Articles | Volume 12, issue 1
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Effect of normal stress on the frictional behavior of brucite: application to slow earthquakes at the subduction plate interface in the mantle wedge
Department of Earth and Planetary Science, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, 113-0033 Tokyo, Japan
Department of Ocean Floor Geoscience, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8564 Chiba, Japan
Department of Earth and Planetary Systems Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi–Hiroshima, 739-8526 Hiroshima, Japan
Research Center for Functional Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, 305-0044 Ibaraki, Japan
Department of Earth and Planetary Science, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, 113-0033 Tokyo, Japan
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Susumu Umino, Gregory F. Moore, Brian Boston, Rosalind Coggon, Laura Crispini, Steven D'Hondt, Michael O. Garcia, Takeshi Hanyu, Frieder Klein, Nobukazu Seama, Damon A. H. Teagle, Masako Tominaga, Mikiya Yamashita, Michelle Harris, Benoit Ildefonse, Ikuo Katayama, Yuki Kusano, Yohey Suzuki, Elizabeth Trembath-Reichert, Yasuhiro Yamada, Natsue Abe, Nan Xiao, and Fumio Inagaki
Sci. Dril., 29, 69–82,
Related subject area
Subject area: Tectonic plate interactions, magma genesis, and lithosphere deformation at all scales | Editorial team: Structural geology and tectonics, paleoseismology, rock physics, experimental deformation | Discipline: Mineral and rock physicsDevelopment of multi field rock resistivity test system for THMCRaman spectroscopy in thrust-stacked carbonates: an investigation of spectral parameters with implications for temperature calculations in strained samplesFailure mode transition in Opalinus Clay: a hydro-mechanical and microstructural perspectiveThermal equation of state of the main minerals of eclogite: Constraining the density evolution of eclogite during the delamination process in TibetCreep of CarbFix basalt: influence of rock–fluid interactionMicromechanisms leading to shear failure of Opalinus Clay in a triaxial test: a high-resolution BIB–SEM studyElastic anisotropies of rocks in a subduction and exhumation settingMechanical and hydraulic properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in the Opalinus Clay of the Mont Terri rock laboratory, SwitzerlandThe competition between fracture nucleation, propagation, and coalescence in dry and water-saturated crystalline rockMeasuring hydraulic fracture apertures: a comparison of methodsExtracting microphysical fault friction parameters from laboratory and field injection experimentsThe physics of fault friction: insights from experiments on simulated gouges at low shearing velocitiesFrictional slip weakening and shear-enhanced crystallinity in simulated coal fault gouges at slow slip ratesThe hydraulic efficiency of single fractures: correcting the cubic law parameterization for self-affine surface roughness and fracture closureMagnetic properties of pseudotachylytes from western Jämtland, central Swedish CaledonidesThe variation and visualisation of elastic anisotropy in rock-forming mineralsDeformation mechanisms in mafic amphibolites and granulites: record from the Semail metamorphic sole during subduction infancyUniaxial compression of calcite single crystals at room temperature: insights into twinning activation and development
Jianwei Ren, Lei Song, Qirui Wang, Haipeng Li, Junqi Fan, Jianhua Yue, and Honglei Shen
A THMC multi field rock resistivity test system is developed, which has the functions of rock triaxial test and resistivity test under the condition of high and low temperature, high pressure and high salinity water seepage. A sealing method to prevent the formation of a water film on the side of the specimen is proposed based on the characteristics of the device. The device is suitable for studying the relationship between rock mechanical properties and resistivity in complex environments.
Lauren Kedar, Clare E. Bond, and David K. Muirhead
Solid Earth, 13, 1495–1511,Short summary
Raman spectroscopy of carbon-bearing rocks is often used to calculate peak temperatures and therefore burial history. However, strain is known to affect Raman spectral parameters. We investigate a series of deformed rocks that have been subjected to varying degrees of strain and find that there is a consistent change in some parameters in the most strained rocks, while other parameters are not affected by strain. We apply temperature calculations and find that strain affects them differently.
Lisa Winhausen, Kavan Khaledi, Mohammadreza Jalali, Janos L. Urai, and Florian Amann
Solid Earth, 13, 901–915,Short summary
Triaxial compression tests at different effective stresses allow for analysing the deformation behaviour of Opalinus Clay, the potential host rock for nuclear waste in Switzerland. We conducted microstructural investigations of the deformed samples to relate the bulk hydro-mechanical behaviour to the processes on the microscale. Results show a transition from brittle- to more ductile-dominated deformation. We propose a non-linear failure envelop associated with the failure mode transition.
