Articles | Volume 10, issue 6
Research article 14 Nov 2019
Research article | 14 Nov 2019
Large-scale electrical resistivity tomography in the Cheb Basin (Eger Rift) at an International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) monitoring site to image fluid-related structures
Tobias Nickschick et al.
Robert Bussert, Horst Kämpf, Christina Flechsig, Katja Hesse, Tobias Nickschick, Qi Liu, Josefine Umlauft, Tomáš Vylita, Dirk Wagner, Thomas Wonik, Hortencia Estrella Flores, and Mashal Alawi
Sci. Dril., 23, 13–27,
Frank Oppermann and Thomas Günther
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 7, 55–66,Short summary
We present a new versatile datalogger that can be used remotely for a wide range of applications in geosciences such as environmental and groundwater monitoring or in applied geophysics. The recorded signals will be processed using a new software approach, which will improve the data quality for very poor signal-to-noise ratios. We show this improvement by comparing it with traditional software-algorithm-processing synthetic data sets and real data collected in the field.
Robert Bussert, Horst Kämpf, Christina Flechsig, Katja Hesse, Tobias Nickschick, Qi Liu, Josefine Umlauft, Tomáš Vylita, Dirk Wagner, Thomas Wonik, Hortencia Estrella Flores, and Mashal Alawi
Sci. Dril., 23, 13–27,
Rico Hübner, Thomas Günther, Katja Heller, Ursula Noell, and Arno Kleber
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5181–5199,Short summary
In our study, we used a spatially and temporally high resolved 3-D ERT in addition to matric potential measurements to monitor the infiltration and subsurface water flow on a hillslope with layered slope deposits. We derived some interesting findings about the capillary barrier effect as a main driving factor for the activation of different flow pathways. Thus, the maintenance or breakdown of a capillary barrier has a decisive influence on the precipitation runoff response of of the catchment.
Mathias Ronczka, Kristofer Hellman, Thomas Günther, Roger Wisén, and Torleif Dahlin
Solid Earth, 8, 671–682,Short summary
Pre-investigation for tunnelling below water passages is a challenging task with the main objective of locating fracture zones that lead to low rock quality and thus reduced stability. An inversion approach was tested that combines different geophysical methods to improve the reliability of the results. A fracture zone and previously unknown sedimentary deposits were successfully detected. Synthetic studies pointed out the importance of 3-D effects and model resolution properties.
R. Hübner, K. Heller, T. Günther, and A. Kleber
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 225–240,
M. Attwa and T. Günther
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4079–4094,
L. Beff, T. Günther, B. Vandoorne, V. Couvreur, and M. Javaux
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 595–609,
Related subject area
Subject area: Crustal structure and composition | Editorial team: Seismics, seismology, geoelectrics, and electromagnetics | Discipline: GeophysicsImaging crustal structures through a passive seismic imaging approach in a mining area in Saxony, GermanyReverse time migration (RTM) imaging of iron oxide deposits in the Ludvika mining area, SwedenNear-surface structure of the Sodankylä area in Finland, obtained by passive seismic interferometryEvolution of the Iberian Massif as deduced from its crustal thickness and geometry of a mid-crustal (Conrad) discontinuityFour-dimensional tracer flow reconstruction in fractured rock through borehole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) monitoringMoho topography beneath the European Eastern Alps by global-phase seismic interferometrySeismic imaging across fault systems in the Abitibi greenstone belt – an analysis of pre- and post-stack migration approaches in the Chibougamau area, Quebec, CanadaWireline distributed acoustic sensing allows 4.2 km deep vertical seismic profiling of the Rotliegend 150 °C geothermal reservoir in the North German BasinSparse 3D reflection seismic survey for deep-targeting iron oxide deposits and their host rocks, Ludvika Mines, SwedenFault sealing and caprock integrity for CO2 storage: an in situ injection experimentWhat can seismic noise tell us about the Alpine reactivation of the Iberian Massif? An example in the Iberian Central SystemIn situ hydromechanical responses during well drilling recorded by fiber-optic distributed strain sensingCoherent diffraction