Articles | Volume 9, issue 5
Research article
10 Sep 2018
Research article |  | 10 Sep 2018

Channel flow, tectonic overpressure, and exhumation of high-pressure rocks in the Greater Himalayas

Fernando O. Marques, Nibir Mandal, Subhajit Ghosh, Giorgio Ranalli, and Santanu Bose

Related subject area

Subject area: Tectonic plate interactions, magma genesis, and lithosphere deformation at all scales | Editorial team: Structural geology and tectonics, paleoseismology, rock physics, experimental deformation | Discipline: Tectonics
Selective inversion of rift basins in lithospheric-scale analogue experiments
Anindita Samsu, Weronika Gorczyk, Timothy Chris Schmid, Peter Graham Betts, Alexander Ramsay Cruden, Eleanor Morton, and Fatemeh Amirpoorsaeed
Solid Earth, 14, 909–936,,, 2023
Short summary
The link between Somalian Plate rotation and the East African Rift System: an analogue modelling study
Frank Zwaan and Guido Schreurs
Solid Earth, 14, 823–845,,, 2023
Short summary
Inversion of extensional basins parallel and oblique to their boundaries: inferences from analogue models and field observations from the Dolomites Indenter, European eastern Southern Alps
Anna-Katharina Sieberer, Ernst Willingshofer, Thomas Klotz, Hugo Ortner, and Hannah Pomella
Solid Earth, 14, 647–681,,, 2023
Short summary
Magnetic fabric analyses of basin inversion: a sandbox modelling approach
Thorben Schöfisch, Hemin Koyi, and Bjarne Almqvist
Solid Earth, 14, 447–461,,, 2023
Short summary
The influence of crustal strength on rift geometry and development – insights from 3D numerical modelling
Thomas B. Phillips, John B. Naliboff, Ken J. W. McCaffrey, Sophie Pan, Jeroen van Hunen, and Malte Froemchen
Solid Earth, 14, 369–388,,, 2023
Short summary

Cited articles

Andersen, T. B., Jamtveit, B., Dewey, J. F., and Swensson, E.: Subduction and eduction of continental crust: major mechanism during continent–continent collision and orogenic extensional collapse, a model based on the south Caledonides, Terra Nova, 3, 303–310, 1991.
Angel, R. J., Nimis, P., Mazzucchelli, M. L., Alvaro, M., and Nestola, F.: How large are departures from lithostatic pressure? Constraints from host–inclusion elasticity, J. Metamorphic Geol., 33, 801–813, 2015.
Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R. A., Nguyen, M. H., and Lee, B.: Himalayan tectonics explained by extrusion of a low-viscosity crustal channel coupled to focused surface denudation, Nature, 414, 738–742, 2001.
Beaumont, C., Jamieson, R. A., Butler, J. P., and Warren, C. J.: Crustal structure: a key constraint on the mechanism of ultra-high-pressure rock exhumation, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 287, 116–129, 2009.
Brun, J.-P. and Faccenna, C.: Exhumation of high-pressure rocks driven by slab rollback, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 272, 1–7, 2008.
Short summary
We couple Himalayan tectonics to numerical simulations to show how upward-tapering channel (UTC) flow can be used to explain the evidence. The simulations predict high tectonic overpressure (TOP > 2), which increases exponentially with a decrease in UTC mouth width, and with increase in velocity and channel viscosity. The highest TOP occurs at depths < −60 km, which, combined with the flow in the UTC, forces high-pressure rocks to exhume along the channel’s hanging wall, as in the Himalayas.