Articles | Volume 12, issue 6
Solid Earth, 12, 1233–1257, 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article 02 Jun 2021
Research article | 02 Jun 2021
Regional centroid moment tensor inversion of small to moderate earthquakes in the Alps using the dense AlpArray seismic network: challenges and seismotectonic insights
Gesa Maria Petersen et al.
No articles found.
Djamil Al-Halbouni, Robert A. Watson, Eoghan P. Holohan, Rena Meyer, Ulrich Polom, Fernando M. Dos Santos, Xavier Comas, Hussam Alrshdan, Charlotte M. Krawczyk, and Torsten Dahm
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3351–3395,Short summary
The rapid decline of the Dead Sea level since the 1960s has provoked a dynamic reaction from the coastal groundwater system, with physical and chemical erosion creating subsurface voids and conduits. By combining remote sensing, geophysical methods, and numerical modelling at the Dead Sea’s eastern shore, we link groundwater flow patterns to the formation of surface stream channels, sinkholes and uvalas. Better understanding of this karst system will improve regional hazard assessment.
Camilla Rossi, Francesco Grigoli, Simone Cesca, Sebastian Heimann, Paolo Gasperini, Vala Hjörleifsdóttir, Torsten Dahm, Christopher J. Bean, Stefan Wiemer, Luca Scarabello, Nima Nooshiri, John F. Clinton, Anne Obermann, Kristján Ágústsson, and Thorbjörg Ágústsdóttir
Adv. Geosci., 54, 129–136,Short summary
We investigate the microseismicity occurred at Hengill area, a complex tectonic and geothermal site, where the origin of earthquakes may be either natural or anthropogenic. We use a very dense broadband seismic monitoring network and apply full-waveform based method for location. Our results and first characterization identified different types of microseismic clusters, which might be associated to either production/injection or the tectonic activity of the geothermal area.
Carsten Dinske, Jonas Folesky, Jörn Kummerow, Serge Shapiro, and Hiroshi Ogasawara
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Publication in SE not foreseenShort summary
We analyse seismicity in deep South African gold mines. We find here the unique situation that it consists of both induced earthquakes and aftershocks triggered by the M5.5 Orkney earthquake. We conclude that the magnitude statistics of aftershocks and induced earthquakes are influenced by the size and geometry of the volume of stress perturbation. We also image the propagating rupture of the M5.5 earthquake. We conclude that it propagated unilaterally from North to South over a distance of 6km.
Mohammadreza Jamalreyhani, Pınar Büyükakpınar, Simone Cesca, Torsten Dahm, Henriette Sudhaus, Mehdi Rezapour, Marius Paul Isken, Behnam Maleki Asayesh, and Sebastian Heimann
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We model the source of the 24 January 2020 Mw 6.77 Elazığ-Sivrice (Turkey) earthquake using a combination of different data and we analyzed its seismic sequences. This earthquake occurred in the east Anatolian fault and it has filled the large part of the former seismic gap zone. An unbroken part has left after this earthquake and has the potential to host a future earthquake. This work provides information about the fault system and helps to the mitigation of seismic hazard in Southern Turkey.
Sebastian Heimann, Hannes Vasyura-Bathke, Henriette Sudhaus, Marius Paul Isken, Marius Kriegerowski, Andreas Steinberg, and Torsten Dahm
Solid Earth, 10, 1921–1935,Short summary
We present an open-source software framework for fast and flexible forward modelling of seismic and acoustic wave phenomena and elastic deformation. It supports a wide range of applications across volcanology, seismology, and geodesy to study earthquakes, volcanic processes, landslides, explosions, mine collapses, ground shaking, and aseismic faulting. The framework stimulates reproducible research and open science through the exchange of pre-calculated Green's functions on an open platform.
