Articles | Volume 5, issue 1
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
The ring-shaped thermal field of Stefanos crater, Nisyros Island: a conceptual model
Department 2, Physics of the Earth, Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam 14473, Germany
T. R. Walter
Department 2, Physics of the Earth, Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, GFZ German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam 14473, Germany
No articles found.
Daniel Müller, Thomas R. Walter, Valentin R. Troll, Jessica Stammeier, Andreas Karlsson, Erica De Paolo, Antonino Fabio Pisciotta, Martin Zimmer, and Benjamin De Jarnatt
We use drone-based optical and infrared remote sensing to analyze a volcanic degassing system. Anomaly detection allows us to reveal the degassing and alteration structure, which will be evaluated by mineralogical and geochemical analysis. A comparison of the defined anomaly pattern to present-day diffuse degassing and the thermal pattern allows to constrain major active units and to constrain their contribution to the total activity. We provide a detailed anatomy of a degassing system.
Edgar U. Zorn, Aiym Orynbaikyzy, Simon Plank, Andrey Babeyko, Herlan Darmawan, Ismail Fata Robbany, and Thomas R. Walter
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3083–3104,Short summary
Tsunamis caused by volcanoes are a challenge for warning systems as they are difficult to predict and detect. In Southeast Asia there are many active volcanoes close to the coast, so it is important to identify the most likely volcanoes to cause tsunamis in the future. For this purpose, we developed a point-based score system, allowing us to rank volcanoes by the hazard they pose. The results may be used to improve local monitoring and preparedness in the affected areas.
Melissa Präg, Ivy Becker, Christoph Hilgers, Thomas R. Walter, and Michael Kühn
Adv. Geosci., 54, 165–171,Short summary
Utilization of geothermal reservoirs as alternative energy source is becoming increasingly important worldwide. Here, we studied the surface expression of a warm water reservoir in Waiwera, New Zealand, that has been known for many centuries but remained little explored. Using thermal infrared cameras we were able to show renewed activity of the hot springs on the beachfront and identified faults and fractures as important fluid pathways, as well as individual fluid conducting lithologies.
Ayleen Gaete, Thomas R. Walter, Stefan Bredemeyer, Martin Zimmer, Christian Kujawa, Luis Franco Marin, Juan San Martin, and Claudia Bucarey Parra
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 377–397,Short summary
Phreatic eruptions often occur without signs of enhanced volcanic unrest, avoiding detection and posing a threat to people in the vicinity. We analyzed data of the 2015 phreatic eruption of Lascar volcano, Chile, to retrospectively identify a precipitation event as the trigger mechanism and potential signs heralding this minor eruption. We showed that it is possible to detect the precursory activity of phreatic eruptions by deploying appropriate multiparametric monitoring.
Robert A. Watson, Eoghan P. Holohan, Djamil Al-Halbouni, Leila Saberi, Ali Sawarieh, Damien Closson, Hussam Alrshdan, Najib Abou Karaki, Christian Siebert, Thomas R. Walter, and Torsten Dahm
Solid Earth, 10, 1451–1468,Short summary
The fall of the Dead Sea level since the 1960s has provoked the formation of over 6000 sinkholes, a major hazard to local economy and infrastructure. In this context, we study the evolution of subsidence phenomena at three area scales at the Dead Sea’s eastern shore from 1967–2017. Our results yield the most detailed insights to date into the spatio-temporal development of sinkholes and larger depressions (uvalas) in an evaporite karst setting and emphasize a link to the falling Dead Sea level.
Herlan Darmawan, Thomas R. Walter, Valentin R. Troll, and Agus Budi-Santoso
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3267–3281,Short summary
At Merapi volcano, lava dome failure may generate pyroclastic flow and threaten populations who live on its flanks. Here, we assessed the potential hazard of the Merapi lava dome by using drone photogrammetry and numerical modeling. Results show a weak structural depression that is associated with high thermal imaging in the southern Merapi lava dome sector. The southern lava dome sector may be further destabilized by typical rainfall at the Merapi summit and produce pyroclastic flow up to 4 km.
Elena Nikolaeva and Thomas R. Walter
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2137–2144,Short summary
The study of active faults is relevant to estimate the seismic hazard of the surrounding area and relies on different methods. In the last decade interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques have proved to be robust tools to investigate the surface deformation caused by earthquakes. We used the multi-temporal ALOS L-band InSAR data to produce interferograms spanning times before and after the 2009 earthquake (Mw = 6.0) in the Racha region (Georgia).
