Articles | Volume 12, issue 2
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Characterizing the oceanic ambient noise as recorded by the dense seismo-acoustic Kazakh network
Institute of Geophysical Research, National Nuclear Center, Almaty, 050020, Kazakhstan
Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75005 Paris, France
CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon, France
Nikolai M. Shapiro
Institut de Sciences de la Terre, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS (UMR5275), Grenoble, France
Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 123242, Russia
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119017, Russia
No articles found.
Patrick Hupe, Lars Ceranna, Alexis Le Pichon, Robin S. Matoza, and Pierrick Mialle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 4201–4230,Short summary
Sound waves with frequencies below the human hearing threshold can travel long distances through the atmosphere. A global network of sensors records such infrasound to detect clandestine nuclear tests in the atmosphere. These data are generally not public. This study provides four data products based on global infrasound signal detections to make infrasound data available to a broad community. This will advance the use of infrasound observations for scientific studies and civilian applications.
Ekaterina Vorobeva, Marine De Carlo, Alexis Le Pichon, Patrick Joseph Espy, and Sven Peter Näsholm
Ann. Geophys., 39, 515–531,Short summary
Our approach compares infrasound data and simulated microbarom soundscapes in multiple directions. Data recorded during 2014–2019 at Infrasound Station 37 in Norway were processed and compared to model results in different aspects (directional distribution, signal amplitude, and ability to track atmospheric changes during extreme events). The results reveal good agreement between the model and data. The approach has potential for near-real-time atmospheric and microbarom diagnostics.
Christoph Pilger, Peter Gaebler, Lars Ceranna, Alexis Le Pichon, Julien Vergoz, Anna Perttu, Dorianne Tailpied, and Benoit Taisne
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2811–2825,Short summary
This paper provides infrasound data analysis, modeling, and interpretation of the source characteristics of the 28 September 2018 magnitude 7.5 Sulawesi earthquake. Epicentral ground movement by the earthquake rupture as well as the secondary shaking of nearby mountainous topography is responsible for the strong infrasound generated. Findings allow one to improve knowledge of infrasonic and seismoacoustic source processes and the monitoring capabilities of the infrasound arrays used.
Yuliya Kurdyaeva, Sergey Kulichkov, Sergey Kshevetskii, Olga Borchevkina, and Elena Golikova
Ann. Geophys., 37, 447–454,Short summary
To simulate the vertical propagation of atmospheric waves, experimental data on pressure variations at the Earth's surface are used. These data are associated with the meteorological source. The simulation results have allowed for the first time estimates of the amplitudes of temperature wave disturbances in the upper atmosphere caused by waves from the atmospheric front. The simulations have been performed using the Lomonosov supercomputer.
Yuliya Kurdyaeva, Sergey Kshevetskii, Nikolay Gavrilov, and Sergey Kulichkov
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Various meteorological phenomena generate acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere and cause wave variations of atmospheric pressure. There are networks of microbarographs, which record pressure variations on the Earth's surface. The hydrodynamic problem of propagation of waves in the atmosphere from pressure variations on the Earth's surface is formulated. The problem wellposedness is proved. A supercomputer program for simulation of waves from pressure variations is developed and applied.
L. Retailleau, N. M. Shapiro, J. Guilbert, M. Campillo, and P. Roux
Adv. Geosci., 40, 27–30,
Related subject area
Subject area: The evolving Earth surface | Editorial team: Seismics, seismology, paleoseismology, geoelectrics, and electromagnetics | Discipline: SeismologyOcean bottom seismometer (OBS) noise reduction from horizontal and vertical components using harmonic–percussive separation algorithmsTowards real-time seismic monitoring of a geothermal plant using Distributed Acoustic SensingUpper-lithospheric structure of northeastern Venezuela from joint inversion of surface-wave dispersion and receiver functionsA study on the effect of input data length on a deep-learning-based magnitude classifierMulti-array analysis of volcano-seismic signals at Fogo and Brava, Cape VerdeReflection imaging of complex geology in a crystalline environment using virtual-source seismology: case study from the Kylylahti polymetallic mine, FinlandThe damaging character of shallow 20th century earthquakes in the Hainaut coal area (Belgium)The effect of 2020 COVID-19 lockdown measures on seismic noise recorded in RomaniaAccelerating Bayesian microseismic event location with deep learningStrain to ground motion conversion of distributed acoustic sensing data for earthquake magnitude and stress drop determinationRegional centroid moment tensor inversion of small to moderate earthquakes in the Alps using the dense AlpArray seismic network: challenges and seismotectonic insightsUnprecedented quiescence in resource development area allows detection of long-lived latent seismicitySeismic monitoring of urban activity in Barcelona during the COVID-19 lockdownSeismic signature of the COVID-19 lockdown at the city scale: a case study with low-cost seismometers in the city of Querétaro, MexicoSeismic evidence of the COVID-19 lockdown measures: a case study from eastern Sicily (Italy)Sensing Earth and environment dynamics by telecommunication fiber-optic sensors: an urban experiment in Pennsylvania, USAEffects of finite source rupture on landslide triggering: the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake
Zahra Zali, Theresa Rein, Frank Krüger, Matthias Ohrnberger, and Frank Scherbaum
Solid Earth, 14, 181–195,Short summary
Investigation of the global Earth's structure benefits from the analysis of ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data that allow an improved seismic illumination of dark spots of crustal and mantle structures in the oceanic regions of the Earth. However, recordings from the ocean bottom are often highly contaminated by noise. We developed an OBS noise reduction algorithm, which removes much of the oceanic noise while preserving the earthquake signal and does not introduce waveform distortion.
