Articles | Volume 7, issue 5
Solid Earth, 7, 1417–1465, 2016

Special issue: Two centuries of modelling across scales (SE/ESurf inter-journal...

Solid Earth, 7, 1417–1465, 2016

Review article 21 Oct 2016

Review article | 21 Oct 2016

Folding and necking across the scales: a review of theoretical and experimental results and their applications

Stefan Markus Schmalholz and Neil Sydney Mancktelow

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Cited articles

Abbassi, M. R. and Mancktelow, N. S.: The effect of initial perturbation shape and symmetry on fold development, J. Struct. Geol., 12, 273–282, 1990.
Abbassi, M. R. and Mancktelow, N. S.: Single layer buckle folding in non-linear materials-I: Experimental study of fold development from an isolated initial perturbation, J. Struct. Geol., 14, 85–104, 1992.
Abe, S. and Urai, J. L.: Discrete element modeling of boudinage: Insights on rock rheology, matrix flow, and evolution of geometry, J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 117, B01407,, 2012.
Abe, S., Urai, J. L., and Kettermann, M.: Fracture patterns in nonplane strain boudinage-insights from 3-D discrete element models, J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth, 118, 1304–1315, 2013.
Adamuszek, M., Schmid, D. W., and Dabrowski, M.: Fold geometry toolbox–Automated determination of fold shape, shortening, and material properties, J. Struct. Geol., 33, 1406–1416, 2011.
Short summary
About 200 years ago in 1815 Sir James Hall made his famous analogue experiments, which showed probably for the first time that natural folds in ductile rock are the result of a horizontal compression. If such rocks are extended, then the rock layers can thin only locally, which is a process termed necking, and the resulting structure is often termed pinch-and-swell. We review here theoretical and experimental results on folding and necking on all geological scales.