Articles | Volume 5, issue 2
Research article 02 Dec 2014
Research article | 02 Dec 2014
Tunable diode laser measurements of hydrothermal/volcanic CO2 and implications for the global CO2 budget
M. Pedone et al.
No articles found.
Andrea Bevilacqua, Alvaro Aravena, Augusto Neri, Eduardo Gutiérrez, Demetrio Escobar, Melida Schliz, Alessandro Aiuppa, and Raffaello Cioni
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1639–1665,Short summary
We present novel probability maps for the opening position of new vents in the San Salvador (El Salvador) and Nejapa-Chiltepe (Nicaragua) volcanic complexes. In particular, we present thematic maps, i.e., we consider different hazardous phenomena separately. To illustrate the significant effects of considering the expected eruption style in the construction of vent opening maps, we focus on the analysis of small-scale pyroclastic density currents using an approach based on numerical modeling.
Leigh R. Crilley, Ajit Singh, Louisa J. Kramer, Marvin D. Shaw, Mohammed S. Alam, Joshua S. Apte, William J. Bloss, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, Pingqing Fu, Weiqi Fu, Shahzad Gani, Michael Gatari, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Alastair C. Lewis, David Ng'ang'a, Yele Sun, Rachel C. W. Whitty, Siyao Yue, Stuart Young, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1181–1193,Short summary
There is considerable interest in using low-cost optical particle counters (OPCs) for particle mass measurements; however, there is no agreed upon method with respect to calibration. Here we exploit a number of datasets globally to demonstrate that particle composition and relative humidity are the key factors affecting measured concentrations from a low-cost OPC, and we present a simple correction methodology that corrects for this influence.
Pierre Tulet, Andréa Di Muro, Aurélie Colomb, Cyrielle Denjean, Valentin Duflot, Santiago Arellano, Brice Foucart, Jérome Brioude, Karine Sellegri, Aline Peltier, Alessandro Aiuppa, Christelle Barthe, Chatrapatty Bhugwant, Soline Bielli, Patrice Boissier, Guillaume Boudoire, Thierry Bourrianne, Christophe Brunet, Fréderic Burnet, Jean-Pierre Cammas, Franck Gabarrot, Bo Galle, Gaetano Giudice, Christian Guadagno, Fréderic Jeamblu, Philippe Kowalski, Jimmy Leclair de Bellevue, Nicolas Marquestaut, Dominique Mékies, Jean-Marc Metzger, Joris Pianezze, Thierry Portafaix, Jean Sciare, Arnaud Tournigand, and Nicolas Villeneuve
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5355–5378,Short summary
The STRAP campaign was conducted in 2015 to investigate the volcanic plumes of Piton de La Fournaise (La Réunion, France). For the first time, measurements were conducted at the local (near the vent) and regional scales around the island. The STRAP 2015 campaign gave a unique set of multi-disciplinary data that can now be used by modellers to improve the numerical parameterisations of the physical and chemical evolution of the volcanic plumes.
Marsailidh M. Twigg, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Sonya Beccaceci, David C. Green, Matthew R. Jones, Ben Langford, Sarah R. Leeson, Justin J. N. Lingard, Gloria M. Pereira, Heather Carter, Jan Poskitt, Andreas Richter, Stuart Ritchie, Ivan Simmons, Ron I. Smith, Y. Sim Tang, Netty Van Dijk, Keith Vincent, Eiko Nemitz, Massimo Vieno, and Christine F. Braban
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11415–11431,Short summary
This study integrates high and low resolution temporal measurements to assess the impact of the Holuhraun effusive eruption in 2014 across the UK. Measurements, modelling and satellite analysis provides details on the transport and chemistry of both gases and particulates during this unique event. The results of the study can be used verify existing atmospheric chemistry models of volcano plumes in order to carry improved risk assessments for future volcanic eruptions.
L. Surl, D. Donohoue, A. Aiuppa, N. Bobrowski, and R. von Glasow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2613–2628,Short summary
We investigate the atmospheric chemistry that occurs in the plume of Mt. Etna shortly after emission. We measured O3 destruction in the plume. Using simultaneous measurements of SO2 and wind speed, we approximate the rate of this destruction. BrO, expected to be an indicator of ozone-destructive chemistry, is also detected. A computer model is able to approximately reproduce these results and is used to make inferences about the chemistry occurring that cannot be directly observed.