Zhilin Ye, Dawei Fan, Bo Li, Qizhe Tang, Jingui Xu, Dongzhou Zhang, and Wenge Zhou
Solid Earth, 13, 745–759,Short summary
Eclogite is a major factor in the initiation of delamination during orogenic collision. According to the equations of state of main minerals of eclogite under high temperature and high pressure, the densities of eclogite along two types of delamination in Tibet are provided. The effects of eclogite on the delamination process are discussed in detail. A high abundance of garnet, a high Fe content, and a high degree of eclogitization are more conducive to instigating the delamination.
Tiange Xing, Hamed O. Ghaffari, Ulrich Mok, and Matej Pec
Solid Earth, 13, 137–160,Short summary
Geological carbon sequestration using basalts provides a solution to mitigate the high CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Due to the long timespan of the GCS, it is important to understand the long-term deformation of the reservoir rock. Here, we studied the creep of basalt with fluid presence. Our results show presence of fluid weakens the rock and promotes creep, while the composition only has a secondary effect and demonstrate that the governing creep mechanism is subcritical microcracking.
Lisa Winhausen, Jop Klaver, Joyce Schmatz, Guillaume Desbois, Janos L. Urai, Florian Amann, and Christophe Nussbaum
Solid Earth, 12, 2109–2126,Short summary
An experimentally deformed sample of Opalinus Clay (OPA), which is being considered as host rock for nuclear waste in Switzerland, was studied by electron microscopy to image deformation microstructures. Deformation localised by forming micrometre-thick fractures. Deformation zones show dilatant micro-cracking, granular flow and bending grains, and pore collapse. Our model, with three different stages of damage accumulation, illustrates microstructural deformation in a compressed OPA sample.
Michael J. Schmidtke, Ruth Keppler, Jacek Kossak-Glowczewski, Nikolaus Froitzheim, and Michael Stipp
Solid Earth, 12, 1801–1828,Short summary
Properties of deformed rocks are frequently anisotropic. One of these properties is the travel time of a seismic wave. In this study we measured the seismic anisotropy of different rocks, collected in the Alps. Our results show distinct differences between rocks of oceanic origin and those of continental origin.
Sina Hale, Xavier Ries, David Jaeggi, and Philipp Blum
Solid Earth, 12, 1581–1600,Short summary
The construction of tunnels leads to substantial alterations of the surrounding rock, which can be critical concerning safety aspects. We use different mobile methods to assess the hydromechanical properties of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in a claystone. We show that long-term exposure and dehydration preserve a notable fracture permeability and significantly increase strength and stiffness. The methods are suitable for on-site monitoring without any further disturbance of the rock.
Jessica A. McBeck, Wenlu Zhu, and François Renard
Solid Earth, 12, 375–387,Short summary
The competing modes of fault network development, including nucleation, propagation, and coalescence, influence the localization and connectivity of fracture networks and are thus critical influences on permeability. We distinguish between these modes of fracture development using in situ X-ray tomography triaxial compression experiments on crystalline rocks. The results underscore the importance of confining stress (burial depth) and fluids on fault network development.
Chaojie Cheng, Sina Hale, Harald Milsch, and Philipp Blum
Solid Earth, 11, 2411–2423,Short summary
Fluids (like water or gases) within the Earth's crust often flow and interact with rock through fractures. The efficiency with which these fluids may flow through this void space is controlled by the width of the fracture(s). In this study, three different physical methods to measure fracture width were applied and compared and their predictive accuracy was evaluated. As a result, the mobile methods tested may well be applied in the field if a number of limitations and requirements are observed.
Martijn P. A. van den Ende, Marco M. Scuderi, Frédéric Cappa, and Jean-Paul Ampuero
Solid Earth, 11, 2245–2256,Short summary
The injection of fluids (like wastewater or CO2) into the subsurface could cause earthquakes when existing geological faults inside the reservoir are (re-)activated. To assess the hazard associated with this, previous studies have conducted experiments in which fluids have been injected into centimetre- and decimetre-scale faults. In this work, we analyse and model these experiments. To this end, we propose a new approach through which we extract the model parameters that govern slip on faults.
