Articles | Volume 7, issue 2
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
The Mohr–Coulomb criterion for intact rock strength and friction – a re-evaluation and consideration of failure under polyaxial stresses
Rock Deformation Laboratory, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
now at: Ove Arup, Admiral House, 78 East street, Leeds, LS9 8EE, UK
No articles found.
Ernest Rutter, Julian Mecklenburgh, and Yusuf Bashir
Solid Earth, 13, 725–743,Short summary
Underground energy and waste storage require repurposing of existing oil and gas wells for gas storage, compressed air, hydrogen, methane, and CO2 disposal, requiring an impermeable cap rock (e.g. shales) over the porous reservoir. We measured shale permeability over a range of burial pressures and gas pore pressures. Permeability decreases markedly as effective pressure on the rocks is increased. Knowing these relationships is essential to the safe design of engineered gas reservoirs.
Joaquina Alvarez-Marrón, Fernando Bastida, Ernest Rutter, Ramon Carbonell, and Charlotte M. Krawczyk
Solid Earth, 7, 1199–1205,
Related subject area
GeophysicsNumerical modeling of stresses and deformation in the Zagros–Iranian Plateau regionAdvanced seismic characterization of a geothermal carbonate reservoir – insight into the structure and diagenesis of a reservoir in the German Molasse BasinElectrical conductivity of anhydrous and hydrous gabbroic melt under high temperature and high pressure: implications for the high-conductivity anomalies in the mid-ocean ridge regionGround motion emissions due to wind turbines: observations, acoustic coupling, and attenuation relationshipsFormation and geophysical character of transitional crust at the passive continental margin around Walvis Ridge, NamibiaSeismic amplitude response to internal heterogeneity of mass-transport depositsIntegration of automatic implicit geological modelling in deterministic geophysical inversionInvestigation of the effects of surrounding media on the distributed acoustic sensing of a helically wound fibre-optic cable with application to the New Afton deposit, British ColumbiaUtilisation of probabilistic magnetotelluric modelling to constrain magnetic data inversion: proof-of-concept and field applicationComplex fault system revealed from 3-D seismic reflection data with deep learning and fault network analysisGeophysical analysis of an area affected by subsurface dissolution – case study of an inland salt marsh in northern Thuringia, GermanyComparison of straight-ray and curved-ray surface wave tomography approaches in near-surface studiesAn efficient probabilistic workflow for estimating induced earthquake parameters in 3D heterogeneous media3D deep geothermal reservoir imaging with wireline distributed acoustic sensing in two boreholes3D high-resolution seismic imaging of the iron oxide deposits in Ludvika (Sweden) using full-waveform inversion and reverse time migrationThree-dimensional reflection seismic imaging of the iron oxide deposits in the Ludvika mining area, Sweden, using Fresnel volume migrationDrone-based magnetic and multispectral surveys to develop a 3D model for mineral exploration at Qullissat, Disko Island, GreenlandAmbient seismic noise analysis of LARGE-N data for mineral exploration in the Central Erzgebirge, GermanySurface-wave tomography for mineral exploration: a successful combination of passive and active data (Siilinjärvi phosphorus mine, Finland)Reflection tomography by depth warping: a case study across the Java trenchDynamic motion monitoring of a 3.6 km long steel rod in a borehole during cold-water injection with distributed fiber-optic sensingImpact of Timanian thrust systems on the late Neoproterozoic–Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Barents Sea and SvalbardForearc density structure of the overriding plate in the northern area of the giant 1960 Valdivia earthquakeImaging crustal structures through a passive seismic imaging approach in a mining area in Saxony, GermanyInvestigating the effects of intersection flow localization in equivalent-continuum-based upscaling of flow in discrete fracture networksCross-diffusion waves resulting from multiscale, multiphysics instabilities: application to earthquakesReverse time migration (RTM) imaging of iron oxide deposits in the Ludvika mining area, SwedenNear-surface structure of the Sodankylä area in Finland, obtained by passive seismic interferometryEvolution of the Iberian Massif as deduced from its crustal thickness and geometry of a mid-crustal (Conrad) discontinuityFour-dimensional tracer flow reconstruction in fractured rock through borehole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) monitoringMoho topography beneath the European Eastern Alps by global-phase seismic interferometrySeismic imaging across fault systems in the Abitibi greenstone belt – an analysis of pre- and post-stack migration approaches in the Chibougamau area, Quebec, CanadaEarly Cenozoic Eurekan strain partitioning and decoupling in central Spitsbergen, SvalbardOn the comparison of strain measurements from fibre optics with a dense seismometer array at Etna volcano (Italy)Cross-diffusion waves resulting from multiscale, multi-physics instabilities: theoryMulti-scale analysis and modelling of aeromagnetic data over the Bétaré-Oya area in eastern Cameroon, for structural evidence investigationsThe impact of seismic interpretation methods on the analysis of faults: a case study from the Snøhvit field, Barents SeaWireline distributed acoustic sensing allows 4.2 km deep vertical seismic profiling of the Rotliegend 150 °C geothermal reservoir in the North German BasinIntegrated land and water-borne geophysical surveys shed light on the sudden drying of large karst lakes in southern MexicoSparse 3D reflection seismic survey for deep-targeting iron oxide deposits and their host rocks, Ludvika Mines, SwedenFault sealing and caprock integrity for CO2 storage: an in situ injection experimentWhat can seismic noise tell us about the Alpine reactivation of the Iberian Massif? An example in the Iberian Central SystemIn situ hydromechanical responses during well drilling recorded by fiber-optic distributed strain sensingCoherent diffraction imaging for enhanced fault and fracture network characterizationOn the morphology and amplitude of 2D and 3D thermal anomalies induced by buoyancy-driven flow within and around fault zonesCharacterizing a decametre-scale granitic reservoir using ground-penetrating radar and seismic methodsMantle flow below the central and greater Alpine region: insights from SKS anisotropy analysis at AlpArray and permanent stationsUpper Jurassic carbonate buildups in the Miechów Trough, southern Poland – insights from seismic data interpretationsSeismic evidence for failed rifting in the Ligurian Basin, Western Alpine domainAzimuth-, angle- and frequency-dependent seismic velocities of cracked rocks due to squirt flow
Srishti Singh and Radheshyam Yadav
Solid Earth, 14, 937–959,Short summary
We use numerical models to study the stresses arising from gravitational potential energy (GPE) variations and shear tractions associated with mantle convection in the Zagros–Iran region. The joint models predicted consistent deviatoric stresses that can explain most of the deformation indicators. Stresses associated with mantle convection are found to be higher than those from GPE, thus indicating the deformation in this region may primarily be caused by the mantle, except in eastern Iran.
