Articles | Volume 12, issue 7
Solid Earth, 12, 1661–1681, 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article 21 Jul 2021
Research article | 21 Jul 2021
Present-day geodynamics of the Western Alps: new insights from earthquake mechanisms
Marguerite Mathey et al.
No articles found.
Christian Vincent, Diego Cusicanqui, Bruno Jourdain, Olivier Laarman, Delphine Six, Adrien Gilbert, Andrea Walpersdorf, Antoine Rabatel, Luc Piard, Florent Gimbert, Olivier Gagliardini, Vincent Peyaud, Laurent Arnaud, Emmanuel Thibert, Fanny Brun, and Ugo Nanni
The Cryosphere, 15, 1259–1276,Short summary
In situ glacier point mass balance data are crucial to assess climate change in different regions of the world. Unfortunately, these data are rare because huge efforts are required to conduct in situ measurements on glaciers. Here, we propose a new approach from remote sensing observations. The method has been tested on the Argentière and Mer de Glace glaciers (France). It should be possible to apply this method to high-spatial-resolution satellite images and on numerous glaciers in the world.
Hervé Jomard, Edward Marc Cushing, Luigi Palumbo, Stéphane Baize, Claire David, and Thomas Chartier
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1573–1584,Short summary
The French Institute of Radioactive Protection and Nuclear Safety, with the support of the Ministry of Environment, compiled a database (BDFA) in order to define and characterize known potentially active faults of metropolitan France. The general structure of BDFA is presented, containing to date a total of 136 faults (581 fault segments). BDFA represents a first step toward the implementation of seismic source models for both deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard calculations.
Thomas Chartier, Oona Scotti, Christophe Clément, Hervé Jomard, and Stéphane Baize
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1585–1593,Short summary
We perform a fault-based PSHA exercise in the Upper Rhine Graben to quantify the relative influence of fault parameters on the hazard at the Fessenheim nuclear power plant site. Sensitivity tests show that the uncertainty on the slip rate of the Rhine River fault is the dominant factor controlling the variability of the seismic hazard level, greater than the epistemic uncertainty due to ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs).
H. Brenot, A. Walpersdorf, M. Reverdy, J. van Baelen, V. Ducrocq, C. Champollion, F. Masson, E. Doerflinger, P. Collard, and P. Giroux
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 553–578,
B. Guillaume, L. Husson, F. Funiciello, and C. Faccenna
Solid Earth, 4, 179–200,
Related subject area
Subject area: Tectonic plate interactions, magma genesis, and lithosphere deformation at all scales | Editorial team: Seismics, seismology, geoelectrics, and electromagnetics | Discipline: SeismologyBasin inversion: reactivated rift structures in the central Ligurian Sea revealed using ocean bottom seismometersMoho and uppermost mantle structure in the Alpine area from S-to-P converted wavesCOVID-19 lockdown effects on the seismic recordings in Central AmericaSeismicity and seismotectonics of the Albstadt Shear Zone in the northern Alpine forelandTwo subduction-related heterogeneities beneath the Eastern Alps and the Bohemian Massif imaged by high-resolution P-wave tomographySeismicity during and after stimulation of a 6.1 km deep enhanced geothermal system in Helsinki, FinlandSeismic gaps and intraplate seismicity around Rodrigues Ridge (Indian Ocean) from time domain array analysisRupture-dependent breakdown energy in fault models with thermo-hydro-mechanical processesPotential influence of overpressurized gas on the induced seismicity in the St. Gallen deep geothermal project (Switzerland)Seismicity characterization of oceanic earthquakes in the Mexican territorySeismic waveform tomography of the central and eastern Mediterranean upper mantleInfluence of reservoir geology on seismic response during decameter-scale hydraulic stimulations in crystalline rockLithospheric and sublithospheric deformation under the Borborema Province of northeastern Brazil from receiver function harmonic strippingInduced seismicity in geologic carbon storageMoment magnitude estimates for central Anatolian earthquakes using coda wavesEvent couple spectral ratio Q method for earthquake clusters: application to northwest Bohemia
Martin Thorwart, Anke Dannowski, Ingo Grevemeyer, Dietrich Lange, Heidrun Kopp, Florian Petersen, Wayne C. Crawford, Anne Paul, and the AlpArray Working Group
Solid Earth, 12, 2553–2571,Short summary
We analyse broadband ocean bottom seismometer data of the AlpArray OBS network in the Ligurian Basin. Two earthquake clusters with thrust faulting focal mechanisms indicate compression of the rift basin. The locations of seismicity suggest reactivation of pre-existing rift structures and strengthening of crust and uppermost mantle during rifting-related extension. Slightly different striking directions of faults may mimic the anti-clockwise rotation of the Corsica–Sardinia block.