Djamil Al-Halbouni, Eoghan P. Holohan, Abbas Taheri, Robert A. Watson, Ulrich Polom, Martin P. J. Schöpfer, Sacha Emam, and Torsten Dahm
Solid Earth, 10, 1219–1241,Short summary
A 2-D numerical modelling approach to simulate the mechanical formation of sinkhole cluster inside large-scale karstic depressions is presented. Different multiple cavity growth scenarios at depth are compared regarding the mechanical process and collapse style. The outcomes of the models are compared to results from remote sensing and geophysics for an active sinkhole area in the Dead Sea region.
Marius Kriegerowski, Simone Cesca, Matthias Ohrnberger, Torsten Dahm, and Frank Krüger
Solid Earth, 10, 317–328,Short summary
We developed a method that allows to estimate the acoustic attenuation of seismic waves within regions with high earthquake source densities. Attenuation is of high interest as it allows to draw conclusions on the origin of seismic activity. We apply our method to north-west Bohemia, which is regularly affected by earthquake swarms during which thousands of earthquakes are registered within a few days. We find reduced attenuation within the active volume, which may indicate high fluid content.
Peter Gaebler, Lars Ceranna, Nima Nooshiri, Andreas Barth, Simone Cesca, Michaela Frei, Ilona Grünberg, Gernot Hartmann, Karl Koch, Christoph Pilger, J. Ole Ross, and Torsten Dahm
Solid Earth, 10, 59–78,Short summary
On 3 September 2017 official channels of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea announced the successful test of a nuclear device. This study provides a multi-technology analysis of the 2017 North Korean event and its aftermath using a wide array of geophysical methods (seismology, infrasound, remote sensing, radionuclide monitoring, and atmospheric transport modeling). Our results clearly indicate that the September 2017 North Korean event was in fact a nuclear test.
Related subject area
Subject area: The evolving Earth surface | Editorial team: Seismics, seismology, geoelectrics, and electromagnetics | Discipline: SeismologyStrain to ground motion conversion of distributed acoustic sensing data for earthquake magnitude and stress drop determinationUnprecedented quiescence in resource development area allows detection of long-lived latent seismicitySeismic monitoring of urban activity in Barcelona during the COVID-19 lockdownSeismic signature of the COVID-19 lockdown at the city scale: a case study with low-cost seismometers in the city of Querétaro, MexicoAccelerating Bayesian microseismic event location with deep learningCharacterizing the oceanic ambient noise as recorded by the dense seismo-acoustic Kazakh networkSeismic evidence of the COVID-19 lockdown measures: a case study from eastern Sicily (Italy)Sensing Earth and environment dynamics by telecommunication fiber-optic sensors: an urban experiment in Pennsylvania, USAEffects of finite source rupture on landslide triggering: the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake
Itzhak Lior, Anthony Sladen, Diego Mercerat, Jean-Paul Ampuero, Diane Rivet, and Serge Sambolian
Solid Earth, 12, 1421–1442,Short summary
The increasing use of distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) inhibits the transformation of optical fibers into dense arrays of seismo-acoustic sensors. Here, DAS strain records are converted to ground motions using the waves' apparent velocity. An algorithm for velocity determination is presented, accounting for velocity variations between different seismic waves. The conversion allows for robust determination of fundamental source parameters, earthquake magnitude and stress drop.
Rebecca O. Salvage and David W. Eaton
Solid Earth, 12, 765–783,Short summary
Small earthquakes in Alberta and north-east British Columbia have been previously ascribed to industrial activities. The COVID-19 pandemic forced almost all these activities to stop for ~ 4 months. However, unexpectedly, earthquakes still occurred during this time. Some of these earthquakes may be natural and some the result of earthquakes > M6 occurring around the world. However, ~ 65 % of the earthquakes detected may be the remnants of previous fluid injection in the area (
Jordi Diaz, Mario Ruiz, and José-Antonio Jara
Solid Earth, 12, 725–739,Short summary
During the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, the city of Barcelona was covered by a network of 19 seismometers. The results confirm that the quieting of human activity during lockdown has resulted in a reduction of seismic vibrations. The different lockdown phases in Barcelona are recognized consistently at most of the seismic stations. Our contribution demonstrates that seismic noise can be used as a free and reliable tool to monitor human activity in urban environments.