Sonja H. Wadas, Johanna F. Krumbholz, Vladimir Shipilin, Michael Krumbholz, David C. Tanner, and Hermann Buness
Solid Earth, 14, 871–908,Short summary
The geothermal carbonate reservoir below Munich, Germany, is extremely heterogeneous because it is controlled by many factors like lithology, diagenesis, karstification, and tectonic deformation. We used a 3D seismic single- and multi-attribute analysis combined with well data and a neural-net-based lithology classification to obtain an improved reservoir concept outlining its structural and diagenetic evolution and to identify high-quality reservoir zones in the Munich area.
Mengqi Wang, Lidong Dai, Haiying Hu, Ziming Hu, Chenxin Jing, Chuanyu Yin, Song Luo, and Jinhua Lai
Solid Earth, 14, 847–858,Short summary
This is the first time that the electrical conductivity of gabbroic melt was assessed at high temperature and high pressure. The dependence of electrical conductivity on the degree of depolymerization was also explored. Electrical conductivity of gabbroic melts can be employed to interpret high-conductivity anomalies in the Mohns Ridge of the Arctic Ocean. This is of widespread interest to potential readers in high-pressure rock physics, solid geophysics, and deep Earth science.
Laura Gaßner and Joachim Ritter
Solid Earth, 14, 785–803,Short summary
In this work we analyze signals emitted from wind turbines. They induce sound as well as ground motion waves which propagate through the subsurface and are registered by sensitive instruments. In our data we observe when these signals are present and how strong they are. Some signals are present in ground motion and sound data, providing the opportunity to study similarities and better characterize emissions. Furthermore, we study the amplitudes with distance to improve the signal prediction.
Gesa Franz, Marion Jegen, Max Moorkamp, Christian Berndt, and Wolfgang Rabbel
Solid Earth, 14, 237–259,Short summary
Our study focuses on the correlation of two geophysical parameters (electrical resistivity and density) with geological units. We use this computer-aided correlation to improve interpretation of the Earth’s formation history along the Namibian coast and the associated formation of the South Atlantic Ocean. It helps to distinguish different types of sediment cover and varieties of oceanic crust, as well as to identify typical features associated with the breakup of continents.
Jonathan Ford, Angelo Camerlenghi, Francesca Zolezzi, and Marilena Calarco
Solid Earth, 14, 137–151,Short summary
Submarine landslides commonly appear as low-amplitude zones in seismic data. Previous studies have attributed this to a lack of preserved internal structure. We use seismic modelling to show that an amplitude reduction can be generated even when there is still metre-scale internal structure, by simply deforming the bedding. This has implications for interpreting failure type, for core-seismic correlation and for discriminating landslides from other "transparent" phenomena such as free gas.
Jérémie Giraud, Guillaume Caumon, Lachlan Grose, Vitaliy Ogarko, and Paul Cupillard
We present and test an algorithm that integrates geological modelling into geophysical modelling. This is motivated by the need to model the earth using all available data and to reconcile the different types of measurements. We introduce the methodology in detail and test our algorithm using two idealised scenarios. Results suggest that the method we propose is effectively capable of improving the models recovered by geophysical inversion and may be applied in real world scenarios.
Sepidehalsadat Hendi, Mostafa Gorjian, Gilles Bellefleur, Christopher D. Hawkes, and Don White
Solid Earth, 14, 89–99,Short summary
In this study, the modelling results are used to help understand the performance of a helically wound fibre (HWC) from a field study at the New Afton mine, British Columbia. We introduce the numerical 3D model to model strain values in HWC to design more effective HWC system. The DAS dataset at New Afton, interpreted in the context of our modelling, serves as a practical demonstration of the extreme effects of surrounding media and coupling on HWC data quality.
Jérémie Giraud, Hoël Seillé, Mark D. Lindsay, Gerhard Visser, Vitaliy Ogarko, and Mark W. Jessell
Solid Earth, 14, 43–68,Short summary
We propose and apply a workflow to combine the modelling and interpretation of magnetic anomalies and resistivity anomalies to better image the basement. We test the method on a synthetic case study and apply it to real world data from the Cloncurry area (Queensland, Australia), which is prospective for economic minerals. Results suggest a new interpretation of the composition and structure towards to east of the profile that we modelled.
