Articles | Volume 10, issue 1
08 Feb 2019
Research article | 08 Feb 2019
Event couple spectral ratio Q method for earthquake clusters: application to northwest Bohemia
Marius Kriegerowski et al.
No articles found.
Tomáš Fischer, Pavla Hrubcová, Torsten Dahm, Heiko Woith, Tomáš Vylita, Matthias Ohrnberger, Josef Vlček, Josef Horálek, Petr Dědeček, Martin Zimmer, Martin P. Lipus, Simona Pierdominici, Jens Kallmeyer, Frank Krüger, Katrin Hannemann, Michael Korn, Horst Kämpf, Thomas Reinsch, Jakub Klicpera, Daniel Vollmer, and Kyriaki Daskalopoulou
Sci. Dril., 31, 31–49,Short summary
The newly established geodynamic laboratory aims to develop modern, comprehensive, multiparameter observations at depth for studying earthquake swarms, crustal fluid flow, mantle-derived fluid degassing and processes of the deep biosphere. It is located in the West Bohemia–Vogtland (western Eger Rift) geodynamic region and comprises a set of five shallow boreholes with high-frequency 3-D seismic arrays as well as continuous real-time fluid monitoring at depth and the study of the deep biosphere.
Djamil Al-Halbouni, Robert A. Watson, Eoghan P. Holohan, Rena Meyer, Ulrich Polom, Fernando M. Dos Santos, Xavier Comas, Hussam Alrshdan, Charlotte M. Krawczyk, and Torsten Dahm
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3351–3395,Short summary
The rapid decline of the Dead Sea level since the 1960s has provoked a dynamic reaction from the coastal groundwater system, with physical and chemical erosion creating subsurface voids and conduits. By combining remote sensing, geophysical methods, and numerical modelling at the Dead Sea’s eastern shore, we link groundwater flow patterns to the formation of surface stream channels, sinkholes and uvalas. Better understanding of this karst system will improve regional hazard assessment.
Gesa Maria Petersen, Simone Cesca, Sebastian Heimann, Peter Niemz, Torsten Dahm, Daniela Kühn, Jörn Kummerow, Thomas Plenefisch, and the AlpArray and AlpArray-Swath-D working groups
Solid Earth, 12, 1233–1257,Short summary
The Alpine mountains are known for a complex tectonic history. We shed light onto ongoing tectonic processes by studying rupture mechanisms of small to moderate earthquakes between 2016 and 2019 observed by the temporary AlpArray seismic network. The rupture processes of 75 earthquakes were analyzed, along with past earthquakes and deformation data. Our observations point at variations in the underlying tectonic processes and stress regimes across the Alps.
Camilla Rossi, Francesco Grigoli, Simone Cesca, Sebastian Heimann, Paolo Gasperini, Vala Hjörleifsdóttir, Torsten Dahm, Christopher J. Bean, Stefan Wiemer, Luca Scarabello, Nima Nooshiri, John F. Clinton, Anne Obermann, Kristján Ágústsson, and Thorbjörg Ágústsdóttir
Adv. Geosci., 54, 129–136,Short summary
We investigate the microseismicity occurred at Hengill area, a complex tectonic and geothermal site, where the origin of earthquakes may be either natural or anthropogenic. We use a very dense broadband seismic monitoring network and apply full-waveform based method for location. Our results and first characterization identified different types of microseismic clusters, which might be associated to either production/injection or the tectonic activity of the geothermal area.
Marco Broccardo, Arnaud Mignan, Francesco Grigoli, Dimitrios Karvounis, Antonio Pio Rinaldi, Laurentiu Danciu, Hannes Hofmann, Claus Milkereit, Torsten Dahm, Günter Zimmermann, Vala Hjörleifsdóttir, and Stefan Wiemer
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1573–1593,Short summary
This study presents a first-of-its-kind pre-drilling probabilistic induced seismic risk analysis for the Geldinganes (Iceland) deep-hydraulic stimulation. The results of the assessment indicate that the individual risk within a radius of 2 km around the injection point is below the safety limits. However, the analysis is affected by a large variability due to the presence of pre-drilling deep uncertainties. This suggests the need for online risk updating during the stimulation.