imaging for enhanced fault and fracture network characterizationSeismic evidence for failed rifting in the Ligurian Basin, Western Alpine domainAzimuth-, angle- and frequency-dependent seismic velocities of cracked rocks due to squirt flowCharacteristics of a fracture network surrounding a hydrothermally altered shear zone from geophysical borehole logsBayesian full-waveform inversion of tube waves to estimate fracture aperture and complianceCorrelation of core and downhole seismic velocities in high-pressure metamorphic rocks: a case study for the COSC-1 borehole, SwedenPrediction of seismic P-wave velocity using machine learningAnisotropic P-wave travel-time tomography implementing Thomsen's weak approximation in TOMO3DFull-waveform inversion of short-offset, band-limited seismic data in the Alboran Basin (SE Iberia)Fault interpretation in seismic reflection data: an experiment analysing the impact of conceptual model anchoring and vertical exaggerationImproving the quality of empirical Green's functions, obtained by cross-correlation of high-frequency ambient seismic noiseQuantifying the impact of the structural uncertainty on the gross rock volume in the Lubina and Montanazo oil fields (Western Mediterranean)What happens to fracture energy in brittle fracture? Revisiting the Griffith assumptionConstraining the geotherm beneath the British Isles from Bayesian inversion of Curie depth: integrated modelling of magnetic, geothermal, and seismic dataCrustal-scale depth imaging via joint full-waveform inversion of ocean-bottom seismometer data and pre-stack depth migration of multichannel seismic data: a case study from the eastern Nankai TroughImaging the East European Craton margin in northern Poland using extended correlation processing of regional seismic reflection profilesIonian Abyssal Plain: a window into the Tethys oceanic lithosphereGranite microporosity changes due to fracturing and alteration: secondary mineral phases as proxies for porosity and permeability estimation3-D seismic travel-time tomography validation of a detailed subsurface model: a case study of the Záncara river basin (Cuenca, Spain)The effect of rock composition on muon tomography measurementsSeismic imaging of dyke swarms within the Sorgenfrei–Tornquist Zone (Sweden) and implications for thermal energy storage
Hossein Hassani, Felix Hloušek, Stefan Buske, and Olaf Wallner
Solid Earth, 12, 2703–2715,Short summary
Passive seismic imaging methods use natural earthquakes as seismic sources, while in active seismic imaging methods, artificial sources (e.g. explosives) are used to generate seismic waves. We imaged some structures related to a major fault plane through a passive seismic imaging approach using microearthquakes with magnitudes smaller than 0.9 (Mw). These structures have not been illuminated by a previously conducted 3D active seismic survey due to their large dip angles.
Yinshuai Ding and Alireza Malehmir
Solid Earth, 12, 1707–1718,Short summary
In this article, we investigate the potential of reverse time migration (RTM) for deep targeting iron oxide deposits and the possible AVO effect that is potentially seen in the common image gathers from this migration algorithm. The results are promising and help to delineate the deposits and host rock structures using a 2D dataset from the Ludvika mines of central Sweden.
Nikita Afonin, Elena Kozlovskaya, Suvi Heinonen, and Stefan Buske
Solid Earth, 12, 1563–1579,Short summary
In our study, we show the results of a passive seismic interferometry application for mapping the uppermost crust in the area of active mineral exploration in northern Finland. The obtained velocity models agree well with geological data and complement the results of reflection seismic data interpretation.
Puy Ayarza, José Ramón Martínez Catalán, Ana Martínez García, Juan Alcalde, Juvenal Andrés, José Fernando Simancas, Immaculada Palomeras, David Martí, Irene DeFelipe, Chris Juhlin, and Ramón Carbonell
Solid Earth, 12, 1515–1547,Short summary
Vertical incidence seismic profiling on the Iberian Massif images a mid-crustal-scale discontinuity at the top of the reflective lower crust. This feature shows that upper- and lower-crustal reflections merge into it, suggesting that it has often behaved as a detachment. The orogen-scale extension of this discontinuity, present in Gondwanan and Avalonian affinity terranes into the Iberian Massif, demonstrates its relevance, leading us to interpret it as the Conrad discontinuity.