Thilo Wrona, Indranil Pan, Rebecca Bell, Christopher A.-L. Jackson, Robert Gawthorpe, Haakon Fossen, Edoseghe Osagiede, and Sascha Brune
We need to understand where faults are to (1) assess their seismic hazard, (2) to explore for natural resources and (3) to store CO2 safely in the subsurface. Currently we still map faults manually using seismic data i.e. acoustic images of the subsurface. Mapping these images is however difficult and time-consuming. Here we show how to use deep learning and network analysis to accelerate and simplify fault mapping.
Sonja H. Wadas, Hermann Buness, Raphael Rochlitz, Peter Skiba, Thomas Günther, Michael Grinat, David C. Tanner, Ulrich Polom, Gerald Gabriel, and Charlotte M. Krawczyk
Solid Earth, 13, 1673–1696,Short summary
The dissolution of rocks poses a severe hazard because it can cause subsidence and sinkhole formation. Based on results from our study area in Thuringia, Germany, using P- and SH-wave reflection seismics, electrical resistivity and electromagnetic methods, and gravimetry, we develop a geophysical investigation workflow. This workflow enables identifying the initial triggers of subsurface dissolution and its control factors, such as structural constraints, fluid pathways, and mass movement.
Mohammadkarim Karimpour, Evert Slob, and Laura Valentina Socco
Solid Earth, 13, 1569–1583,Short summary
Near-surface characterisation is of great importance. Surface wave tomography (SWT) is a powerful tool to model the subsurface. In this work we compare straight-ray and curved-ray SWT at near-surface scale. We apply both approaches to four datasets and compare the results in terms of the quality of the final model and the computational cost. We show that in the case of high data coverage, straight-ray SWT can produce similar results to curved-ray SWT but with less computational cost.
La Ode Marzujriban Masfara, Thomas Cullison, and Cornelis Weemstra
Solid Earth, 13, 1309–1325,Short summary
Induced earthquakes are natural phenomena in which the events are associated with human activities. Although the magnitudes of these events are mostly smaller than tectonic events, in some cases, the magnitudes can be high enough to damage buildings near the event's location. To study these (high-magnitude) induced events, we developed a workflow in which the recorded data from an earthquake are used to describe the source and monitor the area for other (potentially high-magnitude) earthquakes.
Evgeniia Martuganova, Manfred Stiller, Ben Norden, Jan Henninges, and Charlotte M. Krawczyk
Solid Earth, 13, 1291–1307,Short summary
We demonstrate the applicability of vertical seismic profiling (VSP) acquired using wireline distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) technology for deep geothermal reservoir imaging and characterization. Borehole DAS data provide critical input for seismic interpretation and help assess small-scale geological structures. This case study can be used as a basis for detailed structural exploration of geothermal reservoirs and provide insightful information for geothermal exploration projects.
Brij Singh, Michał Malinowski, Andrzej Górszczyk, Alireza Malehmir, Stefan Buske, Łukasz Sito, and Paul Marsden
Solid Earth, 13, 1065–1085,Short summary
Fast depletion of shallower deposits is pushing the mining industry to look for cutting-edge technologies for deep mineral targeting. We demonstrated a joint workflow including two state-of-the-art technologies: full-waveform inversion and reverse time migration. We produced Earth images with significant details which can help with better estimation of areas with high mineralisation, better mine planning and safety measures.
Felix Hloušek, Michal Malinowski, Lena Bräunig, Stefan Buske, Alireza Malehmir, Magdalena Markovic, Lukasz Sito, Paul Marsden, and Emma Bäckström
Solid Earth, 13, 917–934,Short summary
Methods for mineral exploration play an important role within the EU. Exploration must be environmentally friendly, cost effective, and feasible in populated areas. Seismic methods have the potential to deliver detailed images of mineral deposits but suffer from these demands. We show the results for a sparse 3D seismic dataset acquired in Sweden. The 3D depth image allows us to track the known mineralizations beyond the known extent and gives new insights into the geometry of the deposit.
Robert Jackisch, Björn H. Heincke, Robert Zimmermann, Erik V. Sørensen, Markku Pirttijärvi, Moritz Kirsch, Heikki Salmirinne, Stefanie Lode, Urpo Kuronen, and Richard Gloaguen
Solid Earth, 13, 793–825,Short summary
We integrate UAS-based magnetic and multispectral data with legacy exploration data of a Ni–Cu–PGE prospect on Disko Island, West Greenland. The basalt unit has a complex magnetization, and we use a constrained 3D magnetic vector inversion to estimate magnetic properties and spatial dimensions of the target unit. Our 3D modelling reveals a horizontal sheet and a strong remanent magnetization component. We highlight the advantage of UAS use in rugged and remote terrain.
Trond Ryberg, Moritz Kirsch, Christian Haberland, Raimon Tolosana-Delgado, Andrea Viezzoli, and Richard Gloaguen
Solid Earth, 13, 519–533,Short summary
Novel methods for mineral exploration play an important role in future resource exploration. The methods have to be environmentally friendly, socially accepted and cost effective by integrating multidisciplinary methodologies. We investigate the potential of passive, ambient noise tomography combined with 3D airborne electromagnetics for mineral exploration in Geyer, Germany. We show that the combination of the two geophysical data sets has promising potential for future mineral exploration.
