Articles | Volume 5, issue 1
Research article 01 Apr 2014
Research article | 01 Apr 2014
The ring-shaped thermal field of Stefanos crater, Nisyros Island: a conceptual model
M. Pantaleo and T. R. Walter
No articles found.
Melissa Präg, Ivy Becker, Christoph Hilgers, Thomas R. Walter, and Michael Kühn
Adv. Geosci., 54, 165–171,Short summary
Utilization of geothermal reservoirs as alternative energy source is becoming increasingly important worldwide. Here, we studied the surface expression of a warm water reservoir in Waiwera, New Zealand, that has been known for many centuries but remained little explored. Using thermal infrared cameras we were able to show renewed activity of the hot springs on the beachfront and identified faults and fractures as important fluid pathways, as well as individual fluid conducting lithologies.
Ayleen Gaete, Thomas R. Walter, Stefan Bredemeyer, Martin Zimmer, Christian Kujawa, Luis Franco Marin, Juan San Martin, and Claudia Bucarey Parra
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 377–397,Short summary
Phreatic eruptions often occur without signs of enhanced volcanic unrest, avoiding detection and posing a threat to people in the vicinity. We analyzed data of the 2015 phreatic eruption of Lascar volcano, Chile, to retrospectively identify a precipitation event as the trigger mechanism and potential signs heralding this minor eruption. We showed that it is possible to detect the precursory activity of phreatic eruptions by deploying appropriate multiparametric monitoring.
Robert A. Watson, Eoghan P. Holohan, Djamil Al-Halbouni, Leila Saberi, Ali Sawarieh, Damien Closson, Hussam Alrshdan, Najib Abou Karaki, Christian Siebert, Thomas R. Walter, and Torsten Dahm
Solid Earth, 10, 1451–1468,Short summary
The fall of the Dead Sea level since the 1960s has provoked the formation of over 6000 sinkholes, a major hazard to local economy and infrastructure. In this context, we study the evolution of subsidence phenomena at three area scales at the Dead Sea’s eastern shore from 1967–2017. Our results yield the most detailed insights to date into the spatio-temporal development of sinkholes and larger depressions (uvalas) in an evaporite karst setting and emphasize a link to the falling Dead Sea level.
Herlan Darmawan, Thomas R. Walter, Valentin R. Troll, and Agus Budi-Santoso
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3267–3281,Short summary
At Merapi volcano, lava dome failure may generate pyroclastic flow and threaten populations who live on its flanks. Here, we assessed the potential hazard of the Merapi lava dome by using drone photogrammetry and numerical modeling. Results show a weak structural depression that is associated with high thermal imaging in the southern Merapi lava dome sector. The southern lava dome sector may be further destabilized by typical rainfall at the Merapi summit and produce pyroclastic flow up to 4 km.
Elena Nikolaeva and Thomas R. Walter
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2137–2144,Short summary
The study of active faults is relevant to estimate the seismic hazard of the surrounding area and relies on different methods. In the last decade interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) techniques have proved to be robust tools to investigate the surface deformation caused by earthquakes. We used the multi-temporal ALOS L-band InSAR data to produce interferograms spanning times before and after the 2009 earthquake (Mw = 6.0) in the Racha region (Georgia).
Nicole Richter, Massimiliano Favalli, Elske de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen, Alessandro Fornaciai, Rui Manuel da Silva Fernandes, Nemesio M. Pérez, Judith Levy, Sónia Silva Victória, and Thomas R. Walter
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 1925–1951,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive lava flow hazard assessment for Fogo volcano, Cabo Verde before and after the 2014–2015 eruption based on probabilistic lava flow simulations. We find that the probability of lava flow invasion has not decreased at the location of two villages that were destroyed during this eruption, but have already started to be rebuilt. Our findings will be important for the next eruption of Fogo volcano and have implications for future lava flow crises elsewhere in the world.