Jerome Azzola, Katja Thiemann, and Emmanuel Gaucher
Distributed Acoustic Sensing is applied to the micro-seismic monitoring of a geothermal plant. In this domain, the feasibility of managing the large flow of generated data and their suitability to monitor locally induced seismicity was yet to be assessed. The proposed monitoring system efficiently managed the acquisition, processing and saving of the data over a 6-month period. This testing period proved that the monitoring concept advantageously complements more classical monitoring networks.
Roberto Cabieces, Mariano S. Arnaiz-Rodríguez, Antonio Villaseñor, Elizabeth Berg, Andrés Olivar-Castaño, Sergi Ventosa, and Ana M. G. Ferreira
Solid Earth, 13, 1781–1801,Short summary
This paper presents a new 3D shear-wave velocity model of the lithosphere of northeastern Venezuela, including new Moho and Vp / Vs maps. Data were retrieved from land and broadband ocean bottom seismometers from the BOLIVAR experiment.
Megha Chakraborty, Wei Li, Johannes Faber, Georg Rümpker, Horst Stoecker, and Nishtha Srivastava
Solid Earth, 13, 1721–1729,Short summary
Earthquake magnitude is a crucial parameter in defining its damage potential, and hence its speedy determination is essential to issue an early warning in regions close to the epicentre. This study summarises our findings in an attempt to apply deep-learning-based classifiers to earthquake waveforms, particularly with respect to finding an optimum length of input data. We conclude that the input length has no significant effect on the model accuracy, which varies between 90 %–94 %.
Carola Leva, Georg Rümpker, and Ingo Wölbern
Solid Earth, 13, 1243–1258,Short summary
The seismicity of Fogo and Brava, Cape Verde, is dominated by volcano-tectonic earthquakes in the area of Brava and volcanic seismic signals, such as hybrid events, on Fogo. We locate these events using a multi-array analysis, which allows the localization of seismic events occurring outside the network and of volcanic signals lacking clear phases. We observe exceptionally high apparent velocities for the hybrid events located on Fogo. These velocities are likely caused by a complex ray path.
Michal Chamarczuk, Michal Malinowski, Deyan Draganov, Emilia Koivisto, Suvi Heinonen, and Sanna Rötsä
Solid Earth, 13, 705–723,Short summary
In passive seismic measurement, all noise sources from the environment, such as traffic, vibrations caused by distant excavation, and explosive work from underground mines, are utilized. In the Kylylahti experiment, receivers recorded ambient noise sources for 30 d. These recordings were subjected to data analysis and processing using novel methodology developed in our study and used for imaging the subsurface geology of the Kylylahti mine area.
Thierry Camelbeeck, Koen Van Noten, Thomas Lecocq, and Marc Hendrickx
Solid Earth, 13, 469–495,Short summary
Over the 20th century, shallow damaging seismicity occurred in and near the Hainaut coal mining area in Belgium. We provide an overview of earthquake parameters and impacts, combining felt and damage testimonies and instrumental measurements. Shallower earthquakes have a depth and timing compatible with mining activity. The most damaging events occurred deeper than the mines but could still have been triggered by mining-caused crustal changes. Our modelling can be applied to other regions.
Bogdan Grecu, Felix Borleanu, Alexandru Tiganescu, Natalia Poiata, Raluca Dinescu, and Dragos Tataru
Solid Earth, 12, 2351–2368,Short summary
The lockdown imposed in Romania to prevent the spread of COVID-19 has significantly impacted human activity across the country. By analyzing the ground vibrations recorded at seismic stations, we were able to monitor the changes in human activity before and during the lockdown. The reduced human activity during the lockdown has also provided a good opportunity for stations sited in noisy urban areas to record earthquake signals that would not have been recorded under normal conditions.
Alessio Spurio Mancini, Davide Piras, Ana Margarida Godinho Ferreira, Michael Paul Hobson, and Benjamin Joachimi
Solid Earth, 12, 1683–1705,Short summary
The localization of an earthquake is affected by many uncertainties. To correctly propagate these uncertainties into an estimate of the earthquake coordinates and their associated errors, many simulations of seismic waves are needed. This operation is computationally very intensive, hindering the feasibility of this approach. In this paper, we present a series of deep-learning methods to produce accurate seismic traces in a fraction of the time needed with standard methods.