Chiara Colombero, Myrto Papadopoulou, Tuomas Kauti, Pietari Skyttä, Emilia Koivisto, Mikko Savolainen, and Laura Valentina Socco
Solid Earth, 13, 417–429,Short summary
Passive-source surface waves may be exploited in mineral exploration for deeper investigations. We propose a semi-automatic workflow for their processing. The geological interpretation of the results obtained at a mineral site (Siilinjärvi phosphorus mine) shows large potentialities and effectiveness of the proposed workflow.
Yueyang Xia, Dirk Klaeschen, Heidrun Kopp, and Michael Schnabel
Solid Earth, 13, 367–392,Short summary
Geological interpretations based on seismic depth images depend on an accurate subsurface velocity model. Reflection tomography is one method to iteratively update a velocity model based on depth error analysis. We used a warping method to estimate closely spaced data-driven depth error displacement fields. The application to a multichannel seismic line across the Sunda subduction zone illustrates the approach which leads to more accurate images of complex geological structures.
Martin Peter Lipus, Felix Schölderle, Thomas Reinsch, Christopher Wollin, Charlotte Krawczyk, Daniela Pfrang, and Kai Zosseder
Solid Earth, 13, 161–176,Short summary
A fiber-optic cable was installed along a freely suspended rod in a deep geothermal well in Munich, Germany. A cold-water injection test was monitored with fiber-optic distributed acoustic and temperature sensing. During injection, we observe vibrational events in the lower part of the well. On the basis of a mechanical model, we conclude that the vibrational events are caused by thermal contraction of the rod. The results illustrate potential artifacts when analyzing downhole acoustic data.
Jean-Baptiste P. Koehl, Craig Magee, and Ingrid M. Anell
Solid Earth, 13, 85–115,Short summary
The present study shows evidence of fault systems (large cracks in the Earth's crust) hundreds to thousands of kilometers long and several kilometers thick extending from northwestern Russia to the northern Norwegian Barents Sea and the Svalbard Archipelago using seismic, magnetic, and gravimetric data. The study suggests that the crust in Svalbard and the Barents Sea was already attached to Norway and Russia at ca. 650–550 Ma, thus challenging existing models.
Andrei Maksymowicz, Daniela Montecinos-Cuadros, Daniel Díaz, María José Segovia, and Tomás Reyes
Solid Earth, 13, 117–136,Short summary
This work analyses the density structure of the continental forearc in the northern segment of the 1960 Mw 9.6 Valdivia earthquake. Results show a segmentation of the continental wedge along and perpendicular to the margin. The extension of the less rigid basement units conforming the marine wedge and Coastal Cordillera domain could modify the process of stress loading during the interseismic periods. This analysis highlights the role of the overriding plate on the seismotectonic process.
Hossein Hassani, Felix Hloušek, Stefan Buske, and Olaf Wallner
Solid Earth, 12, 2703–2715,Short summary
Passive seismic imaging methods use natural earthquakes as seismic sources, while in active seismic imaging methods, artificial sources (e.g. explosives) are used to generate seismic waves. We imaged some structures related to a major fault plane through a passive seismic imaging approach using microearthquakes with magnitudes smaller than 0.9 (Mw). These structures have not been illuminated by a previously conducted 3D active seismic survey due to their large dip angles.
Maximilian O. Kottwitz, Anton A. Popov, Steffen Abe, and Boris J. P. Kaus
Solid Earth, 12, 2235–2254,Short summary
Upscaling fluid flow in fractured reservoirs is an important practice in subsurface resource utilization. In this study, we first conduct numerical simulations of direct fluid flow at locations where fractures intersect to analyze the arising hydraulic complexities. Next, we develop a model that integrates these effects into larger-scale continuum models of fracture networks to investigate their impact on the upscaling. For intensively fractured systems, these effects become important.
Klaus Regenauer-Lieb, Manman Hu, Christoph Schrank, Xiao Chen, Santiago Peña Clavijo, Ulrich Kelka, Ali Karrech, Oliver Gaede, Tomasz Blach, Hamid Roshan, Antoine B. Jacquey, Piotr Szymczak, and Qingpei Sun
Solid Earth, 12, 1829–1849,Short summary
This paper presents a trans-disciplinary approach bridging the gap between observations of instabilities from the molecular scale to the very large scale. We show that all scales communicate via propagation of volumetric deformation waves. Similar phenomena are encountered in quantum optics where wave collisions can release sporadic bursts of light. Ocean waves show a similar phenomenon of rogue waves that seem to come from nowhere. This mechanism is proposed to be the trigger for earthquakes.
Yinshuai Ding and Alireza Malehmir
Solid Earth, 12, 1707–1718,Short summary
In this article, we investigate the potential of reverse time migration (RTM) for deep targeting iron oxide deposits and the possible AVO effect that is potentially seen in the common image gathers from this migration algorithm. The results are promising and help to delineate the deposits and host rock structures using a 2D dataset from the Ludvika mines of central Sweden.
Nikita Afonin, Elena Kozlovskaya, Suvi Heinonen, and Stefan Buske
Solid Earth, 12, 1563–1579,Short summary
In our study, we show the results of a passive seismic interferometry application for mapping the uppermost crust in the area of active mineral exploration in northern Finland. The obtained velocity models agree well with geological data and complement the results of reflection seismic data interpretation.