Berend A. Verberne, Martijn P. A. van den Ende, Jianye Chen, André R. Niemeijer, and Christopher J. Spiers
Solid Earth, 11, 2075–2095,Short summary
The strength of fault rock plays a central role in determining the distribution of crustal seismicity. We review laboratory work on the physics of fault friction at low shearing velocities carried out at Utrecht University in the past 2 decades. Key mechanical data and post-mortem microstructures can be explained using a generalized, physically based model for the shear of gouge-filled faults. When implemented into numerical fault-slip codes, this offers new ways to simulate the seismic cycle.
Caiyuan Fan, Jinfeng Liu, Luuk B. Hunfeld, and Christopher J. Spiers
Solid Earth, 11, 1399–1422,Short summary
Coal is an important source rock for natural gas recovery, and its frictional properties play a role in induced seismicity. We performed experiments to investigate the frictional properties of bituminous coal, and our results show that the frictional strength of coal became significantly weakened with slip displacement, from a peak value of 0.5 to a steady-state value of 0.3. This may be caused by the development of shear bands with internal shear-enhanced molecular structure.
Maximilian O. Kottwitz, Anton A. Popov, Tobias S. Baumann, and Boris J. P. Kaus
Solid Earth, 11, 947–957,Short summary
In this study, we conducted 3-D numerical simulations of fluid flow in synthetically generated fractures that statistically reflect geometries of naturally occurring fractures. We introduced a non-dimensional characterization scheme to relate fracture permeabilities estimated from the numerical simulations to their geometries in a unique manner. By that, we refined the scaling law for fracture permeability, which can be easily integrated into discrete-fracture-network (DFN) modeling approaches.
Bjarne S. G. Almqvist, Hagen Bender, Amanda Bergman, and Uwe Ring
Solid Earth, 11, 807–828,Short summary
Rocks in fault zones can melt during earthquakes. The geometry and magnetic properties of such earthquake-melted rocks from Jämtland, central Sweden, show that they formed during Caledonian mountain building in the Palaeozoic. The small sample size (~0.2 cm3) used in this study is unconventional in studies of magnetic anisotropy and introduces challenges for interpretations. Nevertheless, the magnetic properties help shed light on the earthquake event and subsequent alteration of the rock.
David Healy, Nicholas Erik Timms, and Mark Alan Pearce
Solid Earth, 11, 259–286,Short summary
Rock-forming minerals behave elastically, a property that controls their ability to support stress and strain, controls the transmission of seismic waves, and influences subsequent permanent deformation. Minerals are intrinsically anisotropic in their elastic properties; that is, they have directional variations that are related to the crystal lattice. We explore this directionality and present new ways of visualising it. We hope this will enable further advances in understanding deformation.
Mathieu Soret, Philippe Agard, Benoît Ildefonse, Benoît Dubacq, Cécile Prigent, and Claudio Rosenberg
Solid Earth, 10, 1733–1755,Short summary
This study sheds light on the mineral-scale mechanisms controlling the progressive deformation of sheared amphibolites from the Oman metamorphic sole during subduction initiation and unravels how strain is localized and accommodated in hydrated mafic rocks at high temperature conditions. Our results indicate how metamorphic reactions and pore-fluid pressures driven by changes in pressure–temperature conditions and/or water activity control the rheology of mafic rocks.
Camille Parlangeau, Alexandre Dimanov, Olivier Lacombe, Simon Hallais, and Jean-Marc Daniel
Solid Earth, 10, 307–316,Short summary
Calcite twinning is a common deformation mechanism that mainly occurs at low temperatures. Twinning activation appears at a critical strength value, which is poorly documented and still debated. Temperature is known to influence twin thickness and shape; however, few studies have been conducted on calcite deformation at low temperatures. The goal of this work is to determine if thickness is mainly due to high temperatures and to establish the validity of a threshold twinning activation value.
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Serpentinite, generated by the hydration of ultramafic rocks, is thought to be related to slow earthquakes at the subduction plate interface in the mantle wedge. We conducted friction experiments on brucite, one of the components of serpentinite, and found that wet brucite exhibits low and unstable friction under low effective normal stress conditions. This result suggests that wet brucite may be key for slow earthquakes at the subduction plate interface in a hydrated mantle wedge.
Serpentinite, generated by the hydration of ultramafic rocks, is thought to be related to slow...