Nicole Richter, Massimiliano Favalli, Elske de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen, Alessandro Fornaciai, Rui Manuel da Silva Fernandes, Nemesio M. Pérez, Judith Levy, Sónia Silva Victória, and Thomas R. Walter
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1925–1951,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive lava flow hazard assessment for Fogo volcano, Cabo Verde before and after the 2014–2015 eruption based on probabilistic lava flow simulations. We find that the probability of lava flow invasion has not decreased at the location of two villages that were destroyed during this eruption, but have already started to be rebuilt. Our findings will be important for the next eruption of Fogo volcano and have implications for future lava flow crises elsewhere in the world.
E. Nikolaeva, T.R. Walter, M. Shirzaei, and J. Zschau
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 675–688,
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Ole Rabbel, Jörg Hasenclever, Christophe Y. Galerne, Olivier Galland, Karen Mair, and Octavio Palma
Solid Earth, 14, 625–646,Short summary
This work investigates the interaction between magma in the subsurface and the rocks and fluids that surround it. The study investigates how fluids containing hydrocarbons like methane are moving in the rocks surrounding the magma. We show that the generation of fractures in the cooling magma has a significant impact on the flow paths of the fluid and that some of the hydrocabons may be converted to graphite and stored in the fractures within the intrusions.
Daniel Basualto, Andrés Tassara, Jonathan Lazo-Gil, Luis Franco-Marin, Carlos Cardona, Juan San Martín, Fernando Gil-Cruz, Marcela Calabi-Floddy, and Cristian Farías
Solid Earth, 14, 69–87,Short summary
Infrequent eruptions of acidic magma are one of the most dangerous natural phenomena, but almost none of them have been witnessed by modern science. We present the first systematic characterization of seismicity recorded near an erupting acidic volcano (Cordón Caulle 2011). We define different phases of unrest and eruption, which combined with previous findings allows us to discuss the main processes associated with this type of violent eruption, with implications for their volcanic hazard.
Yan Lavallée, Takahiro Miwa, James D. Ashworth, Paul A. Wallace, Jackie E. Kendrick, Rebecca Coats, Anthony Lamur, Adrian Hornby, Kai-Uwe Hess, Takeshi Matsushima, Setsuya Nakada, Hiroshi Shimizu, Bernhard Ruthensteiner, and Hugh Tuffen
Solid Earth, 13, 875–900,Short summary
Volcanic eruptions are controlled by the presence of gas bubbles in magma, which, in excess, can cause explosions. Eruption models lack an understanding of how gas percolates in magma flowing in a conduit. Here we study gas percolation in magma associated with the 1994–1995 eruption at Mt. Unzen, Japan. The results show that the pathways for gas escape depend on the depth and ascent rate of magma. Pathways closed at depth but opened along fractures when magma ascended rapidly near the surface.
Jackie E. Kendrick, Lauren N. Schaefer, Jenny Schauroth, Andrew F. Bell, Oliver D. Lamb, Anthony Lamur, Takahiro Miwa, Rebecca Coats, Yan Lavallée, and Ben M. Kennedy
Solid Earth, 12, 633–664,Short summary
The last lava dome eruption of Mount Unzen (Japan) ended in 1995, but ongoing instability means much of the area remains an exclusion zone. The rocks in the lava dome impact its stability; heterogeneity (contrasting properties) and anisotropy (orientation-specific properties) can channel fluids and localise deformation, enhancing the risk of lava dome collapse. We recommend using measured material properties to interpret geophysical signals and to model volcanic systems.
Alessandro Tadini, Andrea Bevilacqua, Augusto Neri, Raffaello Cioni, Giovanni Biagioli, Mattia de'Michieli Vitturi, and Tomaso Esposti Ongaro
Solid Earth, 12, 119–139,Short summary
In this paper we test a simplified numerical model for pyroclastic density currents or PDCs (mixtures of hot gas, lapilli and ash moving across the landscape under the effect of gravity). The aim is quantifying the differences between real and modelled deposits of some PDCs of the 79 CE eruption of Vesuvius, Italy. This step is important because in the paper it is demonstrated that this simplified model is useful for constraining input parameters for more computationally expensive models.