Puy Ayarza, José Ramón Martínez Catalán, Ana Martínez García, Juan Alcalde, Juvenal Andrés, José Fernando Simancas, Immaculada Palomeras, David Martí, Irene DeFelipe, Chris Juhlin, and Ramón Carbonell
Solid Earth, 12, 1515–1547,Short summary
Vertical incidence seismic profiling on the Iberian Massif images a mid-crustal-scale discontinuity at the top of the reflective lower crust. This feature shows that upper- and lower-crustal reflections merge into it, suggesting that it has often behaved as a detachment. The orogen-scale extension of this discontinuity, present in Gondwanan and Avalonian affinity terranes into the Iberian Massif, demonstrates its relevance, leading us to interpret it as the Conrad discontinuity.
Peter-Lasse Giertzuch, Joseph Doetsch, Alexis Shakas, Mohammadreza Jalali, Bernard Brixel, and Hansruedi Maurer
Solid Earth, 12, 1497–1513,Short summary
Two time-lapse borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted during saline tracer experiments in weakly fractured crystalline rock with sub-millimeter fractures apertures, targeting electrical conductivity changes. The combination of time-lapse reflection and transmission GPR surveys from different boreholes allowed monitoring the tracer flow and reconstructing the flow path and its temporal evolution in 3D and provided a realistic visualization of the hydrological processes.
Irene Bianchi, Elmer Ruigrok, Anne Obermann, and Edi Kissling
Solid Earth, 12, 1185–1196,Short summary
The European Alps formed during collision between the European and Adriatic plates and are one of the most studied orogens for understanding the dynamics of mountain building. In the Eastern Alps, the contact between the colliding plates is still a matter of debate. We have used the records from distant earthquakes to highlight the geometries of the crust–mantle boundary in the Eastern Alpine area; our results suggest a complex and faulted internal crustal structure beneath the higher crests.
Saeid Cheraghi, Alireza Malehmir, Mostafa Naghizadeh, David Snyder, Lucie Mathieu, and Pierre Bedeaux
Solid Earth, 12, 1143–1164,Short summary
High-resolution seismic profiles in 2D are acquired in the north and south of the Chibougamau area, Quebec, Canada located in the northeast of the Abitibi Greenstone belt. The area mostly includes volcanic rocks, and both profiles cross over several fault zones. The seismic method is acquired to image the subsurface down to depth of 12 km. The main aim of this study is to image major fault zones and the geological formations connected to those faults to investigate metal endowment in the area.
Jean-Baptiste P. Koehl
Solid Earth, 12, 1025–1049,Short summary
By using seismic data and fieldwork, this contribution shows that soft, coal-rich sedimentary rocks absorbed most of early Cenozoic, Eurekan, contractional deformation in central Spitsbergen, thus suggesting that no contractional deformation event is needed in the Late Devonian to explain the deformation differences among late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. It also shows that the Billefjorden Fault Zone, a major crack in the Earth's crust in Svalbard, is probably segmented.
Gilda Currenti, Philippe Jousset, Rosalba Napoli, Charlotte Krawczyk, and Michael Weber
Solid Earth, 12, 993–1003,Short summary
We investigate the capability of distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) to record dynamic strain changes related to Etna volcano activity in 2019. To validate the DAS measurements, we compute strain estimates from seismic signals recorded by a dense broadband array. A general good agreement is found between array-derived strain and DAS measurements along the fibre optic cable. Localised short wavelength discrepancies highlight small-scale structural heterogeneities in the investigated area.
Klaus Regenauer-Lieb, Manman Hu, Christoph Schrank, Xiao Chen, Santiago Peña Clavijo, Ulrich Kelka, Ali Karrech, Oliver Gaede, Tomasz Blach, Hamid Roshan, and Antoine B. Jacquey
Solid Earth, 12, 869–883,Short summary
In this paper we expand on a recent discovery of slow cross-diffusion hydromechanical waves cast into a new concise reaction–diffusion equation for THMC coupling. If waves are excited through the THMC reaction terms unbounded reactions can be captured by inclusion of statistical information from the lower scale through nonlocal reaction–diffusion equations. These cross-diffusion coefficients regularize extreme earthquake-like events (rogue waves) through a new form of quasi-soliton wave.
Christian Emile Nyaban, Théophile Ndougsa-Mbarga, Marcelin Bikoro-Bi-Alou, Stella Amina Manekeng Tadjouteu, and Stephane Patrick Assembe
Solid Earth, 12, 785–800,Short summary
A multi-scale analysis of aeromagnetic data combining tilt derivative, Euler deconvolution, upward continuation, and 2.75D modelling was applied over Cameroon between the latitudes 5°30'–6° N and the longitudes 13°30'–14°45' E. Major families of faults oriented ENE–WSW, E–W, NW–SE, and N–S with a NE–SW prevalence were mapped. Depths of interpreted faults range from 1000 to 3400 m, mylonitic veins were identified, and 2.75D modelling revealed fault depths greater than 1200 m.
Jennifer E. Cunningham, Nestor Cardozo, Chris Townsend, and Richard H. T. Callow
Solid Earth, 12, 741–764,Short summary
This work investigates the impact of commonly used seismic interpretation methods on the analysis of faults. Fault analysis refers to fault length, displacement, and the impact these factors have on geological modelling and hydrocarbon volume calculation workflows. This research was conducted to give geoscientists a better understanding of the importance of interpretation methods and the impact of unsuitable methology on geological analyses.
Jan Henninges, Evgeniia Martuganova, Manfred Stiller, Ben Norden, and Charlotte M. Krawczyk
Solid Earth, 12, 521–537,Short summary
We performed a seismic survey in two 4.3 km deep geothermal research wells using the novel method of distributed acoustic sensing and wireline cables. The characteristics of the acquired data, methods for data processing and quality improvement, and interpretations on the geometry and structure of the sedimentary and volcanic reservoir rocks are presented. The method enables measurements at high temperatures and reduced cost compared to conventional sensors.