E. Nikolaeva, T.R. Walter, M. Shirzaei, and J. Zschau
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 675–688,
Related subject area
VolcanologyReproducing pyroclastic density current deposits of the 79 CE eruption of the Somma–Vesuvius volcano using the box-model approachAnalysing stress field conditions of the Colima Volcanic Complex (Mexico) by integrating finite-element modelling (FEM) simulations and geological dataComment on “Estimating the depth and evolution of intrusions at resurgent calderas: Los Humeros (Mexico)” by Urbani et al. (2020)Cyclic activity of the Fuego de Colima volcano (Mexico): insights from satellite thermal data and nonlinear modelsExtrusion dynamics of deepwater volcanoes revealed by 3-D seismic dataA revised map of volcanic units in the Oman ophiolite: insights into the architecture of an oceanic proto-arc volcanic sequenceOn the link between Earth tides and volcanic degassingFailure criteria for porous dome rocks and lavas: a study of Mt. Unzen, JapanA review of laboratory and numerical modelling in volcanologyIntegrating field, textural, and geochemical monitoring to track eruption triggers and dynamics: a case study from Piton de la FournaisePeriodicity in the BrO∕SO2 molar ratios in the volcanic gas plume of Cotopaxi and its correlation with the Earth tides during the eruption in 2015Increasing CO2 flux at Pisciarelli, Campi Flegrei, ItalyDynamics and style transition of a moderate, Vulcanian-driven eruption at Tungurahua (Ecuador) in February 2014: pyroclastic deposits and hazard considerationsInelastic compaction and permeability evolution in volcanic rockEruptive shearing of tube pumice: pure and simpleNumerical models for ground deformation and gravity changes during volcanic unrest: simulating the hydrothermal system dynamics of a restless calderaRepetitive fracturing during spine extrusion at Unzen volcano, JapanPoroelastic responses of confined aquifers to subsurface strain and their use for volcano monitoringRevisiting the statistical analysis of pyroclast density and porosity dataVolcanological aspects of the northwest region of Paraná continental flood basalts (Brazil)Characterisation of the magmatic signature in gas emissions from Turrialba Volcano, Costa RicaBrO/SO2 molar ratios from scanning DOAS measurements in the NOVAC networkMorphology and surface features of olivine in kimberlite: implications for ascent processesSeismogenic frictional melting in the magmatic columnNew insights on the occurrence of peperites and sedimentary deposits within the silicic volcanic sequences of the Paraná Magmatic Province, BrazilThe permeability and elastic moduli of tuff from Campi Flegrei, Italy: implications for ground deformation modellingCan vesicle size distributions assess eruption intensity during volcanic activity?Quantification of magma ascent rate through rockfall monitoring at the growing/collapsing lava dome of Volcán de Colima, MexicoBromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006–2009New developments in the analysis of column-collapse pyroclastic density currents through numerical simulations of multiphase flowsRemobilization of silicic intrusion by mafic magmas during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptionFirst observational evidence for the CO2-driven origin of Stromboli's major explosionsRheological control on the dynamics of explosive activity in the 2000 summit eruption of Mt. EtnaThe stochastic quantization method and its application to the numerical simulation of volcanic conduit dynamics under random conditions
Alessandro Tadini, Andrea Bevilacqua, Augusto Neri, Raffaello Cioni, Giovanni Biagioli, Mattia de'Michieli Vitturi, and Tomaso Esposti Ongaro
Solid Earth, 12, 119–139,Short summary
In this paper we test a simplified numerical model for pyroclastic density currents or PDCs (mixtures of hot gas, lapilli and ash moving across the landscape under the effect of gravity). The aim is quantifying the differences between real and modelled deposits of some PDCs of the 79 CE eruption of Vesuvius, Italy. This step is important because in the paper it is demonstrated that this simplified model is useful for constraining input parameters for more computationally expensive models.
Silvia Massaro, Roberto Sulpizio, Gianluca Norini, Gianluca Groppelli, Antonio Costa, Lucia Capra, Giacomo Lo Zupone, Michele Porfido, and Andrea Gabrieli
Solid Earth, 11, 2515–2533,Short summary
In this work we provide a 2D finite-element modelling of the stress field conditions around the Fuego de Colima volcano (Mexico) in order to test the response of the commercial Linear Static Analysis software to increasingly different geological constraints. Results suggest that an appropriate set of geological and geophysical data improves the mesh generation procedures and the degree of accuracy of numerical outputs, aimed at more reliable physics-based representations of the natural system.