Rainer Kind, Stefan M. Schmid, Xiaohui Yuan, Benjamin Heit, Thomas Meier, and the AlpArray and AlpArray-SWATH-D Working Groups
Solid Earth, 12, 2503–2521,Short summary
A large amount of new seismic data from the greater Alpine area have been obtained within the AlpArray and SWATH-D projects. S-to-P converted seismic phases from the Moho and from the mantle lithosphere have been processed with a newly developed method. Examples of new observations are a rapid change in Moho depth at 13° E below the Tauern Window from 60 km in the west to 40 km in the east and a second Moho trough along the boundary of the Bohemian Massif towards the Western Carpathians.
Mario Arroyo-Solórzano, Diego Castro-Rojas, Frédérick Massin, Lepolt Linkimer, Ivonne Arroyo, and Robin Yani
Solid Earth, 12, 2127–2144,Short summary
We present the first seismic noise variation levels during COVID-19 in Central America using 10 seismometers. We study the impact of the seismic noise reduction on the detectability of earthquakes and on the felt reports. Our results show maximum values (~50 % decrease) at seismic stations near airports and densely inhabited cities. The decrease in seismic noise improved earthquake locations and reports. Seismic noise could also be useful to verify compliance with lockdown measures.
Sarah Mader, Joachim R. R. Ritter, Klaus Reicherter, and the AlpArray Working Group
Solid Earth, 12, 1389–1409,Short summary
The Albstadt Shear Zone, SW Germany, is an active rupture zone with sometimes damaging earthquakes but no visible surface structure. To identify its segmentations, geometry, faulting pattern and extension, we analyze the continuous earthquake activity in 2011–2018. We find a segmented N–S-oriented fault zone with mainly horizontal and minor vertical movement along mostly NNE- and some NNW-oriented rupture planes. The main horizontal stress is oriented NW and due to Alpine-related loading.
Jaroslava Plomerová, Helena Žlebčíková, György Hetényi, Luděk Vecsey, Vladislav Babuška, and the AlpArray-EASI and AlpArray working groups
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
High-resolution tomographic images of the upper mantle beneath the E. Alps and the adjacent Bohemian Massif (BM) in the North is presented. The northward-dipping E. Alps lithosphere keel is imaged down to ~200–250 km depth, without signs of delamination, and we associate it with the Adriatic plate subduction. Detached high-velocity heterogeneity, sub-parallel to and distinct from the E. Alps heterogeneity is imaged at ~100–200 km depths beneath the southern part of the BM.
Maria Leonhardt, Grzegorz Kwiatek, Patricia Martínez-Garzón, Marco Bohnhoff, Tero Saarno, Pekka Heikkinen, and Georg Dresen
Solid Earth, 12, 581–594,
Manvendra Singh and Georg Rümpker
Solid Earth, 11, 2557–2568,Short summary
Using seismic array methods, 63 events were located in the Rodrigues–CIR region, not reported by any global network, most of them being off the ridge axis. The lack of seismicity along this section of the CIR, as observed from global data and this study, can possibly be attributed to the presence of partially molten mantle beneath Rodrigues Ridge. The results will be of interest for a broad range of geoscientists interested in the tectonic evolution of Indian Ocean and plume–crust interaction.
Valère Lambert and Nadia Lapusta
Solid Earth, 11, 2283–2302,
Dominik Zbinden, Antonio Pio Rinaldi, Tobias Diehl, and Stefan Wiemer
Solid Earth, 11, 909–933,Short summary
The deep geothermal project in St. Gallen, Switzerland, aimed at generating electricity and heat. The fluid pumped into the underground caused hundreds of small earthquakes and one larger one felt by the local population. Here we use computer simulations to study the physical processes that led to the earthquakes. We find that gas present in the subsurface could have intensified the seismicity, which may have implications for future geothermal projects conducted in similar geological conditions.