Matthias Bücker, Adrián Flores Orozco, Jakob Gallistl, Matthias Steiner, Lukas Aigner, Johannes Hoppenbrock, Ruth Glebe, Wendy Morales Barrera, Carlos Pita de la Paz, César Emilio García García, José Alberto Razo Pérez, Johannes Buckel, Andreas Hördt, Antje Schwalb, and Liseth Pérez
Solid Earth, 12, 439–461,Short summary
We use seismic, electromagnetic, and geoelectrical methods to assess sediment thickness and lake-bottom geology of two karst lakes. An unexpected drainage event provided us with the unusual opportunity to compare water-borne measurements with measurements carried out on the dry lake floor. The resulting data set does not only provide insight into the specific lake-bottom geology of the studied lakes but also evidences the potential and limitations of the employed field methods.
Alireza Malehmir, Magdalena Markovic, Paul Marsden, Alba Gil, Stefan Buske, Lukasz Sito, Emma Bäckström, Martiya Sadeghi, and Stefan Luth
Solid Earth, 12, 483–502,Short summary
A smooth transition toward decarbonization demands access to more minerals of critical importance. Europe has a good geology for many of these mineral deposits, but at a depth requiring sensitive, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective methods for their exploration. In this context, we present a sparse 3D seismic dataset that allowed identification of potential iron oxide resources at depth and helped to characterise key geological structures and a historical tailing in central Sweden.
Alba Zappone, Antonio Pio Rinaldi, Melchior Grab, Quinn C. Wenning, Clément Roques, Claudio Madonna, Anne C. Obermann, Stefano M. Bernasconi, Matthias S. Brennwald, Rolf Kipfer, Florian Soom, Paul Cook, Yves Guglielmi, Christophe Nussbaum, Domenico Giardini, Marco Mazzotti, and Stefan Wiemer
Solid Earth, 12, 319–343,Short summary
The success of the geological storage of carbon dioxide is linked to the availability at depth of a capable reservoir and an impermeable caprock. The sealing capacity of the caprock is a key parameter for long-term CO2 containment. Faults crosscutting the caprock might represent preferential pathways for CO2 to escape. A decameter-scale experiment on injection in a fault, monitored by an integrated network of multiparamerter sensors, sheds light on the mobility of fluids within the fault.
Juvenal Andrés, Puy Ayarza, Martin Schimmel, Imma Palomeras, Mario Ruiz, and Ramon Carbonell
Solid Earth, 11, 2499–2513,
Yi Zhang, Xinglin Lei, Tsutomu Hashimoto, and Ziqiu Xue
Solid Earth, 11, 2487–2497,Short summary
Spatially continuous strain responses in two monitoring wells induced by a well-drilling process were monitored using high-resolution fiber-optic distributed strain sensing (DSS). The modeling results suggest that the strain polarities and magnitudes along the wellbores may be indicative of the layered-permeability structure or heterogeneous formation damage. The performance and value of DSS as a novel hydrogeophysical tool for in situ subsurface monitoring are emphasized.
Benjamin Schwarz and Charlotte M. Krawczyk
Solid Earth, 11, 1891–1907,Short summary
Intricate fault and fracture networks cut through the upper crust, and their detailed delineation and characterization play an important role in the Earth sciences. While conventional geophysical sounding techniques only provide indirect means of detection, we present scale-spanning field data examples, in which coherent diffraction imaging – a framework inspired by optics and visual perception – enables the direct imaging of these crustal features at an unprecedented spatial resolution.
Laurent Guillou-Frottier, Hugo Duwiquet, Gaëtan Launay, Audrey Taillefer, Vincent Roche, and Gaétan Link
Solid Earth, 11, 1571–1595,Short summary
In the first kilometers of the subsurface, temperature anomalies due to heat conduction rarely exceed 20–30°C. However, when deep hot fluids in the shallow crust flow upwards, for example through permeable fault zones, hydrothermal convection can form high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Numerical modeling of hydrothermal convection shows that vertical fault zones may host funnel-shaped, kilometer-sized geothermal reservoirs whose exploitation would not need drilling at depths below 2–3 km.
Joseph Doetsch, Hannes Krietsch, Cedric Schmelzbach, Mohammadreza Jalali, Valentin Gischig, Linus Villiger, Florian Amann, and Hansruedi Maurer
Solid Earth, 11, 1441–1455,
Laura Petrescu, Silvia Pondrelli, Simone Salimbeni, Manuele Faccenda, and the AlpArray Working Group
Solid Earth, 11, 1275–1290,Short summary
To place constraints on the mantle deformation beneath the Central Alps and the greater Alpine region, we analysed the appropriate seismic signal recorded by more than 100 stations, belonging to AlpArray and to other permanent networks. We took a picture of the imprinting that Alpine orogen history and related subductions left at depth, with a mainly orogen-parallel mantle deformation from Western Alps to Eastern Alps, but also N to S from the Po Plain to the Rhine Graben.
Łukasz Słonka and Piotr Krzywiec
Solid Earth, 11, 1097–1119,Short summary
This paper shows the results of seismic interpretations that document the presence of large Upper Jurassic carbonate buildups in the Miechów Trough (S Poland). Our work fills the gap in recognition of the Upper Jurassic carbonate depositional system of southern Poland. The results also provide an excellent generic reference point, showing how and to what extent seismic data can be used for studies of carbonate depositional systems, in particular for the identification of the carbonate buildups.