Gianluca Norini and Gianluca Groppelli
Solid Earth, 11, 2549–2556,Short summary
We identified several problems in Urbani et al. (2020), showing that their model does not conform to the age and location of faulting, identification and delimitation of uplifted areas and apical depressions, temperature and lithological well log, and stratigraphic and radiometric data. Published data indicate that the pressurization of the Los Humeros volcanic complex (LHVC) magmatic–hydrothermal system driving resurgence faulting occurs at a greater depth.
Silvia Massaro, Antonio Costa, Roberto Sulpizio, Diego Coppola, and Lucia Capra
Solid Earth, 10, 1429–1450,Short summary
The Fuego de Colima volcano (Mexico) shows a complex eruptive history, with periods of rapid and slow lava dome growth punctuated by explosive activity. Here we reconstructed the 1998–2018 average discharge rate by means of satellite thermal data and the literature. Using spectral and wavelet analysis, we found a multi-term cyclic behavior that is in good agreement with numerical modeling, accounting for a variable magmatic feeding system composed of a single or double magma chamber system.
Qiliang Sun, Christopher A.-L. Jackson, Craig Magee, Samuel J. Mitchell, and Xinong Xie
Solid Earth, 10, 1269–1282,Short summary
3-D seismic reflection data reveal that deepwater volcanoes have rugged basal contacts, which truncate underlying strata, and erupted lava flows that feed lobate lava fans. The lava flows (> 9 km long) account for 50–97 % of the total erupted volume. This indicates that deepwater volcanic edifices may thus form a minor component (~ 3–50 %) of the extrusive system and that accurate estimates of erupted volume require knowledge of the basal surface of genetically related lava flows.
Thomas M. Belgrano, Larryn W. Diamond, Yves Vogt, Andrea R. Biedermann, Samuel A. Gilgen, and Khalid Al-Tobi
Solid Earth, 10, 1181–1217,Short summary
We present an updated geological map of the volcanic rocks present in the north-east Oman mountains. These volcanic rocks erupted at the seafloor, probably above a young subduction zone, and have since been tectonically transported into their accessible position. The updated map allows us to examine the spatial relationships between the different volcanic and geological features, including copper, gold, and chrome deposits. The new map will aid further study in Oman and other similar settings.
Florian Dinger, Stefan Bredemeyer, Santiago Arellano, Nicole Bobrowski, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Solid Earth, 10, 725–740,Short summary
Evidence for tidal impacts on volcanism have been gathered by numerous empirical studies. This paper elucidates whether a causal link from the tidal forces to a variation in the volcanic degassing can be traced analytically. We model the response of a simplified magmatic system to the local tidal gravity variations, find that the tide-induced dynamics may significantly alter the bubble coalescence rate, and discuss the consequences for volcanic degassing behaviour.
Rebecca Coats, Jackie E. Kendrick, Paul A. Wallace, Takahiro Miwa, Adrian J. Hornby, James D. Ashworth, Takeshi Matsushima, and Yan Lavallée
Solid Earth, 9, 1299–1328,Short summary
Lava domes are mounds of viscous lava and their collapse can cause deadly pyroclastic flows. This paper looks at the example of Mt. Unzen in Japan. Using novel experimental techniques, we discovered that crystals and bubbles in the lava make it behave differently to what was previously thought and that it becomes weaker and more susceptible to collapse as it cools. This calls for a review of current models, allowing for better failure prediction of lava domes in the future.
Janine L. Kavanagh, Samantha L. Engwell, and Simon A. Martin
Solid Earth, 9, 531–571,Short summary
Modelling has been used in the study of volcanic systems for more than 100 years, building upon the approach first described by Sir James Hall in 1815. Models are informed by observations of volcanic processes in nature, including eye-witness accounts of eruptions, monitoring of active volcanoes, and analysis of ancient deposits. To push the frontiers in volcanology we must adopt a multidisciplinary approach, with more interaction between analogue and numerical modelling communities.
Lucia Gurioli, Andrea Di Muro, Ivan Vlastélic, Séverine Moune, Simon Thivet, Marina Valer, Nicolas Villeneuve, Guillaume Boudoire, Aline Peltier, Patrick Bachèlery, Valérie Ferrazzini, Nicole Métrich, Mhammed Benbakkar, Nicolas Cluzel, Christophe Constantin, Jean-Luc Devidal, Claire Fonquernie, and Jean-Marc Hénot
Solid Earth, 9, 431–455,Short summary
We prove here that macroscopic and microscopic studies of emitted pyroclastic and effusive products provide valuable information to track and understand small explosive eruptions for hazard and risk assessment. This is especially true for Piton de La Fournaise, La Réunion, whose activity has recently been characterized by effusive and mild explosive activity in highly visited areas. We confirm that petrological monitoring is essential to forecast changes in the magmatic system.