Peter-Lasse Giertzuch, Joseph Doetsch, Alexis Shakas, Mohammadreza Jalali, Bernard Brixel, and Hansruedi Maurer
Solid Earth, 12, 1497–1513,Short summary
Two time-lapse borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted during saline tracer experiments in weakly fractured crystalline rock with sub-millimeter fractures apertures, targeting electrical conductivity changes. The combination of time-lapse reflection and transmission GPR surveys from different boreholes allowed monitoring the tracer flow and reconstructing the flow path and its temporal evolution in 3D and provided a realistic visualization of the hydrological processes.
Irene Bianchi, Elmer Ruigrok, Anne Obermann, and Edi Kissling
Solid Earth, 12, 1185–1196,Short summary
The European Alps formed during collision between the European and Adriatic plates and are one of the most studied orogens for understanding the dynamics of mountain building. In the Eastern Alps, the contact between the colliding plates is still a matter of debate. We have used the records from distant earthquakes to highlight the geometries of the crust–mantle boundary in the Eastern Alpine area; our results suggest a complex and faulted internal crustal structure beneath the higher crests.
Saeid Cheraghi, Alireza Malehmir, Mostafa Naghizadeh, David Snyder, Lucie Mathieu, and Pierre Bedeaux
Solid Earth, 12, 1143–1164,Short summary
High-resolution seismic profiles in 2D are acquired in the north and south of the Chibougamau area, Quebec, Canada located in the northeast of the Abitibi Greenstone belt. The area mostly includes volcanic rocks, and both profiles cross over several fault zones. The seismic method is acquired to image the subsurface down to depth of 12 km. The main aim of this study is to image major fault zones and the geological formations connected to those faults to investigate metal endowment in the area.
Jan Henninges, Evgeniia Martuganova, Manfred Stiller, Ben Norden, and Charlotte M. Krawczyk
Solid Earth, 12, 521–537,Short summary
We performed a seismic survey in two 4.3 km deep geothermal research wells using the novel method of distributed acoustic sensing and wireline cables. The characteristics of the acquired data, methods for data processing and quality improvement, and interpretations on the geometry and structure of the sedimentary and volcanic reservoir rocks are presented. The method enables measurements at high temperatures and reduced cost compared to conventional sensors.
Alireza Malehmir, Magdalena Markovic, Paul Marsden, Alba Gil, Stefan Buske, Lukasz Sito, Emma Bäckström, Martiya Sadeghi, and Stefan Luth
Solid Earth, 12, 483–502,Short summary
A smooth transition toward decarbonization demands access to more minerals of critical importance. Europe has a good geology for many of these mineral deposits, but at a depth requiring sensitive, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective methods for their exploration. In this context, we present a sparse 3D seismic dataset that allowed identification of potential iron oxide resources at depth and helped to characterise key geological structures and a historical tailing in central Sweden.
Alba Zappone, Antonio Pio Rinaldi, Melchior Grab, Quinn C. Wenning, Clément Roques, Claudio Madonna, Anne C. Obermann, Stefano M. Bernasconi, Matthias S. Brennwald, Rolf Kipfer, Florian Soom, Paul Cook, Yves Guglielmi, Christophe Nussbaum, Domenico Giardini, Marco Mazzotti, and Stefan Wiemer
Solid Earth, 12, 319–343,Short summary
The success of the geological storage of carbon dioxide is linked to the availability at depth of a capable reservoir and an impermeable caprock. The sealing capacity of the caprock is a key parameter for long-term CO2 containment. Faults crosscutting the caprock might represent preferential pathways for CO2 to escape. A decameter-scale experiment on injection in a fault, monitored by an integrated network of multiparamerter sensors, sheds light on the mobility of fluids within the fault.