Mohammadreza Jamalreyhani, Pınar Büyükakpınar, Simone Cesca, Torsten Dahm, Henriette Sudhaus, Mehdi Rezapour, Marius Paul Isken, Behnam Maleki Asayesh, and Sebastian Heimann
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We model the source of the 24 January 2020 Mw 6.77 Elazığ-Sivrice (Turkey) earthquake using a combination of different data and we analyzed its seismic sequences. This earthquake occurred in the east Anatolian fault and it has filled the large part of the former seismic gap zone. An unbroken part has left after this earthquake and has the potential to host a future earthquake. This work provides information about the fault system and helps to the mitigation of seismic hazard in Southern Turkey.
Sebastian Heimann, Hannes Vasyura-Bathke, Henriette Sudhaus, Marius Paul Isken, Marius Kriegerowski, Andreas Steinberg, and Torsten Dahm
Solid Earth, 10, 1921–1935,Short summary
We present an open-source software framework for fast and flexible forward modelling of seismic and acoustic wave phenomena and elastic deformation. It supports a wide range of applications across volcanology, seismology, and geodesy to study earthquakes, volcanic processes, landslides, explosions, mine collapses, ground shaking, and aseismic faulting. The framework stimulates reproducible research and open science through the exchange of pre-calculated Green's functions on an open platform.
Robert A. Watson, Eoghan P. Holohan, Djamil Al-Halbouni, Leila Saberi, Ali Sawarieh, Damien Closson, Hussam Alrshdan, Najib Abou Karaki, Christian Siebert, Thomas R. Walter, and Torsten Dahm
Solid Earth, 10, 1451–1468,Short summary
The fall of the Dead Sea level since the 1960s has provoked the formation of over 6000 sinkholes, a major hazard to local economy and infrastructure. In this context, we study the evolution of subsidence phenomena at three area scales at the Dead Sea’s eastern shore from 1967–2017. Our results yield the most detailed insights to date into the spatio-temporal development of sinkholes and larger depressions (uvalas) in an evaporite karst setting and emphasize a link to the falling Dead Sea level.
Djamil Al-Halbouni, Eoghan P. Holohan, Abbas Taheri, Robert A. Watson, Ulrich Polom, Martin P. J. Schöpfer, Sacha Emam, and Torsten Dahm
Solid Earth, 10, 1219–1241,Short summary
A 2-D numerical modelling approach to simulate the mechanical formation of sinkhole cluster inside large-scale karstic depressions is presented. Different multiple cavity growth scenarios at depth are compared regarding the mechanical process and collapse style. The outcomes of the models are compared to results from remote sensing and geophysics for an active sinkhole area in the Dead Sea region.
Peter Gaebler, Lars Ceranna, Nima Nooshiri, Andreas Barth, Simone Cesca, Michaela Frei, Ilona Grünberg, Gernot Hartmann, Karl Koch, Christoph Pilger, J. Ole Ross, and Torsten Dahm
Solid Earth, 10, 59–78,Short summary
On 3 September 2017 official channels of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea announced the successful test of a nuclear device. This study provides a multi-technology analysis of the 2017 North Korean event and its aftermath using a wide array of geophysical methods (seismology, infrasound, remote sensing, radionuclide monitoring, and atmospheric transport modeling). Our results clearly indicate that the September 2017 North Korean event was in fact a nuclear test.