L. Grellier, V. Marécal, B. Josse, P. D. Hamer, T. J. Roberts, A. Aiuppa, and M. Pirre
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Related subject area
GeochemistryRock alteration at the post-Variscan nonconformity: implications for Carboniferous–Permian surface weathering versus burial diagenesis and paleoclimate evaluationQuartz dissolution associated with magnesium silicate hydrate cement precipitationComparative geochemical study on Furongian–earliest Ordovician (Toledanian) and Ordovician (Sardic) felsic magmatic events in south-western Europe: underplating of hot mafic magmas linked to the opening of the Rheic OceanUnderstanding controls on hydrothermal dolomitisation: insights from 3D reactive transport modelling of geothermal convectionInfluence of basement rocks on fluid evolution during multiphase deformation: the example of the Estamariu thrust in the Pyrenean Axial ZoneSpatiotemporal history of fault–fluid interaction in the Hurricane fault, western USAQuantifying the buffering of oceanic oxygen isotopes at ancient midocean ridgesBromine speciation and partitioning in slab-derived aqueous fluids and silicate melts and implications for halogen transfer in subduction zonesUncertainty in regional estimates of capacity for carbon capture and storageFluid–rock interactions in the shallow Mariana forearc: carbon cycling and redox conditionsBoninite and boninite-series volcanics in northern Zambales ophiolite: doubly vergent subduction initiation along Philippine Sea plate marginsSquirt flow due to interfacial water films in hydrate bearing sedimentsRemote-sensing data processing with the multivariate regression analysis method for iron mineral resource potential mapping: a case study in the Sarvian area, central IranFirst magmatism in the New England Batholith, Australia: forearc and arc–back-arc components in the Bakers Creek Suite gabbrosMeasurement of geologic nitrogen using mass spectrometry, colorimetry, and a newly adapted fluorometry techniqueFeathery and network-like filamentous textures as indicators for the re-crystallization of quartz from a metastable silica precursor at the Rusey Fault Zone, Cornwall, UKDifferences and influencing factors related to underground water carbon uptake by karsts in the Houzhai Basin, southwestern ChinaQuantitative experimental monitoring of molecular diffusion in clay with positron emission tomographyGeoscientific process monitoring with positron emission tomography (GeoPET)Effects of wood chip amendments on the revegetation performance of plant species on eroded marly terrains in a Mediterranean mountainous climate (Southern Alps, France)A Web-based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservationPhysicochemical changes in pyrogenic organic matter (biochar) after 15 months of field agingFactors controlling the geochemical composition of Limnopolar Lake sediments (Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Island, Antarctica) during the last ca. 1600 yearsThe regulation of the air: a hypothesisNew zircon data supporting models of short-lived igneous activity at 1.89 Ga in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian ShieldDynamical geochemistry of the mantle
Fei Liang, Jun Niu, Adrian Linsel, Matthias Hinderer, Dirk Scheuvens, and Rainer Petschick
Solid Earth, 12, 1165–1184,Short summary
In this study, we conclude that surface weathering is a primary control on rock characteristics and also guides fluids through the system during deep burial process. We also find that the formation of the rock decomposition zone depends on rock composition, climatic conditions and the duration of the process. Finally and most importantly, we provide a workflow for data reliability analysis for paleoclimate research.
Lisa de Ruiter, Anette Eleonora Gunnæs, Dag Kristian Dysthe, and Håkon Austrheim
Solid Earth, 12, 389–404,Short summary
In this work, the formation of natural magnesium silicate hydrate cement has been studied. The cement forms through the extraordinarily fast dissolution of quartz under high-pH, Mg-rich conditions that occur in south-east Norway where an ultramafic body is exposed. We studied the cemented rocks and the processes that led to the formation of the cement from the field scale to the nanoscale. Magnesium silicate hydrate cement might be a low-CO2 alternative to Portland cement.
J. Javier Álvaro, Teresa Sánchez-García, Claudia Puddu, Josep Maria Casas, Alejandro Díez-Montes, Montserrat Liesa, and Giacomo Oggiano
Solid Earth, 11, 2377–2409,Short summary
A geochemical comparison of early Palaeozoic felsic magmatic episodes throughout the south-western European margin of Gondwana is analysed and includes data from the Iberian Massif, the Eastern Pyrenees, southern France and Sardinia. This dataset favours partial melting of sediments and/or granitoids in the lower continental crust during extensional movements related to the opening of the Rheic Ocean.
Rungroj Benjakul, Cathy Hollis, Hamish A. Robertson, Eric L. Sonnenthal, and Fiona F. Whitaker
Solid Earth, 11, 2439–2461,Short summary
Our reactive transport models show that high-temperature fault-controlled dolomite can form from mixed convection and act as a sink for Mg in the circulating seawaters. This provides new perspectives to enhance understanding of mechanisms and controls on dolomitisation, geometry, and spatial distribution of dolomite bodies within faulted and fractured systems, which has important implications for modelling of systems ranging from geothermal resources to ore formation and carbonate diagenesis.