Quetzalcoatl Rodríguez-Pérez, Víctor Hugo Márquez-Ramírez, and Francisco Ramón Zúñiga
Solid Earth, 11, 791–806,Short summary
We analyzed reported oceanic earthquakes in Mexico. We used data from different agencies. By analyzing the occurrence of earthquakes, we can extract relevant information such as the level of seismic activity, the size of the earthquakes, hypocenter depths, etc. We also studied the focal mechanisms to classify the different types of earthquakes and calculated the stress in the region. The results will be useful to understand the physics of oceanic earthquakes.
Nienke Blom, Alexey Gokhberg, and Andreas Fichtner
Solid Earth, 11, 669–690,Short summary
We have developed a model of the Earth's structure in the upper 500 km beneath the central and eastern Mediterranean. Within this model, we can see parts of the African tectonic plate that have sunk underneath the European plate over the past tens of millions of years. This model was constructed using seismic waveform tomography by matching the seismograms from many earthquakes recorded at the surface to synthetic seismograms that were generated by simulating earthquake wave propagation.
Linus Villiger, Valentin Samuel Gischig, Joseph Doetsch, Hannes Krietsch, Nathan Oliver Dutler, Mohammadreza Jalali, Benoît Valley, Paul Antony Selvadurai, Arnaud Mignan, Katrin Plenkers, Domenico Giardini, Florian Amann, and Stefan Wiemer
Solid Earth, 11, 627–655,Short summary
Hydraulic stimulation summarizes fracture initiation and reactivation due to high-pressure fluid injection. Several borehole intervals covering intact rock and pre-existing fractures were targets for high-pressure fluid injections within a decameter-scale, crystalline rock volume. The observed induced seismicity strongly depends on the target geology. In addition, the severity of the induced seismicity per experiment counter correlates with the observed transmissivity enhancement.
Gaelle Lamarque and Jordi Julià
Solid Earth, 10, 893–905,Short summary
Our goal is to better understand the evolution of the Earth's outer shell in northeast Brazil. We analyze the propagation properties (anisotropy) of distant seismic waves in order to look for subsurface, large-scale deformation structures. Results show that structures visible at the surface can be traced down to ~100 km depth, that the imprint of the opening of the Atlantic Ocean can be detected along the coast and that the continental interior is anomalous due to a complex deformation history.
Víctor Vilarrasa, Jesus Carrera, Sebastià Olivella, Jonny Rutqvist, and Lyesse Laloui
Solid Earth, 10, 871–892,Short summary
To meet the goal of the Paris Agreement to limit temperature increase below 2 ºC, geologic carbon storage (GCS) will be necessary at the gigatonne scale. But to successfully deploy GCS, seismicity induced by CO2 injection should be controlled and maintained below a threshold that does not generate nuisances to the population. We conclude that felt induced seismicity can be minimized provided that a proper site characterization, monitoring and pressure management are performed.
Solid Earth, 10, 713–723,Short summary
Proper magnitude estimates for earthquakes can give insight into the seismic energy released at an earthquake source. This is, in fact, essential for better seismic hazard assessments in tectonically active regions. In the present work, I examine local earthquakes in central Anatolia to estimate their moment magnitudes. The main outcome of this study is an empirical relation that can provide a direct physical quantity of seismic energy in the study region.
Marius Kriegerowski, Simone Cesca, Matthias Ohrnberger, Torsten Dahm, and Frank Krüger
Solid Earth, 10, 317–328,Short summary
We developed a method that allows to estimate the acoustic attenuation of seismic waves within regions with high earthquake source densities. Attenuation is of high interest as it allows to draw conclusions on the origin of seismic activity. We apply our method to north-west Bohemia, which is regularly affected by earthquake swarms during which thousands of earthquakes are registered within a few days. We find reduced attenuation within the active volume, which may indicate high fluid content.
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This work features the highest-resolution seismic stress and strain fields available at the present time for the analysis of the active crustal deformation of the Western Alps. In this paper, we address a large dataset of newly computed focal mechanisms from a statistical standpoint, which allows us to suggest a joint control from far-field forces and from buoyancy forces on the present-day deformation of the Western Alps.
This work features the highest-resolution seismic stress and strain fields available at the...