Anke Dannowski, Heidrun Kopp, Ingo Grevemeyer, Dietrich Lange, Martin Thorwart, Jörg Bialas, and Martin Wollatz-Vogt
Solid Earth, 11, 873–887,Short summary
The Ligurian Sea opened ~30–15 Ma during the SE migration of the Calabrian subduction zone. Seismic travel time tomography reveals the absence of oceanic crust, documenting that the extension of continental lithosphere stopped before seafloor spreading initiated. The extension led to extreme crustal thinning and possibly exhumed mantle accompanied by syn-rift sedimentation. Our new interpretation of the crust's nature is important for plate reconstruction modelling related to the Alpine orogen.
Yury Alkhimenkov, Eva Caspari, Simon Lissa, and Beatriz Quintal
Solid Earth, 11, 855–871,Short summary
We perform a three-dimensional numerical study of the fluid–solid deformation at the pore scale. We show that seismic wave velocities exhibit strong azimuth-, angle- and frequency-dependent behavior due to squirt flow between interconnected cracks. We conclude that the overall anisotropy mainly increases due to squirt flow, but in some specific planes it can locally decrease as well as increase, depending on the material properties.
Al-Ajmi, A. M. and Zimmerman, R. W.: Relation between the Mogi and the Coulomb failure criteria, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min., 42, 431–439, 2005.
Al-Ajmi, A. M. and Zimmerman, R. W.: Stability analysis of vertical boreholes using the Mogi–Coulomb failure criterion, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min., 43, 1200–1211, 2006.
Ambrose, J.: Failure of Anisotropic Shales under Triaxial Stress Conditions, unpublished PhD thesis, Imperial College London, 265 pp., 2014.
Barton, C. A., Zoback, M. D. and Burns, K. L.: In-situ stress orientation and magnitude at the Fenton geothermal site, New Mexico, determined from wellbore breakouts, Geophys. Res. Lett., 15, 467–470, 1988.
Bernabé, Y., Mok, U., and Evans, B.: A note on the oscillating flow method for measuring rock permeability, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min., 43, 311–316, 2006.
Bott, M. H. P.: The mechanics of oblique slip faulting, Geol. Mag., 96, 109–117, 1959.
Byerlee, J. D.: Brittle-ductile transition in rocks, J. Geophys. Res., 73, 4741–4750, 1968.
Byerlee, J. D.: Friction of rocks, Pure Appl. Geophys., 116, 615–626, 1978.
Castillo, D., Bishop, D. J., Donaldson, I., Kuek, D., de Ruig, M., Trupp, M., and Shuster, M. W.: Trap integrity in the Laminaria high-Nancar trough region, Timor Sea: prediction of fault seal failure using well-constrained stress tensors and fault surfaces interpreted from 3D seismics, Appea J., 40, 151–173, 2000.
Chang, C. and Haimson, B.: True triaxial strength and deformability of the KTB deep hole amphibolite, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 18999–19013, 2000.
Colmenares, L. B. and Zoback, M. D.: A statistical evaluation of intact rock failure criteria constrained by polyaxial test data for five different rocks, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min., 39, 695–729, 2002.
Dehler, W. and Labuz, J. F.: Stress Path Testing of an Anisotropic Sandstone, J. Geotech. Geoenviron., 133, 116–119, 2007.
Donath, F. A.: Experimental study of shear failure in anisotropic rocks, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 72, 985–990, 1961.
Ewy, R.: Wellbore-stability predictions by use of a modified Lade criterion, SPE Drill. Completion, 14, 85–91, 1999.
Goetze, C. and Evans, B.: Stress and temperature in the bending lithosphere as constrained by experimental rock mechanics, Geophys. J. Roy. Astr. S., 59, 463–478, 1979.
Haimson, B. C. and Chang, C.: A New true triaxial cell for testing mechanical properties of rock, and its use to determine rock strength and deformability of Westerly Granite, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min., 36, 285–296, 2000.
Haimson, B. and Chang, C.: True triaxial strength of the KTB amphibolite under borehole wall conditions and its use to estimate the maximum horizontal in situ stress, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 2257–2271, 2002.
Haimson, B. and Rudnicki, J. W.: The effect of the intermediate principal stress on fault formation and fault angle in siltstone, J. Struct. Geol., 32, 1701–1711, 2010.
Haimson, B. C. and Song, I.: Laboratory study of borehole breakouts in Cordova Cream: a case of shear failure mechanism, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min., 30, 1047–1056, 1993.
Handin, J.: On the Coulomb-Mohr Failure Criterion, J. Geophys. Res., 74, 5343–5348, 1969.
Handin, J., Heard, H. C., and Magouirk, J. N.: Effect of the intermediate principal stress on the failure of limestone, dolomite, and glass at different temperature and strain rate, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 611–640, 1967.
Heap, M. J., Baud, P., Meredith, P. G., Bell, A. F., and Main, I. G.: Time-dependent brittle creep in Darley Dale sandstone, J. Geophys. Res., 114, B07203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JB006212, 2009.
Heard, H. C.: Transition from brittle fracture to ductile flow in Solenhofen limestone as a function of temperature, confining pressure and interstitial fluid pressure, edited by: Handin, J. and Griggs, D. T., Rock Deformation, Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 79, 193–226, 1960.