Daniel Muñoz-López, Gemma Alías, David Cruset, Irene Cantarero, Cédric M. John, and Anna Travé
Solid Earth, 11, 2257–2281,Short summary
This study assesses the influence of basement rocks on the fluid chemistry during deformation in the Pyrenees and provides insights into the fluid regime in the NE part of the Iberian Peninsula.
Jace M. Koger and Dennis L. Newell
Solid Earth, 11, 1969–1985,Short summary
The Hurricane fault is a major and active normal fault located in the southwestern USA. This study utilizes the geochemistry and dating of calcite veins associated with the fault to characterize ancient groundwater flow. Results show that waters moving along the fault over the last 540 000 years were a mixture of infiltrating fresh water and deep, warm salty groundwater. The formation of calcite veins may be related to ancient earthquakes, and the fault influences regional groundwater flow.
Solid Earth, 11, 1475–1488,Short summary
This study evaluates the buffering of seawater oxygen isotopes at midocean ridges, using a process-based model of hydrothermal circulation and reactive transport of oxygen isotopes. The buffering intensity shown by the model is significantly weaker than previously assumed. Oxygen isotopes of oceanic crust are consistently relatively insensitive to seawater isotopic composition, which explains the ancient oceanic crust without invoking a constant seawater oxygen–isotopic composition through time.
Marion Louvel, Carmen Sanchez-Valle, Wim J. Malfait, Gleb S. Pokrovski, Camelia N. Borca, and Daniel Grolimund
Solid Earth, 11, 1145–1161,Short summary
Here, we conducted spectroscopic measurements on high-pressure, high-temperature fluids and melts to study how halogens, in particular bromine, can be incorporated in subduction zone fluids and melts. We find that a gradual evolution of bromine speciation with liquid composition enables the incorporation of high amounts of Br in both phases. Thus, bromine and, by extension, chlorine are expected to be efficiently recycled from the slab towards the volcanic arc.
Mark Wilkinson and Debbie Polson
Solid Earth, 10, 1707–1715,Short summary
Carbon capture and storage is a technology for the mitigation of industrial CO2 emissions. Most subsurface storage capacity is in rocks for which there is relatively little information. A group of experts estimated the storage capacity of seven units, producing a wide range of estimates for each unit due to a combination of using different published values for some variables and differences in their judgements of average values. Hence, there is significant uncertainty in such estimates.
Elmar Albers, Wolfgang Bach, Frieder Klein, Catriona D. Menzies, Friedrich Lucassen, and Damon A. H. Teagle
Solid Earth, 10, 907–930,Short summary
To understand the fate of carbon in subducted oceanic sediments and crust, we studied carbonate phases in rocks from the Mariana subduction zone. These show that carbon is liberated from the downgoing plate at depths less than 20 km. Some of the carbon is subsequently trapped in minerals and likely subducts to greater depths, whereas fluids carry the other part back into the ocean. Our findings imply that shallow subduction zone processes may play an important role in the deep carbon cycle.
Americus Perez, Susumu Umino, Graciano P. Yumul Jr., and Osamu Ishizuka
Solid Earth, 9, 713–733,Short summary
The occurrence of boninite in the northern Zambales ophiolite is reported. Boninite is a relatively rare high-magnesium andesite that is intimately associated with early arc volcanism and the initiation of subduction zones. Taken as a whole, the geological and geochemical characteristics of Zambales and Izu-Ogasawara–Mariana forearc volcanic sequences enables a refined geodynamic reconstruction of subduction initiation.
Kathleen Sell, Beatriz Quintal, Michael Kersten, and Erik H. Saenger
Solid Earth, 9, 699–711,Short summary
Sediments containing hydrates dispersed in the pore space show a characteristic seismic anomaly: a high attenuation along with increasing seismic velocities. Recent major findings from synchrotron experiments revealed the systematic presence of thin water films between quartz and gas hydrate. Our numerical studies support earlier speculation that squirt flow causes high attenuation at seismic frequencies but are based on a conceptual model different to those previously considered.