Florian Dinger, Nicole Bobrowski, Simon Warnach, Stefan Bredemeyer, Silvana Hidalgo, Santiago Arellano, Bo Galle, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Solid Earth, 9, 247–266,Short summary
We monitored the bromine monoxide-to-sulfur dioxide molar ratio in the effusive gas plume of Cotopaxi volcano in order to gain insight into the geological processes which control the pressure regime of the volcanic system. We observed a conspicuous periodic pattern with a periodicity of about 2 weeks, which significantly correlates with the Earth tidal forcing. Our results support a possible Earth tidal impact on volcanic activity, in particular for the Cotopaxi eruption 2015.
Manuel Queißer, Domenico Granieri, Mike Burton, Fabio Arzilli, Rosario Avino, and Antonio Carandente
Solid Earth, 8, 1017–1024,Short summary
Campi Flegrei is a volcanic caldera that is currently in a state of increased unrest. We used a novel remote-sensing approach to measure CO2 fluxes at the Campi Flegrei. Thanks to its comprehensive spatial coverage, the instrument used gives more representative measurements from large regions containing different CO2 sources. We find an increase in CO2 degassing strength. This suggests a greater contribution of the magmatic source to the degassing.
Jorge Eduardo Romero, Guilhem Amin Douillet, Silvia Vallejo Vargas, Jorge Bustillos, Liliana Troncoso, Juan Díaz Alvarado, and Patricio Ramón
Solid Earth, 8, 697–719,Short summary
The 1 February 2014 eruption of the Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador) was the second largest one since the re-awakening in 1999. The eruption showed precursory signs only 48 h before the eruption. The main explosions produced a 13 km eruptive column and pyroclastic density currents that reached the base of the volcano. Here we document the deposits related to the eruption and infer eruption mechanisms and transport processes.
Jamie I. Farquharson, Patrick Baud, and Michael J. Heap
Solid Earth, 8, 561–581,Short summary
In volcanic rock, permeability is the property that tells us how efficiently fluids such as gas or water can travel through cracks and frozen bubbles in the rock (its porosity) and is important in the context of volcanic activity. This study addresses how permeability evolves under a range of mechanical experimental conditions. We show that with a small amount of porosity loss (compaction), permeability can increase. However, with more compaction, permeability can decrease significantly.
Donald B. Dingwell, Yan Lavallée, Kai-Uwe Hess, Asher Flaws, Joan Marti, Alexander R. L. Nichols, H. Albert Gilg, and Burkhard Schillinger
Solid Earth, 7, 1383–1393,Short summary
Here, we use tomography to reconstructed the pores of erupted pumice and understand the evolution of gas bubbles in magma. Analysis of the pore geometry is used to describe whether the pores where aligned by stretching as ascending magma is pulled apart (pure shear) or sheared like a deck of card (simple shear). We conclude that the latter, simple shear, dominates during magma ascent up to the points where magma fragments to cause an explosion.
A. Coco, J. Gottsmann, F. Whitaker, A. Rust, G. Currenti, A. Jasim, and S. Bunney
Solid Earth, 7, 557–577,Short summary
We present a numerical model to evaluate ground deformation and gravity changes as a response of the hydrothermal system perturbation (unrest) in a volcanic area. Temporal evolution of the ground deformation indicates that the contribution of thermal effects to the total uplift is almost negligible with respect to the pore pressure contribution during the first years, of the unrest, but increases in time and becomes dominant after a long period of the simulation.
O. D. Lamb, S. De Angelis, K. Umakoshi, A. J. Hornby, J. E. Kendrick, and Y. Lavallée
Solid Earth, 6, 1277–1293,Short summary
In this paper we analyse the seismic record during the extrusion of a lava spine at Unzen volcano, Japan, in 1994. We find two strong groups of similar volcanic earthquakes which, combined with previously published field and experimental observations, we interpret as repetitive fracturing along the margin of the lava spine. This work demonstrates the potential of combining these different approaches for achieving a greater understanding of shallow volcanic processes.