Djamil Al-Halbouni, Eoghan P. Holohan, Abbas Taheri, Martin P. J. Schöpfer, Sacha Emam, and Torsten Dahm
Solid Earth, 9, 1341–1373,Short summary
Sinkholes are round depression features in the ground that can cause high economic and life loss. On the Dead Sea shoreline, hundreds of sinkholes form each year driven by the fall of the water level and subsequent out-washing and dissolution of loose sediments. This study investigates the mechanical formation of sinkholes by numerical modelling. It highlights the role of material strength in the formation of dangerous collapse sinkholes and compares it to findings from a field site in Jordan.
Ulrich Polom, Hussam Alrshdan, Djamil Al-Halbouni, Eoghan P. Holohan, Torsten Dahm, Ali Sawarieh, Mohamad Y. Atallah, and Charlotte M. Krawczyk
Solid Earth, 9, 1079–1098,Short summary
The alluvial fan of Ghor Al-Haditha (Dead Sea) is affected by subsidence and sinkholes. Different models and hypothetical processes have been suggested in the past; high-resolution shear wave reflection surveys carried out in 2013 and 2014 showed the absence of evidence for a massive shallow salt layer as formerly suggested. Thus, a new process interpretation is proposed based on both the dissolution and physical erosion of Dead Sea mud layers.
T. Dahm, P. Hrubcová, T. Fischer, J. Horálek, M. Korn, S. Buske, and D. Wagner
Sci. Dril., 16, 93–99,
Related subject area
Subject area: Tectonic plate interactions, magma genesis, and lithosphere deformation at all scales | Editorial team: Seismics, seismology, paleoseismology, geoelectrics, and electromagnetics | Discipline: SeismologyTwo subduction-related heterogeneities beneath the Eastern Alps and the Bohemian Massif imaged by high-resolution P-wave tomographyBasin inversion: reactivated rift structures in the central Ligurian Sea revealed using ocean bottom seismometersMoho and uppermost mantle structure in the Alpine area from S-to-P converted wavesCOVID-19 lockdown effects on the seismic recordings in Central AmericaPresent-day geodynamics of the Western Alps: new insights from earthquake mechanismsSeismicity and seismotectonics of the Albstadt Shear Zone in the northern Alpine forelandSeismicity during and after stimulation of a 6.1 km deep enhanced geothermal system in Helsinki, FinlandSeismic gaps and intraplate seismicity around Rodrigues Ridge (Indian Ocean) from time domain array analysisRupture-dependent breakdown energy in fault models with thermo-hydro-mechanical processesPotential influence of overpressurized gas on the induced seismicity in the St. Gallen deep geothermal project (Switzerland)Seismicity characterization of oceanic earthquakes in the Mexican territorySeismic waveform tomography of the central and eastern Mediterranean upper mantleInfluence of reservoir geology on seismic response during decameter-scale hydraulic stimulations in crystalline rockLithospheric and sublithospheric deformation under the Borborema Province of northeastern Brazil from receiver function harmonic strippingInduced seismicity in geologic carbon storageMoment magnitude estimates for central Anatolian earthquakes using coda waves
Jaroslava Plomerová, Helena Žlebčíková, György Hetényi, Luděk Vecsey, Vladislav Babuška, and AlpArray-EASI and AlpArray working groups
Solid Earth, 13, 251–270,Short summary
We present high-resolution tomography images of upper mantle structure beneath the E Alps and the adjacent Bohemian Massif. The northward-dipping lithosphere, imaged down to ∼200 km beneath the E Alps without signs of delamination, is probably formed by a mixture of a fragment of detached European plate and the Adriatic plate subductions. A detached high-velocity anomaly, sub-parallel to and distinct from the E Alps heterogeneity, is imaged at ∼100–200 km beneath the southern part of the BM.
Martin Thorwart, Anke Dannowski, Ingo Grevemeyer, Dietrich Lange, Heidrun Kopp, Florian Petersen, Wayne C. Crawford, Anne Paul, and the AlpArray Working Group
Solid Earth, 12, 2553–2571,Short summary
We analyse broadband ocean bottom seismometer data of the AlpArray OBS network in the Ligurian Basin. Two earthquake clusters with thrust faulting focal mechanisms indicate compression of the rift basin. The locations of seismicity suggest reactivation of pre-existing rift structures and strengthening of crust and uppermost mantle during rifting-related extension. Slightly different striking directions of faults may mimic the anti-clockwise rotation of the Corsica–Sardinia block.