Juvenal Andrés, Puy Ayarza, Martin Schimmel, Imma Palomeras, Mario Ruiz, and Ramon Carbonell
Solid Earth, 11, 2499–2513,
Yi Zhang, Xinglin Lei, Tsutomu Hashimoto, and Ziqiu Xue
Solid Earth, 11, 2487–2497,Short summary
Spatially continuous strain responses in two monitoring wells induced by a well-drilling process were monitored using high-resolution fiber-optic distributed strain sensing (DSS). The modeling results suggest that the strain polarities and magnitudes along the wellbores may be indicative of the layered-permeability structure or heterogeneous formation damage. The performance and value of DSS as a novel hydrogeophysical tool for in situ subsurface monitoring are emphasized.
Benjamin Schwarz and Charlotte M. Krawczyk
Solid Earth, 11, 1891–1907,Short summary
Intricate fault and fracture networks cut through the upper crust, and their detailed delineation and characterization play an important role in the Earth sciences. While conventional geophysical sounding techniques only provide indirect means of detection, we present scale-spanning field data examples, in which coherent diffraction imaging – a framework inspired by optics and visual perception – enables the direct imaging of these crustal features at an unprecedented spatial resolution.
Anke Dannowski, Heidrun Kopp, Ingo Grevemeyer, Dietrich Lange, Martin Thorwart, Jörg Bialas, and Martin Wollatz-Vogt
Solid Earth, 11, 873–887,Short summary
The Ligurian Sea opened ~30–15 Ma during the SE migration of the Calabrian subduction zone. Seismic travel time tomography reveals the absence of oceanic crust, documenting that the extension of continental lithosphere stopped before seafloor spreading initiated. The extension led to extreme crustal thinning and possibly exhumed mantle accompanied by syn-rift sedimentation. Our new interpretation of the crust's nature is important for plate reconstruction modelling related to the Alpine orogen.
Yury Alkhimenkov, Eva Caspari, Simon Lissa, and Beatriz Quintal
Solid Earth, 11, 855–871,Short summary
We perform a three-dimensional numerical study of the fluid–solid deformation at the pore scale. We show that seismic wave velocities exhibit strong azimuth-, angle- and frequency-dependent behavior due to squirt flow between interconnected cracks. We conclude that the overall anisotropy mainly increases due to squirt flow, but in some specific planes it can locally decrease as well as increase, depending on the material properties.
Eva Caspari, Andrew Greenwood, Ludovic Baron, Daniel Egli, Enea Toschini, Kaiyan Hu, and Klaus Holliger
Solid Earth, 11, 829–854,Short summary
A shallow borehole was drilled to explore the petrophysical and hydraulic characteristics of a hydrothermally active fault in the crystalline Aar massif of the Alps. A key objective of studying surficial features of this kind is to establish analogies with natural and deep-seated engineered hydrothermal systems. A wide range of geophysical borehole logs was acquired, which revealed a complex fracture network in the damage zone of the fault and a related compartmentalized hydraulic behavior.
Jürg Hunziker, Andrew Greenwood, Shohei Minato, Nicolás Daniel Barbosa, Eva Caspari, and Klaus Holliger
Solid Earth, 11, 657–668,Short summary
The characterization of fractures is crucial for a wide range of pertinent applications, such as geothermal energy production, hydrocarbon exploration, CO2 sequestration, and nuclear waste disposal. We estimate fracture parameters based on waves that travel along boreholes (tube waves) using a stochastic optimization approach.
Felix Kästner, Simona Pierdominici, Judith Elger, Alba Zappone, Jochem Kück, and Christian Berndt
Solid Earth, 11, 607–626,Short summary
Knowledge about physical properties at depth is crucial to image and understand structures linked with orogenic processes. We examined seismic velocities from core and downhole data from the COSC-1 borehole, Sweden, and calibrated our results with laboratory measurements on core samples. Despite a strong mismatch between the core and downhole velocities due to microcracks, mafic units are resolved at all scales, while at sample scale, strong seismic anisotropy correlates with the rock foliation.