K. Strehlow, J. H. Gottsmann, and A. C. Rust
Solid Earth, 6, 1207–1229,Short summary
When magma chambers inflate, they deform the surrounding Earth’s crust. This deformation affects the pore space available for the water in local aquifers, which in turn leads to pressure variations and water table changes. We can observe these changes in wells, and this study investigates if and how we can utilize them for volcano monitoring. Results show that the hydrological response to deformation helps unravelling subsurface magmatic processes, valuable information for eruption forecasting.
B. Bernard, U. Kueppers, and H. Ortiz
Solid Earth, 6, 869–879,Short summary
This paper presents a new methodology to treat statistically pyroclast density and porosity data sets introducing a weighting parameter. It also proposes a stability analysis to check if the sample set is large enough for statistical reliability. Finally we introduce graphical statistics to improve distinction between pyroclastic deposits and understanding of eruptive dynamics. An open source R code is supplied that includes all these features in order to facilitate data processing.
F. Braz Machado, E. Reis Viana Rocha-Júnior, L. Soares Marques, and A. J. Ranalli Nardy
Solid Earth, 6, 227–241,Short summary
This study describes for the first time morphological aspects of lava flows and structural characteristics caused by lava-sediment interaction in the northwestern Paraná continental flood basalts in the southeast of the South American Plate (Brazil). Early Cretaceous (134 to 132Ma) tholeiitic rocks were emplaced on a large intracratonic Paleozoic sedimentary basin (Paraná Basin), mainly covering dry eolian sandstones (Botucatu Formation).
Y. Moussallam, N. Peters, C. Ramírez, C. Oppenheimer, A. Aiuppa, and G. Giudice
Solid Earth, 5, 1341–1350,Short summary
In this paper we characterise the flux and composition of the gas emissions from Turrialba Volcano. We show that the measured gas signature provides evidence that Turrialba Volcano has entered an open-vent configuration with magmatic gases being emitted. This suggests that the hydrothermal system at the summit is quickly drying up and that the system is moving from a hydrothermal to a magmatic end member with implications for short-term monitoring and possible evolution of the state of unrest.
P. Lübcke, N. Bobrowski, S. Arellano, B. Galle, G. Garzón, L. Vogel, and U. Platt
Solid Earth, 5, 409–424,
T. J. Jones, J. K. Russell, L. A. Porritt, and R. J. Brown
Solid Earth, 5, 313–326,
J. E. Kendrick, Y. Lavallée, K.-U. Hess, S. De Angelis, A. Ferk, H. E. Gaunt, P. G. Meredith, D. B. Dingwell, and R. Leonhardt
Solid Earth, 5, 199–208,
A. C. F. Luchetti, A. J. R. Nardy, F. B. Machado, J. E. O. Madeira, and J. M. Arnosio
Solid Earth, 5, 121–130,
M. J. Heap, P. Baud, P. G. Meredith, S. Vinciguerra, and T. Reuschlé
Solid Earth, 5, 25–44,
A. LaRue, D. R. Baker, M. Polacci, P. Allard, and N. Sodini
Solid Earth, 4, 373–380,
S. B. Mueller, N. R. Varley, U. Kueppers, P. Lesage, G. Á. Reyes Davila, and D. B. Dingwell
Solid Earth, 4, 201–213,
N. Bobrowski and G. Giuffrida
Solid Earth, 3, 433–445,
S. Lepore and C. Scarpati
Solid Earth, 3, 161–173,
O. Sigmarsson, I. Vlastelic, R. Andreasen, I. Bindeman, J.-L. Devidal, S. Moune, J. K. Keiding, G. Larsen, A. Höskuldsson, and Th. Thordarson
Solid Earth, 2, 271–281,
A. Aiuppa, M. Burton, P. Allard, T. Caltabiano, G. Giudice, S. Gurrieri, M. Liuzzo, and G. Salerno
Solid Earth, 2, 135–142,
D. Giordano, M. Polacci, P. Papale, and L. Caricchi
Solid Earth, 1, 61–69,
E. Peruzzo, M. Barsanti, F. Flandoli, and P. Papale
Solid Earth, 1, 49–59,
Alyamani, M. S. and Zekâi, Ş.: Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity from Complete Grain-Size Distribution Curves, Groundwater, 31, 551–555, 1993.