Silvia Massaro, Roberto Sulpizio, Gianluca Norini, Gianluca Groppelli, Antonio Costa, Lucia Capra, Giacomo Lo Zupone, Michele Porfido, and Andrea Gabrieli
Solid Earth, 11, 2515–2533,Short summary
In this work we provide a 2D finite-element modelling of the stress field conditions around the Fuego de Colima volcano (Mexico) in order to test the response of the commercial Linear Static Analysis software to increasingly different geological constraints. Results suggest that an appropriate set of geological and geophysical data improves the mesh generation procedures and the degree of accuracy of numerical outputs, aimed at more reliable physics-based representations of the natural system.
Gianluca Norini and Gianluca Groppelli
Solid Earth, 11, 2549–2556,Short summary
We identified several problems in Urbani et al. (2020), showing that their model does not conform to the age and location of faulting, identification and delimitation of uplifted areas and apical depressions, temperature and lithological well log, and stratigraphic and radiometric data. Published data indicate that the pressurization of the Los Humeros volcanic complex (LHVC) magmatic–hydrothermal system driving resurgence faulting occurs at a greater depth.
Silvia Massaro, Antonio Costa, Roberto Sulpizio, Diego Coppola, and Lucia Capra
Solid Earth, 10, 1429–1450,Short summary
The Fuego de Colima volcano (Mexico) shows a complex eruptive history, with periods of rapid and slow lava dome growth punctuated by explosive activity. Here we reconstructed the 1998–2018 average discharge rate by means of satellite thermal data and the literature. Using spectral and wavelet analysis, we found a multi-term cyclic behavior that is in good agreement with numerical modeling, accounting for a variable magmatic feeding system composed of a single or double magma chamber system.
Qiliang Sun, Christopher A.-L. Jackson, Craig Magee, Samuel J. Mitchell, and Xinong Xie
Solid Earth, 10, 1269–1282,Short summary
3-D seismic reflection data reveal that deepwater volcanoes have rugged basal contacts, which truncate underlying strata, and erupted lava flows that feed lobate lava fans. The lava flows (> 9 km long) account for 50–97 % of the total erupted volume. This indicates that deepwater volcanic edifices may thus form a minor component (~ 3–50 %) of the extrusive system and that accurate estimates of erupted volume require knowledge of the basal surface of genetically related lava flows.
Thomas M. Belgrano, Larryn W. Diamond, Yves Vogt, Andrea R. Biedermann, Samuel A. Gilgen, and Khalid Al-Tobi
Solid Earth, 10, 1181–1217,Short summary
We present an updated geological map of the volcanic rocks present in the north-east Oman mountains. These volcanic rocks erupted at the seafloor, probably above a young subduction zone, and have since been tectonically transported into their accessible position. The updated map allows us to examine the spatial relationships between the different volcanic and geological features, including copper, gold, and chrome deposits. The new map will aid further study in Oman and other similar settings.
Florian Dinger, Stefan Bredemeyer, Santiago Arellano, Nicole Bobrowski, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Solid Earth, 10, 725–740,Short summary
Evidence for tidal impacts on volcanism have been gathered by numerous empirical studies. This paper elucidates whether a causal link from the tidal forces to a variation in the volcanic degassing can be traced analytically. We model the response of a simplified magmatic system to the local tidal gravity variations, find that the tide-induced dynamics may significantly alter the bubble coalescence rate, and discuss the consequences for volcanic degassing behaviour.
Rebecca Coats, Jackie E. Kendrick, Paul A. Wallace, Takahiro Miwa, Adrian J. Hornby, James D. Ashworth, Takeshi Matsushima, and Yan Lavallée
Solid Earth, 9, 1299–1328,Short summary
Lava domes are mounds of viscous lava and their collapse can cause deadly pyroclastic flows. This paper looks at the example of Mt. Unzen in Japan. Using novel experimental techniques, we discovered that crystals and bubbles in the lava make it behave differently to what was previously thought and that it becomes weaker and more susceptible to collapse as it cools. This calls for a review of current models, allowing for better failure prediction of lava domes in the future.
Janine L. Kavanagh, Samantha L. Engwell, and Simon A. Martin
Solid Earth, 9, 531–571,Short summary
Modelling has been used in the study of volcanic systems for more than 100 years, building upon the approach first described by Sir James Hall in 1815. Models are informed by observations of volcanic processes in nature, including eye-witness accounts of eruptions, monitoring of active volcanoes, and analysis of ancient deposits. To push the frontiers in volcanology we must adopt a multidisciplinary approach, with more interaction between analogue and numerical modelling communities.