Ines Dumke and Christian Berndt
Solid Earth, 10, 1989–2000,Short summary
Knowing the velocity with which seismic waves travel through the top of the crust is important both for identifying anomalies, e.g. the presence of resources, and for geophysical data evaluation. Traditionally this has been done by using empirical functions. Here, we use machine learning to derive better seismic velocity estimates for the crust below the oceans. In most cases this methods performs better than empirical averages.
Adrià Meléndez, Clara Estela Jiménez, Valentí Sallarès, and César R. Ranero
Solid Earth, 10, 1857–1876,Short summary
A new code for anisotropic travel-time tomography is presented. We describe the equations governing the anisotropic ray propagation algorithm and the modified inversion solver. We study the sensitivity of two medium parameterizations and compare four inversion strategies on a canonical model. This code can provide better understanding of the Earth's subsurface in the rather common geological contexts in which seismic velocity displays a weak dependency on the polar angle of ray propagation.
Clàudia Gras, Daniel Dagnino, Clara Estela Jiménez-Tejero, Adrià Meléndez, Valentí Sallarès, and César R. Ranero
Solid Earth, 10, 1833–1855,Short summary
We present a workflow that combines different geophysical techniques, showing that a detailed seismic velocity model can be obtained even for non-optimal data sets, i.e. relatively short-offset, band-limited streamer data recorded in deep water. This fact has an important implication for the Marine seismic community, suggesting that many of the existing data sets should be revisited and analysed with new techniques to enhance our understanding of the subsurface, as in the Alboran Basin case.
Juan Alcalde, Clare E. Bond, Gareth Johnson, Armelle Kloppenburg, Oriol Ferrer, Rebecca Bell, and Puy Ayarza
Solid Earth, 10, 1651–1662,
Nikita Afonin, Elena Kozlovskaya, Jouni Nevalainen, and Janne Narkilahti
Solid Earth, 10, 1621–1634,
Carla Patricia Bárbara, Patricia Cabello, Alexandre Bouche, Ingrid Aarnes, Carlos Gordillo, Oriol Ferrer, Maria Roma, and Pau Arbués
Solid Earth, 10, 1597–1619,
Timothy R. H. Davies, Maurice J. McSaveney, and Natalya V. Reznichenko
Solid Earth, 10, 1385–1395,Short summary
Griffith (1921) assumed that energy used to create new surface area by breaking intact rock immediately becomes surface energy which is not available for further breakage. Our lab data disprove this assumption; we created much more new surface area, 90 % on submicron fragments, than the energy involved should allow. As technology allows ever smaller fragments to be measured, continued use of the Griffith assumption will lead to incorrect energy budgets for earthquakes and rock avalanches.
Ben Mather and Javier Fullea
Solid Earth, 10, 839–850,Short summary
The temperature in the crust can be constrained by the Curie depth, which is often interpreted as the 580 °C isotherm. We cast the estimation of Curie depth, from maps of the magnetic anomaly, within a Bayesian framework to properly quantify its uncertainty across the British Isles. We find that uncertainty increases considerably for deeper Curie depths, which demonstrates that generally this method is only reliable in hotter regions, such as Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Andrzej Górszczyk, Stéphane Operto, Laure Schenini, and Yasuhiro Yamada
Solid Earth, 10, 765–784,Short summary
In order to broaden our knowledge about the deep lithosphere using seismic methods, we develop leading-edge imaging workflows integrating different types of data. Here we exploit the complementary information carried by seismic wavefields, which are fundamentally different in terms of acquisition setting. We cast this information into our processing workflow and build a detailed model of the subduction zone, which is subject to further geological interpretation.