Ambrosio, M., Doveri, M., Fagioli, M. T., Marini, L., Principe, C., and Raco, B.: Water–rock interaction in the magmatic-hydrothermal system of Nisyros Island (Greece), J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 192, 1, 57–68, 2010.
ASTM-D6913-04: Standard Test Methods for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Soils Using Sieve Analysis, Am. Soc. Test. Materials, 6913-04, https://doi.org/10.1520/D6913-04R09, 2009.
Aubert, M., Diliberto, S., Finizola, A., and Chébli, Y.: Double origin of hydrothermal convective flux variations in the Fossa of Vulcano (Italy), Bull. Volcanol., 70, 743–751, 2008.
Ball, M. and Pinkerton, H.: Factors affecting the accuracy of thermal imaging cameras in volcanology, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 111, B11203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003829, 2006.
Benson, C. H. and Trast J. M.: Hydraulic conductivity of thirteen compacted clays, Clays Clay Min., 43, 669–681, 1995.
Bowles, J. E.: Foundation analysis and design, McGraw-Hill Book Company Limited, England, 1988.
Brazier, S., Sparks, R. S. J., Carey, S. N., Sigurdsson, H., and Westgate, J. A.: Bimodal grain size distribution and secondary thickening inait-fall ash layer, Nature, 301, 115–119, 1983.
Bukumirovic, T., Italiano, F., and Nuccio, P.: The evolution of a dynamic geological system: the support of a GIS for geochemical measurements at the fumarole field of Vulcano, Italy, J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 79, 253–263, 1997.
Caine, J. S., Evans J. P., and Forster C. B.: Fault zone architecture and permeability structure, Geology, 24, 1025–1028, 1996.
Caliro, S., Chiodini, G., Galluzzo, D., Granieri, D., La Rocca, M., Saccorotti, G., and Ventura, G.: Recent activity of Nisyros volcano (Greece) inferred from structural, geochemical and seismological data, Bull. Volcanol., 67, 358–369, 2005.
Chiodini, G., Brombach, T., Caliro, S., Cardellini, C., Marini, L., and Dietrich, V.: Geochemical indicators of possible ongoing volcanic unrest at Nisyros Island (Greece), Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, p. 16, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL014355, 1759.
Chiodini, G., Cioni, R., Leonis, C., Marini, L., and Raco, B.: Fluid geochemistry of Nisyros island, Dodecanese, Greece, J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 56, 95–112, 1993.
Chiodini, G., Vilardo, G., Augusti, V., Granieri, D., Caliro, S., Minopoli, C., and Terranova, C.: Thermal monitoring of hydrothermal activity by permanent infrared automatic stations: Results obtained at Solfatara di Pozzuoli, Campi Flegrei (Italy), J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 112, B12206, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JB005140, 2007.
Dobson, P. F., Kneafsey, T. J., Hulen, J., and Simmons, A.: Porosity, permeability, and fluid flow in the Yellowstone geothermal system, Wyoming, J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 123, 313–324, 2003.
Dozier, J.: A method for satellite identification of surface temperature fields of subpixel resolution, Remote Sens. Environ., 11, 221–229, 1981.
Faulkner, D. R., Jackson C. A. L., Lunn R. J., Schlische R. W., Shipton Z. K., Wibberley C. A. J., and Withjack M. O.: A review of recent developments concerning the structure, mechanics and fluid flow properties of fault zones, J. Struct. Geol., 32, 1557–1575, 2010.
Finizola, A., Sortino, F., Lénat, J.-F., Aubert, M., Ripepe, M., and Valenza, M.: The summit hydrothermal system of Stromboli. New insights from self-potential, temperature, CO2 and fumarolic fluid measurements, with structural and monitoring implications, Bull. Volcanol., 65, 486–504, 2003.
Ganas, A., Lagios, E., Petropoulos, G., and Psiloglou, B.: Thermal imaging of Nisyros volcano (Aegean Sea) using ASTER data: estimation of radiative heat flux, Internat. J. Remote Sens., 31, 4033–4047, 2010.
Geotermica Italiana: Nisyros 1 geothermal well, PPC-EEC report, p. 160, 1983.