Lucia Gurioli, Andrea Di Muro, Ivan Vlastélic, Séverine Moune, Simon Thivet, Marina Valer, Nicolas Villeneuve, Guillaume Boudoire, Aline Peltier, Patrick Bachèlery, Valérie Ferrazzini, Nicole Métrich, Mhammed Benbakkar, Nicolas Cluzel, Christophe Constantin, Jean-Luc Devidal, Claire Fonquernie, and Jean-Marc Hénot
Solid Earth, 9, 431–455,Short summary
We prove here that macroscopic and microscopic studies of emitted pyroclastic and effusive products provide valuable information to track and understand small explosive eruptions for hazard and risk assessment. This is especially true for Piton de La Fournaise, La Réunion, whose activity has recently been characterized by effusive and mild explosive activity in highly visited areas. We confirm that petrological monitoring is essential to forecast changes in the magmatic system.
Florian Dinger, Nicole Bobrowski, Simon Warnach, Stefan Bredemeyer, Silvana Hidalgo, Santiago Arellano, Bo Galle, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Solid Earth, 9, 247–266,Short summary
We monitored the bromine monoxide-to-sulfur dioxide molar ratio in the effusive gas plume of Cotopaxi volcano in order to gain insight into the geological processes which control the pressure regime of the volcanic system. We observed a conspicuous periodic pattern with a periodicity of about 2 weeks, which significantly correlates with the Earth tidal forcing. Our results support a possible Earth tidal impact on volcanic activity, in particular for the Cotopaxi eruption 2015.
Manuel Queißer, Domenico Granieri, Mike Burton, Fabio Arzilli, Rosario Avino, and Antonio Carandente
Solid Earth, 8, 1017–1024,Short summary
Campi Flegrei is a volcanic caldera that is currently in a state of increased unrest. We used a novel remote-sensing approach to measure CO2 fluxes at the Campi Flegrei. Thanks to its comprehensive spatial coverage, the instrument used gives more representative measurements from large regions containing different CO2 sources. We find an increase in CO2 degassing strength. This suggests a greater contribution of the magmatic source to the degassing.
Jorge Eduardo Romero, Guilhem Amin Douillet, Silvia Vallejo Vargas, Jorge Bustillos, Liliana Troncoso, Juan Díaz Alvarado, and Patricio Ramón
Solid Earth, 8, 697–719,Short summary
The 1 February 2014 eruption of the Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador) was the second largest one since the re-awakening in 1999. The eruption showed precursory signs only 48 h before the eruption. The main explosions produced a 13 km eruptive column and pyroclastic density currents that reached the base of the volcano. Here we document the deposits related to the eruption and infer eruption mechanisms and transport processes.
Jamie I. Farquharson, Patrick Baud, and Michael J. Heap
Solid Earth, 8, 561–581,Short summary
In volcanic rock, permeability is the property that tells us how efficiently fluids such as gas or water can travel through cracks and frozen bubbles in the rock (its porosity) and is important in the context of volcanic activity. This study addresses how permeability evolves under a range of mechanical experimental conditions. We show that with a small amount of porosity loss (compaction), permeability can increase. However, with more compaction, permeability can decrease significantly.
Donald B. Dingwell, Yan Lavallée, Kai-Uwe Hess, Asher Flaws, Joan Marti, Alexander R. L. Nichols, H. Albert Gilg, and Burkhard Schillinger
Solid Earth, 7, 1383–1393,Short summary
Here, we use tomography to reconstructed the pores of erupted pumice and understand the evolution of gas bubbles in magma. Analysis of the pore geometry is used to describe whether the pores where aligned by stretching as ascending magma is pulled apart (pure shear) or sheared like a deck of card (simple shear). We conclude that the latter, simple shear, dominates during magma ascent up to the points where magma fragments to cause an explosion.
A. Coco, J. Gottsmann, F. Whitaker, A. Rust, G. Currenti, A. Jasim, and S. Bunney
Solid Earth, 7, 557–577,Short summary
We present a numerical model to evaluate ground deformation and gravity changes as a response of the hydrothermal system perturbation (unrest) in a volcanic area. Temporal evolution of the ground deformation indicates that the contribution of thermal effects to the total uplift is almost negligible with respect to the pore pressure contribution during the first years, of the unrest, but increases in time and becomes dominant after a long period of the simulation.