Edris Mansouri, Faranak Feizi, Alireza Jafari Rad, and Mehran Arian
Solid Earth, 9, 373–384,
Seann J. McKibbin, Bill Landenberger, and C. Mark Fanning
Solid Earth, 8, 421–434,Short summary
The youngest, easternmost part of continental Australia formed in an ancient subduction zone by rifting of the crust. This drove melting of the underlying mantle, producing basaltic magmas that intruded the crust. We determined the composition and ages of these intrusives, finding that they predate other types of magmatic intrusion in the area. This indicates progression in magma types from basaltic (mantle origin), through mixed, to granitic (crust recycling) during the growth of this region.
Benjamin W. Johnson, Natashia Drage, Jody Spence, Nova Hanson, Rana El-Sabaawi, and Colin Goldblatt
Solid Earth, 8, 307–318,Short summary
Contrary to canonical notions, recent research suggests that N can cycle throughout the solid Earth over geologic time. Such cycling may directly affect climate and biologic productivity. Due to low concentrations in rocks and minerals, analysis and interpretation are difficult. Therefore, we adapted a fluorometry technique used in aquatic chemistry for use on geologic samples. We compare fluorometry to mass spectrometry and present discussion of the abundance of N in continental crust.
Tim I. Yilmaz, Florian Duschl, and Danilo Di Genova
Solid Earth, 7, 1509–1519,
Junyi Zhang, Zihao Bian, Minghong Dai, Lachun Wang, Chunfen Zeng, and Weici Su
Solid Earth, 7, 1259–1268,
Johannes Kulenkampff, Abdelhamid Zakhnini, Marion Gründig, and Johanna Lippmann-Pipke
Solid Earth, 7, 1207–1215,Short summary
Clay is the prominent barrier material in the geosphere, but diffusion of dissolved species is possible. Diffusion parameters are commonly determined on small samples, disregarding heterogeneity. With positron emission tomography (PET), we monitored heterogeneous transport patterns on larger samples. From the time dependence of the spatial tracer distribution, we derived reliable anisotropic diffusion coefficients, and found indications of preferential transport zones.
Johannes Kulenkampff, Marion Gründig, Abdelhamid Zakhnini, and Johanna Lippmann-Pipke
Solid Earth, 7, 1217–1231,Short summary
Transport processes can be observed with input–output experiments, disregarding the impact of heterogeneities, or they can be modelled, based on structural images. In contrast, positron emission tomography (PET) directly yields the spatio-temporal distribution of tracer concentration. PET benefits from its molecular sensitivity together with a reasonable resolution. We illustrate its use with examples of process monitoring of advection and diffusion processes, and we discuss benefits and limits.
Vincent Breton, Yves Crosaz, and Freddy Rey
Solid Earth, 7, 599–610,Short summary
This paper presents the results of two experiments of revegetation techniques in context of water erosion and mountainous Mediterranean climate. We studied the interest of a wood chip amendment, applied on soil surface (mulch), and its interaction with plant development. The use of different plant species and the monitoring on three growing seasons (with climatic variations) allow us to specify the interest of wood chip mulch to improve revegetation especially in erosion and drought conditions.
F. Terribile, A. Agrillo, A. Bonfante, G. Buscemi, M. Colandrea, A. D'Antonio, R. De Mascellis, C. De Michele, G. Langella, P. Manna, L. Marotta, F. A. Mileti, L. Minieri, N. Orefice, S. Valentini, S. Vingiani, and A. Basile
Solid Earth, 6, 903–928,Short summary
Here we aim to demonstrate that a dpatial decision support system based on geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) can profitably address many contrasting demands on our landscape concerning agriculture and environment as well as many land degradation problems. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, highly focused on soil and land conservation, developed in the framework of the SOILCONSWEB LIFE+ project.
A. Mukherjee, A. R. Zimmerman, R. Hamdan, and W. T. Cooper
Solid Earth, 5, 693–704,
A. Martínez Cortizas, I. Rozas Muñiz, T. Taboada, M. Toro, I. Granados, S. Giralt, and S. Pla-Rabés
Solid Earth, 5, 651–663,
E. G. Nisbet, C. M. R. Fowler, and R. E. R. Nisbet
Solid Earth, 3, 87–96,
P. Skyttä, T. Hermansson, J. Andersson, M. Whitehouse, and P. Weihed
Solid Earth, 2, 205–217,
G. F. Davies
Solid Earth, 2, 159–189,
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Here, we present the results of tunable diode laser observations at four quiescent volcanoes: Nea Kameni, Hekla, Krýsuvík, and Vulcano Island, which display a range of fumarolic activity from weak to moderate. This study contributes to better characterising the typical levels of CO2 emission from such feeble volcanic point sources, suggesting that the cumulative contribution from weakly degassing volcanoes may be significant at global scale.
Here, we present the results of tunable diode laser observations at four quiescent volcanoes:...