Geotermica Italiana: Nisyros 2 geothermal well, PPC-EEC report, p. 44, 1984.
Geshi, N., Acocella, V., and Ruch, J.: From structure- to erosion-controlled subsiding calderas: evidence thresholds and mechanics, Bull. Volcanol., 74, 1553–1567, 2012.
Gottsmann, J., Carniel, R., Coppo, N., Wooller, L., Hautmann, S., and Rymer, H.: Oscillations in hydrothermal systems as a source of periodic unrest at caldera volcanoes: Multiparameter insights from Nisyros, Greece, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L07307, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL029594, 2007.
Gottsmann, J., Rymer, H., and Wooller, L.: On the interpretation of gravity variations in the presence of active hydrothermal systems: Insights from the Nisyros Caldera, Greece, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23310, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024061, 2005.
Graton, L. C. and Fraser, H. J.: Systematic packing of spheres: with particular relation to porosity and permeability, J. Geol., 43, 785–909, 1935.
Hardee, H.: Permeable convection above magma bodies, Tectonophysics, 84, 179–195, 1982.
Harris, A. and Maciejewski, A.: Thermal surveys of the Vulcano Fossa fumarole field 1994–1999: evidence for fumarole migration and sealing, J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 102, 119–147, 2000.
Harris, A. J., Lodato, L., Dehn, J., and Spampinato, L.: Thermal characterization of the Vulcano fumarole field, Bull. Volcanol., 71, 441–458, 2009.
Kinvig, H. S., Winson, A., and Gottsmann, J.: Analysis of volcanic threat from Nisyros Island, Greece, with implications for aviation and population exposure, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 1101–1113, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-10-1101-2010, 2010.
Lagios, E., Vassilopoulou, S., Sakkas, V., Dietrich, V., Damiata, B., and Ganas, A.: Testing satellite and ground thermal imaging of low-temperature fumarolic fields: The dormant Nisyros Volcano (Greece), ISPRS J. Photogram. Remote Sens., 62, 447–460, 2007.
Lambe, T. W., and Whitman, R. V.: Soil mechanics SI version, John Wiley&Sons, 2008.
Marini, L., Principe, C., Chiodini, G., Cioni, R., Fytikas, M., and Marinelli, G.: Hydrothermal eruptions of Nisyros (Dodecanese, Greece), past events and present hazard, J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 56, 71–94, 1993.
Matsushima, N., Kazahaya, K., Saito, G., and Shinohara, H.: Mass and heat flux of volcanic gas discharging from the summit crater of Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Japan, during 1996–1999, J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 126, 285–301, 2003.
Mongillo, M. and Wood, C.: Thermal infrared mapping of White Island volcano, New Zealand, J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 69, 59–71, 1995.
Nakada, S., Matsushima, T., Yoshimoto, M., Sugimoto, T., Kato, T., Watanabe, T., Chong, R., and Camacho, J. T.: Geological aspects of the 2003–2004 eruption of Anatahan Volcano, Northern Mariana Islands, J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 146, 226–240, 2005.
Pantaleo, M.: Geothermal and deformation activity observed at volcanoes by using high resolution imaging, PhD Thesis, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultat der Universitat Potsdam, 2014.
Papadopoulos, G. A., Sachpazi, M., Panopoulou, G., and Stavrakakis, G.: The volcanoseismic crisis of 1996–1997 in Nisyros, SE Aegean Sea, Greece, Terra Nova, 10, 151–154, 1998.
Parks, M., Caliro, S., Chiodini, G., Pyle, D., Mather, T., Berlo, K., Edmonds, M., Biggs, J., Nomikou, P., and Raptakis, C.: Distinguishing contributions to diffuse CO2 emissions in volcanic areas from magmatic degassing and thermal decarbonation using soil gas 222 Rn–δ13C systematics: Application to Santorini volcano, Greece, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 377, 180–190, 2013.
Peltier, A., Finizola, A., Douillet, G. A., Brothelande, E., and Garaebiti, E.: Structure of an active volcano associated with a resurgent block inferred from thermal mapping: The Yasur–Yenkahe volcanic complex (Vanuatu), J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 243/244, 59–68, 2012.