Itzhak Lior, Anthony Sladen, Diego Mercerat, Jean-Paul Ampuero, Diane Rivet, and Serge Sambolian
Solid Earth, 12, 1421–1442,Short summary
The increasing use of distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) inhibits the transformation of optical fibers into dense arrays of seismo-acoustic sensors. Here, DAS strain records are converted to ground motions using the waves' apparent velocity. An algorithm for velocity determination is presented, accounting for velocity variations between different seismic waves. The conversion allows for robust determination of fundamental source parameters, earthquake magnitude and stress drop.
Gesa Maria Petersen, Simone Cesca, Sebastian Heimann, Peter Niemz, Torsten Dahm, Daniela Kühn, Jörn Kummerow, Thomas Plenefisch, and the AlpArray and AlpArray-Swath-D working groups
Solid Earth, 12, 1233–1257,Short summary
The Alpine mountains are known for a complex tectonic history. We shed light onto ongoing tectonic processes by studying rupture mechanisms of small to moderate earthquakes between 2016 and 2019 observed by the temporary AlpArray seismic network. The rupture processes of 75 earthquakes were analyzed, along with past earthquakes and deformation data. Our observations point at variations in the underlying tectonic processes and stress regimes across the Alps.
Rebecca O. Salvage and David W. Eaton
Solid Earth, 12, 765–783,Short summary
Small earthquakes in Alberta and north-east British Columbia have been previously ascribed to industrial activities. The COVID-19 pandemic forced almost all these activities to stop for ~ 4 months. However, unexpectedly, earthquakes still occurred during this time. Some of these earthquakes may be natural and some the result of earthquakes > M6 occurring around the world. However, ~ 65 % of the earthquakes detected may be the remnants of previous fluid injection in the area (
Jordi Diaz, Mario Ruiz, and José-Antonio Jara
Solid Earth, 12, 725–739,Short summary
During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, the city of Barcelona was covered by a network of 19 seismometers. The results confirm that the quieting of human activity during lockdown has resulted in a reduction of seismic vibrations. The different lockdown phases in Barcelona are recognized consistently at most of the seismic stations. Our contribution demonstrates that seismic noise can be used as a free and reliable tool to monitor human activity in urban environments.
Raphael S. M. De Plaen, Víctor Hugo Márquez-Ramírez, Xyoli Pérez-Campos, F. Ramón Zuñiga, Quetzalcoatl Rodríguez-Pérez, Juan Martín Gómez González, and Lucia Capra
Solid Earth, 12, 713–724,Short summary
COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns in countries with a dominant informal economy have been a greater challenge than in other places. This motivated the monitoring of the mobility of populations with seismic noise throughout the various phases of lockdown and in the city of Querétaro (central Mexico). Our results emphasize the benefit of densifying urban seismic networks, even with low-cost instruments, to observe variations in mobility at the city scale over exclusively relying on mobile technology.
Andrea Cannata, Flavio Cannavò, Giuseppe Di Grazia, Marco Aliotta, Carmelo Cassisi, Raphael S. M. De Plaen, Stefano Gresta, Thomas Lecocq, Placido Montalto, and Mariangela Sciotto
Solid Earth, 12, 299–317,Short summary
During the COVID-19 pandemic, most countries put in place social interventions, aimed at restricting human mobility, which caused a decrease in the seismic noise, generated by human activities and called anthropogenic seismic noise. In densely populated eastern Sicily, we observed a decrease in the seismic noise amplitude reaching 50 %. We found similarities between the temporal patterns of seismic noise and human mobility, as quantified by mobile-phone-derived data and ship traffic data.
Tieyuan Zhu, Junzhu Shen, and Eileen R. Martin
Solid Earth, 12, 219–235,Short summary
We describe the Fiber Optic foR Environmental SEnsEing (FORESEE) project in Pennsylvania, USA, the first continuous-monitoring distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) fiber array in the eastern USA. With the success of collecting 1 year of continuous DAS recordings using nearly 5 km of telecommunication fiber underneath the university campus, we conclude that DAS along with telecommunication fiber will potentially serve the purpose of continuous near-surface seismic monitoring in populated areas.
Sebastian von Specht, Ugur Ozturk, Georg Veh, Fabrice Cotton, and Oliver Korup
Solid Earth, 10, 463–486,Short summary
We show the landslide response to the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Mw 7.1) in central Kyushu (Japan). Landslides are concentrated to the northeast of the rupture, coinciding with the propagation direction of the earthquake. This azimuthal variation in the landslide concentration is linked to the seismic rupture process itself and not to classical landslide susceptibility factors. We propose a new ground-motion model that links the seismic radiation pattern with the landslide distribution.
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Seismic and infrasound methods are techniques used to monitor natural events and explosions. At low frequencies, band signal can be dominated by microbaroms and microseisms. The noise observations in the Kazakh network are performed and compared with source and propagation modeling. The network is dense and well situated for studying very distant source regions of the ambient noise. The prospects are opening for the use of ocean noise in solid Earth and atmosphere tomography.
Seismic and infrasound methods are techniques used to monitor natural events and explosions. At...