Heard, H. C.: Effect of large changes in strain rate in the experimental deformation of Yule marble, J. Geol., 71, 162–195, 1963.
Heard, H. C.: Steady state flow in polycrystalline halite at pressures of 2 kilobars, in: Flow and Fracture of Rocks, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 16, edited by: Heard, H. C., Borg, I. Y., Carter, N. L., and Raleigh, C. B., AGU, Washington, DC, 191–190, 1972.
Jaeger, J. C.: Shear failure of anisotropic rock, Geol. Mag., 97, 65–72, 1960.
Jaeger, J. C.: Elasticity, fracture and flow, Methuen and Co., London, 212 pp., 1964.
Kelling, G.: Upper Carboniferous sedimentation in South Wales, in: The Upper Palaeozoic and Post-Palaeozoic Rocks of Wales, edited by: Oven, T. R., University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 185–224, 1974.
Kern, H. and Karl, F.: Eine dreiaxial wirkended Gesteinspresse mit Heizvorrichtung, Bergbauwissenschaflen, 16, 90–92, 1969.
Kohlstedt, D. L., Evans, B., and Mackwell, S. J.: Strength of the lithosphere: constraints imposed by laboratory experiments, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 17587–17602, 1995.
Kwaśniewski, M.: Mechanical behaviour of rocks under true triaxial compression – a review, in: True triaxial testing of rocks, edited by: Kwaśniewski, M., Li, X., and Takahashi M., Chapter 8, Geomechanics Research Series 4, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Leiden Holland, 99–138, 2012.
Kwaśniewski, M.: Recent advances in studies of the strength of rocks under true triaxial compression conditions, Arch. Min. Sci., 58, 1177–1200, 2013.
Lade, P.: Elasto-plastic stress-strain theory for cohesionless soil with curved yield surfaces, Int. J. Solids Struct., 13, 1019–1035, 1977.
Lee, M. and Haimson, B.: Laboratory study of borehole breakouts in Lac du Bonnet granite: a case of extensile failure mechanism, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min., 30, 1039–1046, 1993.
Mackwell, S. J. and Paterson, M. S.: New developments in deformation studies: high-strain deformation, in: Plastic deformation of minerals and rocks, edited by: Karato, S. I. and Wenk, H. R., Rev. Mineral. Geochem., 51, 1–19, 2002.
Mair, K. and Marone, C.: Friction of simulated fault gouge for a wide range of velocities and normal stresses, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 28899–28914, 1999.
Menéndez, B., Zhu, W., and Wong, T.: Micromechanics of brittle faulting and cataclastic flow in Berea sandstone, J. Struct. Geol., 18, 1–16, 1996.
Mogi, K.: Effect of the intermediate principal stress on rock failure, J. Geophys. Res., 72, 5117–5131, 1967.
Mogi, K.: Fracture and flow of rocks under high triaxial compression, J. Geophys. Res., 76, 1255–1269, 1971.
Reches, Z. and Dieterich, J. H.: Faulting of rocks in three-dimensional strain fields, I. failure of rocks in polyaxial, servo-control experiments, Tectonophysics, 95, 111–132, 1983.
Rutter, E. H. and Glover, C. T.: The deformation of porous sandstones; are Byerlee friction and the critical state line equivalent?, J. Struct. Geol., 44, 129–140, 2012.
Scott, T. E. and Nielsen, K. C.: The effects of porosity on the brittle-ductile transition in sandstones, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 405–414, 1991a.
Scott, T. E. and Nielsen, K. C.: The effects of porosity on fault reactivation in sandstones, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 2353–2362, 1991b.
Smart, B. G. D.: A true triaxial cell for testing cylindrical rock specimens, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min., 32, 269–275, 1995.
Smith, M. B. and Cheatham, J. B.: A Three-Dimensional Anisotropic Yield Condition for Green River Shale, J. En. Resour. Technol., 102, 184–189, 1980.
Song, I. and Haimson, B. C.: Polyaxial strength criteria and their use in estimating in-situ stress magnitudes from borehole breakout dimensions, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min., 34, 3–4, 1997.
Takahashi, M. and Koide, H.: Effect of the intermediate principal stress on strength and deformation behavior of sedimentary rocks at the depth shallower than 2000 m, edited by: Maury, V. and Fourmaintraux, D., Rock at great depth, vol. 1, Rotterdam, Balkema, 19–26, 1989.
Vernik, L. and Zoback, M. D.: Estimation of maximum horizontal principal stress magnitude from stress-induced well bore breakouts in the Cajon Pass scientific research borehole, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 5109–5119, 1992.
You, M. Q.: True-triaxial strength criteria for rock, Int. J. Rock Mech. Min., 46, 115–127, 2009.
Zhang, L.: A generalized three-dimensional Hoek-Brown strength criterion, Rock Mech. Rock Eng., 41, 893–915, 2008.
Zhu, W. and Wong, T.-F.: The transition from brittle faulting to cataclastic flow: permeability evolution, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 3027–3041, 1997.
Zoback, M.: Reservoir Geomechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 449 pp., 2007.
This was an experimental study of the strength of two rock types, over a range of pressure conditions that correspond to depths in the Earth’s crust ranging up to 12 km. Tests were carried out under different stress regimes to simulate extremes of the range of loading geometries encountered in the Earth and hence how these affect failure strength and resistance to frictional slip on faults. These experiments will promote understanding of rock behaviour in oil, gas and water reservoirs.
This was an experimental study of the strength of two rock types, over a range of pressure...