O. D. Lamb, S. De Angelis, K. Umakoshi, A. J. Hornby, J. E. Kendrick, and Y. Lavallée
Solid Earth, 6, 1277–1293,Short summary
In this paper we analyse the seismic record during the extrusion of a lava spine at Unzen volcano, Japan, in 1994. We find two strong groups of similar volcanic earthquakes which, combined with previously published field and experimental observations, we interpret as repetitive fracturing along the margin of the lava spine. This work demonstrates the potential of combining these different approaches for achieving a greater understanding of shallow volcanic processes.
K. Strehlow, J. H. Gottsmann, and A. C. Rust
Solid Earth, 6, 1207–1229,Short summary
When magma chambers inflate, they deform the surrounding Earth’s crust. This deformation affects the pore space available for the water in local aquifers, which in turn leads to pressure variations and water table changes. We can observe these changes in wells, and this study investigates if and how we can utilize them for volcano monitoring. Results show that the hydrological response to deformation helps unravelling subsurface magmatic processes, valuable information for eruption forecasting.
B. Bernard, U. Kueppers, and H. Ortiz
Solid Earth, 6, 869–879,Short summary
This paper presents a new methodology to treat statistically pyroclast density and porosity data sets introducing a weighting parameter. It also proposes a stability analysis to check if the sample set is large enough for statistical reliability. Finally we introduce graphical statistics to improve distinction between pyroclastic deposits and understanding of eruptive dynamics. An open source R code is supplied that includes all these features in order to facilitate data processing.
F. Braz Machado, E. Reis Viana Rocha-Júnior, L. Soares Marques, and A. J. Ranalli Nardy
Solid Earth, 6, 227–241,Short summary
This study describes for the first time morphological aspects of lava flows and structural characteristics caused by lava-sediment interaction in the northwestern Paraná continental flood basalts in the southeast of the South American Plate (Brazil). Early Cretaceous (134 to 132Ma) tholeiitic rocks were emplaced on a large intracratonic Paleozoic sedimentary basin (Paraná Basin), mainly covering dry eolian sandstones (Botucatu Formation).
Y. Moussallam, N. Peters, C. Ramírez, C. Oppenheimer, A. Aiuppa, and G. Giudice
Solid Earth, 5, 1341–1350,Short summary
In this paper we characterise the flux and composition of the gas emissions from Turrialba Volcano. We show that the measured gas signature provides evidence that Turrialba Volcano has entered an open-vent configuration with magmatic gases being emitted. This suggests that the hydrothermal system at the summit is quickly drying up and that the system is moving from a hydrothermal to a magmatic end member with implications for short-term monitoring and possible evolution of the state of unrest.
P. Lübcke, N. Bobrowski, S. Arellano, B. Galle, G. Garzón, L. Vogel, and U. Platt
Solid Earth, 5, 409–424,
T. J. Jones, J. K. Russell, L. A. Porritt, and R. J. Brown
Solid Earth, 5, 313–326,
J. E. Kendrick, Y. Lavallée, K.-U. Hess, S. De Angelis, A. Ferk, H. E. Gaunt, P. G. Meredith, D. B. Dingwell, and R. Leonhardt
Solid Earth, 5, 199–208,
A. C. F. Luchetti, A. J. R. Nardy, F. B. Machado, J. E. O. Madeira, and J. M. Arnosio
Solid Earth, 5, 121–130,
M. J. Heap, P. Baud, P. G. Meredith, S. Vinciguerra, and T. Reuschlé
Solid Earth, 5, 25–44,
A. LaRue, D. R. Baker, M. Polacci, P. Allard, and N. Sodini
Solid Earth, 4, 373–380,
S. B. Mueller, N. R. Varley, U. Kueppers, P. Lesage, G. Á. Reyes Davila, and D. B. Dingwell
Solid Earth, 4, 201–213,
N. Bobrowski and G. Giuffrida
Solid Earth, 3, 433–445,
S. Lepore and C. Scarpati
Solid Earth, 3, 161–173,
O. Sigmarsson, I. Vlastelic, R. Andreasen, I. Bindeman, J.-L. Devidal, S. Moune, J. K. Keiding, G. Larsen, A. Höskuldsson, and Th. Thordarson
Solid Earth, 2, 271–281,
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