Revil, A., Finizola, A., Piscitelli, S., Rizzo, E., Ricci, T., Crespy, A., Angeletti, B., Balasco, M., Barde Cabusson, S., Bennati, L., Bolève, A., Byrdina, S., Carzaniga, N., Di Gangi, F., Morin, J., Perrone, A., Rossi, M., Roulleau, E., and Suski, B.: Inner structure of La Fossa di Vulcano (Vulcano Island, southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) revealed by high-resolution electric resistivity tomography coupled with self-potential, temperature, and CO2 diffuse degassing measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B07207, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JB005394, 2008.
Sachpazi, M., Kontoes, C., Voulgaris, N., Laigle, M., Vougioukalakis, G., Sikioti, O., Stavrakakis, G., Baskoutas, J., Kalogeras, J., and Lepine, J. C.: Seismological and SAR signature of unrest at Nisyros caldera, Greece, J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 116, 19–33, 2002.
Sawyer, G. M. and Burton, M. R.: Effects of a volcanic plume on thermal imaging data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L14311, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025320, 2006.
Schöpa, A., Pantaleo, M., and Walter, T.: Scale-dependent location of hydrothermal vents: Stress field models and infrared field observations on the Fossa Cone, Vulcano Island, Italy, J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 203, 133–145, 2011.
Sekioka, M. and Yuhara, K.: Heat flux estimation in geothermal areas based on the heat balance of the ground surface, J. Geophys. Res., 79, 2053–2058, 1974.
Shepherd, R. G.: Correlations of permeability and grain size, Groundwater, 27, 633–638, 1989.
Shinohara, H., Kazahaya, K., Saito, G., Matsushima, N., and Kawanabe, Y.: Degassing activity from Iwodake rhyolitic cone, Satsuma-Iwojima volcano, Japan: Formation of a new degassing vent, 1990–1999, Earth Planets Space, 54, 175–186, 2002.
Spampinato, L., Calvari, S., Oppenheimer, C., and Boschi, E.: Volcano surveillance using infrared cameras, Earth-Sci. Rev., 106, 63-91, 2011.
Springer, D., Loaiciga, H., Cullen, S., and Everett, L.: Air permeability of porous materials under controlled laboratory conditions, Ground Water, 36, 558–565, 1998.
Stacey, T. R., Xianbin, Y., Armstrong, R., and Keyter, G. J.: New slope stability considerations for deep open pit mines, J. South African Inst. Mining Metall., 103, 373–390, 2003.
Stevenson, D. S.: Physical models of fumarolic flow, J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 57, 139–156, 1993.
Stevenson, J. A. and Varley, N.: Fumarole monitoring with a handheld infrared camera: Volcán de Colima, Mexico, 2006–2007, J. Volcanol. Geothermal Res., 177, 911–924, 2008.
Tassi, F., Vaselli, O., Papazachos, C. B., Giannini, L., Chiodini, G., Vougioukalakis, G. E., Karagianni, E., Vamvakaris, D., and Panagiotopoulos, D.: Geochemical and isotopic changes in the fumarolic and submerged gas discharges during the 2011–2012 unrest at Santorini caldera (Greece), Bull. Volcanol., 75, 1–15, 2013.
Teschner, M., Faber, E., Poggenburg, J., Vougioukalakis, G. E., and Hatziyannis, G.: Continuous, direct gas-geochemical monitoring in hydrothermal vents: Installation and long-term operation on Nisyros Island (Greece), Pure Appl. Geophys., 164, 2549–2571, 2007.
Tibaldi, A., Pasquarè, F., Papanikolaou, D., and Nomikou, P.: Tectonics of Nisyros Island, Greece, by field and offshore data, and analogue modelling, J. Struct. Geol., 30, 1489–1506, 2008.
Varley, N. R. and Taran, Y.: Degassing processes of Popocatepetl and Volcan de Colima, Mexico: Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 213, 263–280, 2003.
Vougioukalakis, G. and Fytikas, M.: Volcanic hazards in the Aegean area, relative risk evaluation, monitoring and present state of the active volcanic centers, Develop. Volcanol., 7, 161–183, 2005.
Yudovskaya, M. A., Tessalina, S., Distler, V. V., Chaplygin, I. V., Chugaev, A. V., and Dikov, Y. P.: Behavior of highly-siderophile elements during magma degassing: A case study at the Kudryavy volcano, Chem. Geol., 248, 318–341, 2008.