Rainer Kind, Stefan M. Schmid, Xiaohui Yuan, Benjamin Heit, Thomas Meier, and the AlpArray and AlpArray-SWATH-D Working Groups
Solid Earth, 12, 2503–2521,Short summary
A large amount of new seismic data from the greater Alpine area have been obtained within the AlpArray and SWATH-D projects. S-to-P converted seismic phases from the Moho and from the mantle lithosphere have been processed with a newly developed method. Examples of new observations are a rapid change in Moho depth at 13° E below the Tauern Window from 60 km in the west to 40 km in the east and a second Moho trough along the boundary of the Bohemian Massif towards the Western Carpathians.
Mario Arroyo-Solórzano, Diego Castro-Rojas, Frédérick Massin, Lepolt Linkimer, Ivonne Arroyo, and Robin Yani
Solid Earth, 12, 2127–2144,Short summary
We present the first seismic noise variation levels during COVID-19 in Central America using 10 seismometers. We study the impact of the seismic noise reduction on the detectability of earthquakes and on the felt reports. Our results show maximum values (~50 % decrease) at seismic stations near airports and densely inhabited cities. The decrease in seismic noise improved earthquake locations and reports. Seismic noise could also be useful to verify compliance with lockdown measures.
Marguerite Mathey, Christian Sue, Colin Pagani, Stéphane Baize, Andrea Walpersdorf, Thomas Bodin, Laurent Husson, Estelle Hannouz, and Bertrand Potin
Solid Earth, 12, 1661–1681,Short summary
This work features the highest-resolution seismic stress and strain fields available at the present time for the analysis of the active crustal deformation of the Western Alps. In this paper, we address a large dataset of newly computed focal mechanisms from a statistical standpoint, which allows us to suggest a joint control from far-field forces and from buoyancy forces on the present-day deformation of the Western Alps.
Sarah Mader, Joachim R. R. Ritter, Klaus Reicherter, and the AlpArray Working Group
Solid Earth, 12, 1389–1409,Short summary
The Albstadt Shear Zone, SW Germany, is an active rupture zone with sometimes damaging earthquakes but no visible surface structure. To identify its segmentations, geometry, faulting pattern and extension, we analyze the continuous earthquake activity in 2011–2018. We find a segmented N–S-oriented fault zone with mainly horizontal and minor vertical movement along mostly NNE- and some NNW-oriented rupture planes. The main horizontal stress is oriented NW and due to Alpine-related loading.
Maria Leonhardt, Grzegorz Kwiatek, Patricia Martínez-Garzón, Marco Bohnhoff, Tero Saarno, Pekka Heikkinen, and Georg Dresen
Solid Earth, 12, 581–594,
Manvendra Singh and Georg Rümpker
Solid Earth, 11, 2557–2568,Short summary
Using seismic array methods, 63 events were located in the Rodrigues–CIR region, not reported by any global network, most of them being off the ridge axis. The lack of seismicity along this section of the CIR, as observed from global data and this study, can possibly be attributed to the presence of partially molten mantle beneath Rodrigues Ridge. The results will be of interest for a broad range of geoscientists interested in the tectonic evolution of Indian Ocean and plume–crust interaction.
Valère Lambert and Nadia Lapusta
Solid Earth, 11, 2283–2302,
Dominik Zbinden, Antonio Pio Rinaldi, Tobias Diehl, and Stefan Wiemer
Solid Earth, 11, 909–933,Short summary
The deep geothermal project in St. Gallen, Switzerland, aimed at generating electricity and heat. The fluid pumped into the underground caused hundreds of small earthquakes and one larger one felt by the local population. Here we use computer simulations to study the physical processes that led to the earthquakes. We find that gas present in the subsurface could have intensified the seismicity, which may have implications for future geothermal projects conducted in similar geological conditions.