Raphael S. M. De Plaen, Víctor Hugo Márquez-Ramírez, Xyoli Pérez-Campos, F. Ramón Zuñiga, Quetzalcoatl Rodríguez-Pérez, Juan Martín Gómez González, and Lucia Capra
Solid Earth, 12, 713–724,Short summary
COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns in countries with a dominant informal economy have been a greater challenge than in other places. This motivated the monitoring of the mobility of populations with seismic noise throughout the various phases of lockdown and in the city of Querétaro (central Mexico). Our results emphasize the benefit of densifying urban seismic networks, even with low-cost instruments, to observe variations in mobility at the city scale over exclusively relying on mobile technology.
Alessio Spurio Mancini, Davide Piras, Ana Margarida Godinho Ferreira, Michael Paul Hobson, and Benjamin Joachimi
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
The localisation of an earthquake is affected by many uncertainties. To correctly propagate these uncertainties into an estimate of the earthquake coordinates and their associated errors, many simulations of seismic waves are needed. This operation is computationally very intensive, hindering the feasibility of this approach. In this paper, we present a series of deep learning methods to produce accurate seismic traces in a fraction of the time needed with standard methods.
Alexandr Smirnov, Marine De Carlo, Alexis Le Pichon, Nikolai M. Shapiro, and Sergey Kulichkov
Solid Earth, 12, 503–520,Short summary
Seismic and infrasound methods are techniques used to monitor natural events and explosions. At low frequencies, band signal can be dominated by microbaroms and microseisms. The noise observations in the Kazakh network are performed and compared with source and propagation modeling. The network is dense and well situated for studying very distant source regions of the ambient noise. The prospects are opening for the use of ocean noise in solid Earth and atmosphere tomography.
Andrea Cannata, Flavio Cannavò, Giuseppe Di Grazia, Marco Aliotta, Carmelo Cassisi, Raphael S. M. De Plaen, Stefano Gresta, Thomas Lecocq, Placido Montalto, and Mariangela Sciotto
Solid Earth, 12, 299–317,Short summary
During the COVID-19 pandemic, most countries put in place social interventions, aimed at restricting human mobility, which caused a decrease in the seismic noise, generated by human activities and called anthropogenic seismic noise. In densely populated eastern Sicily, we observed a decrease in the seismic noise amplitude reaching 50 %. We found similarities between the temporal patterns of seismic noise and human mobility, as quantified by mobile-phone-derived data and ship traffic data.
Tieyuan Zhu, Junzhu Shen, and Eileen R. Martin
Solid Earth, 12, 219–235,Short summary
We describe the Fiber Optic foR Environmental SEnsEing (FORESEE) project in Pennsylvania, USA, the first continuous-monitoring distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) fiber array in the eastern USA. With the success of collecting 1 year of continuous DAS recordings using nearly 5 km of telecommunication fiber underneath the university campus, we conclude that DAS along with telecommunication fiber will potentially serve the purpose of continuous near-surface seismic monitoring in populated areas.
Sebastian von Specht, Ugur Ozturk, Georg Veh, Fabrice Cotton, and Oliver Korup
Solid Earth, 10, 463–486,Short summary
We show the landslide response to the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Mw 7.1) in central Kyushu (Japan). Landslides are concentrated to the northeast of the rupture, coinciding with the propagation direction of the earthquake. This azimuthal variation in the landslide concentration is linked to the seismic rupture process itself and not to classical landslide susceptibility factors. We propose a new ground-motion model that links the seismic radiation pattern with the landslide distribution.
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The Alpine mountains are known for a complex tectonic history. We shed light onto ongoing tectonic processes by studying rupture mechanisms of small to moderate earthquakes between 2016 and 2019 observed by the temporary AlpArray seismic network. The rupture processes of 75 earthquakes were analyzed, along with past earthquakes and deformation data. Our observations point at variations in the underlying tectonic processes and stress regimes across the Alps.
The Alpine mountains are known for a complex tectonic history. We shed light onto ongoing...