate medium-fertility fields. SOC and clay content explained the highest yield variances in heterogeneous smallholder farms. A combination of SOC and farmers' field experiences can be affordable approaches to guide fertility management and fertilizer application.
A. Erol, Ö. Koşkan, and M. A. Başaran
Solid Earth, 6, 1025–1035,Short summary
In addition to physical factors, socioeconomic factors have crucial effects on soil erosion, although the joint study of physical and socioeconomic factors has been limited to date. To address this, the present study aimed to determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on soil loss and, in turn, to modify the universal soil loss equation (USLE).
J. Wang, A. Ge, Y. Hu, C. Li, and L. Wang
Solid Earth, 6, 997–1006,Short summary
A fuzzy intelligent system based on a fuzzy decision tree was established for land potential evaluation. We proposed one new model for feature selection based on the fuzzy measure using the L1-norm method, which can help to construct an index system for intelligent evaluation. The data comes from the “Three Old” project of Shunde, China. It is huge and heterogeneous and is therefore used first for research. The fuzzy intelligent system shows good performance for land potential evaluation.
Q. Dai, Z. Liu, H. Shao, and Z. Yang
Solid Earth, 6, 985–995,
M. Yazdani, S. M. Monavari, G. A. Omrani, M. Shariat, and S. M. Hosseini
Solid Earth, 6, 945–956,
C. Cassinari, P. Manfredi, L. Giupponi, M. Trevisan, and C. Piccini
Solid Earth, 6, 929–943,Short summary
The amount of water available to plants in a closed landfill soil is analyzed by laboratory analyses, by using pedotransfer functions (PTFs) and by studying plant coverage. The laboratory analyses and PTFs highlighted the soil's inability to hold water. The closed landfill plant coverage consists of annual species (therophytes) typical of disturbed environments. The soil's low-water content, together with other degraded soil characters, justifies the plant coverage.
Y. Mohawesh, A. Taimeh, and F. Ziadat
Solid Earth, 6, 857–868,
R. E. Masto, S. Sheik, G. Nehru, V. A. Selvi, J. George, and L. C. Ram
Solid Earth, 6, 811–821,Short summary
Impact of coal mining on soil was assessed through an integrated environmental soil quality index (ESQI). Biological activity was higher in underground mine (UGM) soil. As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb were higher in opencast mine (OCM) soil, whereas Cd was higher in UGM. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in UGM soil. Calculated ESQI, based on total PAHs, loss on ignition, bulk density, Be, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, and microbial quotient, was higher for UGM (+10.1%) than OCM soils.
J. Ni, D. H. Luo, J. Xia, Z. H. Zhang, and G. Hu
Solid Earth, 6, 799–810,Short summary
The root biomass study of karst (limestone and dolomite) vegetation in southwestern China and even in the word’s karst regions is rarely investigated. The mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest in karst terrain of SW China has higher root biomass, but very high ratio of root to aboveground biomass compared to non-karst subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests. Such findings have significant ecological meanings for vegetation restoration and carbon increment.
S. Vingiani, G. Mele, R. De Mascellis, F. Terribile, and A. Basile
Solid Earth, 6, 783–797,Short summary
An integrated soil study was carried out on landslides which have occurred on the steep northern slopes of Mt. Vezzi on the island of Ischia (Italy). The studied soils showed a substantial abrupt discontinuity in all the studied properties along a buried fine ash layer (namely, the 2C horizon). Nevertheless, only the identification of a layer of thin, finely stratified ash on the top of 2C, by optical microscopy, enabled us to assume this interface to be an impeding layer for water fluxes.
T. Erkossa, A. Wudneh, B. Desalegn, and G. Taye
Solid Earth, 6, 765–774,Short summary
The paper reviews global and regional literature related to soil erosion and crop productivity. It argues that the cost of not replacing the nutrient lost due to erosion is more meaningful in areas where farmers do not apply the recommended rate of fertilizers. Thus, it established a functional relationship between the nutrients and yield of major crops based on data from three watersheds in the Nile basin and estimated the annual financial loss based on the local market price of the crops.
Solid Earth, 6, 719–725,
K. E. Seutloali and H. R. Beckedahl
Solid Earth, 6, 633–641,
M. Wiesmeier, M. Lungu, R. Hübner, and V. Cerbari
Solid Earth, 6, 609–620,
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Solid Earth, 6, 595–608,
E. L. Poelking, C. E. R. Schaefer, E. I. Fernandes Filho, A. M. de Andrade, and A. A. Spielmann
Solid Earth, 6, 583–594,
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