Quetzalcoatl Rodríguez-Pérez, Víctor Hugo Márquez-Ramírez, and Francisco Ramón Zúñiga
Solid Earth, 11, 791–806,Short summary
We analyzed reported oceanic earthquakes in Mexico. We used data from different agencies. By analyzing the occurrence of earthquakes, we can extract relevant information such as the level of seismic activity, the size of the earthquakes, hypocenter depths, etc. We also studied the focal mechanisms to classify the different types of earthquakes and calculated the stress in the region. The results will be useful to understand the physics of oceanic earthquakes.
Nienke Blom, Alexey Gokhberg, and Andreas Fichtner
Solid Earth, 11, 669–690,Short summary
We have developed a model of the Earth's structure in the upper 500 km beneath the central and eastern Mediterranean. Within this model, we can see parts of the African tectonic plate that have sunk underneath the European plate over the past tens of millions of years. This model was constructed using seismic waveform tomography by matching the seismograms from many earthquakes recorded at the surface to synthetic seismograms that were generated by simulating earthquake wave propagation.
Linus Villiger, Valentin Samuel Gischig, Joseph Doetsch, Hannes Krietsch, Nathan Oliver Dutler, Mohammadreza Jalali, Benoît Valley, Paul Antony Selvadurai, Arnaud Mignan, Katrin Plenkers, Domenico Giardini, Florian Amann, and Stefan Wiemer
Solid Earth, 11, 627–655,Short summary
Hydraulic stimulation summarizes fracture initiation and reactivation due to high-pressure fluid injection. Several borehole intervals covering intact rock and pre-existing fractures were targets for high-pressure fluid injections within a decameter-scale, crystalline rock volume. The observed induced seismicity strongly depends on the target geology. In addition, the severity of the induced seismicity per experiment counter correlates with the observed transmissivity enhancement.
Gaelle Lamarque and Jordi Julià
Solid Earth, 10, 893–905,Short summary
Our goal is to better understand the evolution of the Earth's outer shell in northeast Brazil. We analyze the propagation properties (anisotropy) of distant seismic waves in order to look for subsurface, large-scale deformation structures. Results show that structures visible at the surface can be traced down to ~100 km depth, that the imprint of the opening of the Atlantic Ocean can be detected along the coast and that the continental interior is anomalous due to a complex deformation history.
Víctor Vilarrasa, Jesus Carrera, Sebastià Olivella, Jonny Rutqvist, and Lyesse Laloui
Solid Earth, 10, 871–892,Short summary
To meet the goal of the Paris Agreement to limit temperature increase below 2 ºC, geologic carbon storage (GCS) will be necessary at the gigatonne scale. But to successfully deploy GCS, seismicity induced by CO2 injection should be controlled and maintained below a threshold that does not generate nuisances to the population. We conclude that felt induced seismicity can be minimized provided that a proper site characterization, monitoring and pressure management are performed.
Solid Earth, 10, 713–723,Short summary
Proper magnitude estimates for earthquakes can give insight into the seismic energy released at an earthquake source. This is, in fact, essential for better seismic hazard assessments in tectonically active regions. In the present work, I examine local earthquakes in central Anatolia to estimate their moment magnitudes. The main outcome of this study is an empirical relation that can provide a direct physical quantity of seismic energy in the study region.
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We developed a method that allows to estimate the acoustic attenuation of seismic waves within regions with high earthquake source densities. Attenuation is of high interest as it allows to draw conclusions on the origin of seismic activity. We apply our method to north-west Bohemia, which is regularly affected by earthquake swarms during which thousands of earthquakes are registered within a few days. We find reduced attenuation within the active volume, which may indicate high fluid content.
We developed a method that allows to estimate the acoustic attenuation of seismic waves within...