Miłosz Mężyk, Michał Malinowski, and Stanisław Mazur
Solid Earth, 10, 683–696,Short summary
The Precambrian East European Craton is one of the most important building blocks of the European plate. Unlike in Scandinavia, its crystalline crust in Poland is concealed beneath younger sediments. Reprocessing of ca. 950 km regional reflection seismic profiles acquired during shale gas exploration in NE Poland revealed reflectivity patterns interpreted as signs of Svekofennian orogeny, proving a similar mechanism of Paleoproterozoic crustal formation across the Baltic Sea.
Anke Dannowski, Heidrun Kopp, Frauke Klingelhoefer, Dirk Klaeschen, Marc-André Gutscher, Anne Krabbenhoeft, David Dellong, Marzia Rovere, David Graindorge, Cord Papenberg, and Ingo Klaucke
Solid Earth, 10, 447–462,Short summary
The nature of the Ionian Sea crust has been the subject of scientific debate for more than 30 years. Seismic data, recorded on ocean bottom instruments, have been analysed and support the interpretation of the Ionian Abyssal Plain as a remnant of the Tethys oceanic lithosphere with the Malta Escarpment as a transform margin and a Tethys opening in the NNW–SSE direction.
Martin Staněk and Yves Géraud
Solid Earth, 10, 251–274,Short summary
Granite is suitable to host geothermal wells or disposals of hazardous waste and in these cases the rock porosity and permeability are critical. Our detailed porosity and permeability data on variously deformed Lipnice granite yield a span of 5 orders of magnitude in permeability between the least and the most deformed facies. To facilitate the estimation of porosity and permeability in similar settings, we provide optical and chemical data on the characteristic minerals of each facies.
David Marti, Ignacio Marzan, Jana Sachsenhausen, Joaquina Alvarez-Marrón, Mario Ruiz, Montse Torne, Manuela Mendes, and Ramon Carbonell
Solid Earth, 10, 177–192,Short summary
A detailed knowledge of the very shallow subsurface has become of crucial interest for modern society, especially if it hosts critical surface infrastructures such as temporary waste storage sites. The use of indirect methods to characterize the internal structure of the subsurface has been successfully applied, based on the 3-D distribution of seismic velocities and well-log data, which are of great interest for civil engineering companies.
Alessandro Lechmann, David Mair, Akitaka Ariga, Tomoko Ariga, Antonio Ereditato, Ryuichi Nishiyama, Ciro Pistillo, Paola Scampoli, Fritz Schlunegger, and Mykhailo Vladymyrov
Solid Earth, 9, 1517–1533,Short summary
Muon tomography is a technology, similar to X-ray tomography, to image the interior of an object, including geologically interesting ones. In this work, we examined the influence of rock composition on the physical measurements, and the possible error that is made by assuming a too-simplistic rock model. We performed numerical simulations for a more realistic rock model and found that beyond 300 m of rock, the composition starts to play a significant role and has to be accounted for.
Alireza Malehmir, Bo Bergman, Benjamin Andersson, Robert Sturk, and Mattis Johansson
Solid Earth, 9, 1469–1485,Short summary
Interest and demand for green-type energy usage and storage are growing worldwide. Among several, thermal energy storage that stores energy (excess heat or cold) in fluids is particularly interesting. For an upscaling purpose, three seismic profiles were acquired within the Tornquist suture zone in the southwest of Sweden and historical crustal-scale offshore BABEL lines revisited. A number of dykes have been imaged and implications for the storage and tectonic setting within the zone discussed.
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An active CO2 degassing site in the western Eger Rift, Czech Republic, was investigated with a 6.5 km long geophysical survey using a specific large-scale geoelectrical setup, supported by shallow geoelectrical surveys and gravity measurements. The experiment reveals unusually low resistivities in the sediments and basement below the degassing area of less than 10 Ω and provides a base for a custom geological model of the area for a future 400 m deep research drilling in this area.
An active CO2 degassing site in the western Eger Rift, Czech Republic, was investigated with a...