Articles | Volume 12, issue 1
Solid Earth, 12, 237–251, 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
28 Jan 2021
Research article | 28 Jan 2021
Extensional reactivation of the Penninic frontal thrust 3 Myr ago as evidenced by U–Pb dating on calcite in fault zone cataclasite
Antonin Bilau et al.
No articles found.
Marianna Corre, Arnaud Agranier, Martine Lanson, Cécile Gautheron, Fabrice Brunet, and Stéphane Schwartz
Geochronology, 4, 665–681,Short summary
This study is focused on the accurate measurement of U and Th by wet chemistry and laser ablation methods to improve (U–Th)/He dating of magnetite and spinel. The low U–Th content and the lack of specific U–Th standards significantly limit the accuracy of (U–Th)/He dating. Obtained U–Th results on natural and synthetic magnetite and aluminous spinel samples analyzed by wet chemistry methods and LA-ICP-MS sampling have important implications for the (U–Th)/He method and dates interpretation.
Pierre Seraphin, Julio Gonçalvès, Bruno Hamelin, Thomas Stieglitz, and Pierre Deschamps
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5757–5771,Short summary
This study assesses the detailed water budget of the Saq–Ram Aquifer System using satellite gravity data. Spatial heterogeneities regarding the groundwater recharge were identified: (i) irrigation excess is great enough to artificially recharge the aquifer; and (ii) volcanic lava deposits, which cover 8% of the domain, contribute to more than 50% of the total natural recharge. This indicates a major control of geological context on arid aquifer recharge, which has been poorly discussed hitherto.
Carole Petit, Tristan Salles, Vincent Godard, Yann Rolland, and Laurence Audin
We present new tools in the Landscape Evolution Model “Badlands” to simulate 10Be production, erosion and transport. These tools are applied to a source-to-sink system in the SW French Alps where the model is calibrated. We propose a model that fits river incision rates and 10Be concentrations in sediments, and we show that 10Be in marine sediments is a signal with multiple contributions that cannot be easily interpreted.
Karina Patricia Prazeres Marques, Thierry Allard, Cécile Gautheron, Benoît Baptiste, Rosella Pinna-Jamme, Guillaume Morin, Ludovic Delbes, and Pablo Vidal-Torrado
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
We proposed a new non-destructive mineralogical methodology on inframilimetric grains that allows to quantify the hematite and goethite content and hematite/goethite ratio of grains prior to (U-Th)/He geochronological analysis. (U-Th)/He data performed on different aliquots with different acquisition time shows no remarkable differences in age, opening a new way to investigate the (U-Th)/He data evolution in supergene lateritic duricrusts.
Cécile Gautheron, Rosella Pinna-Jamme, Alexis Derycke, Floriane Ahadi, Caroline Sanchez, Frédéric Haurine, Gael Monvoisin, Damien Barbosa, Guillaume Delpech, Joseph Maltese, Philippe Sarda, and Laurent Tassan-Got
Geochronology, 3, 351–370,Short summary
Apatite and zircon (U–Th) / He thermochronology is now a mainstream tool to reconstruct Earth's evolution through the history of cooling and exhumation over the first dozen kilometers. The geological implications of these data rely on the precision of measurements of He, U, Th, and Sm contents in crystals. This technical note documents the methods for He thermochronology developed at the GEOPS laboratory, Paris-Saclay University, that allow (U–Th) / He data to be obtained with precision.
Patrick Boyden, Jennifer Weil-Accardo, Pierre Deschamps, Davide Oppo, and Alessio Rovere
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1633–1651,Short summary
Sea levels during the last interglacial (130 to 73 ka) are seen as possible process analogs for future sea-level-rise scenarios as our world warms. To this end we catalog previously published ancient shoreline elevations and chronologies in a standardized data format for East Africa and the Western Indian Ocean region. These entries were then contributed to the greater World Atlas of Last Interglacial Shorelines database.
Louise Lenoir, Thomas Blaise, Andréa Somogyi, Benjamin Brigaud, Jocelyn Barbarand, Claire Boukari, Julius Nouet, Aurore Brézard-Oudot, and Maurice Pagel
Geochronology, 3, 199–227,Short summary
To explore the U–Pb geochronometer in fluorite, the spatial distribution of uranium and other substituted elements in natural crystals is investigated using induced fission-track and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence mapping. LA-ICP-MS U–Pb dating on four crystals, which preserve micrometer-scale variations in U concentrations, yields identical ages within analytical uncertainty. Our results show that fluorite U–Pb geochronology has potential for dating distinct crystal growth stages.
Clément Flaux, Matthieu Giaime, Valérie Pichot, Nick Marriner, Mena el-Assal, Abel Guihou, Pierre Deschamps, Christelle Claude, and Christophe Morhange
E&G Quaternary Sci. J., 70, 93–104,Short summary
Lake Mareotis (NW Nile delta, Egypt) was a gateway between the Nile valley and the Mediterranean during Greco-Roman times. The hydrological evolution of Lake Mareotis was reconstructed using lake sediments and archaeological archives. The data show both a rise in Nile inputs to the basin during the first millennia BC and AD and a lake-level rise of ca. 1.5 m during the Roman period. A high-energy deposit such as a tsunami also possibly affected Alexandria's lacustrine hinterland.
Chloé Poulin, Bruno Hamelin, Christine Vallet-Coulomb, Guinbe Amngar, Bichara Loukman, Jean-François Cretaux, Jean-Claude Doumnang, Abdallah Mahamat Nour, Guillemette Menot, Florence Sylvestre, and Pierre Deschamps
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1705–1724,Short summary
This study investigates the water budget of two intertropical lake systems in the absence of long-term hydrological monitoring. By coupling dry season isotopic data with satellite imagery, we were able to provide quantitative constrains on the hydrological balance and show that these two lake systems can be considered miniature analogs of Lake Chad, making them important targets in the future setup of any large-scale program on the hydro-climatic evolution in the Sahel region.
Camille Bouchez, Julio Goncalves, Pierre Deschamps, Christine Vallet-Coulomb, Bruno Hamelin, Jean-Claude Doumnang, and Florence Sylvestre
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1599–1619,Short summary
Flows out of Lake Chad are constrained by a modeling of the hydrological, chemical, and isotopic budgets, based on a review of existing data along with new data. This innovative approach allows one to determine the proportions of evaporation, transpiration, and infiltration out of the lake while the two last flows are often neglected in semi-arid environments. Moreover, it allows to investigate the lake hydrological and chemical regulations under the large climatic changes in Sahel since 1950.
A. Margirier, L. Audin, J. Carcaillet, S. Schwartz, and C. Benavente
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 281–289,Short summary
This study deals with the control of crustal tectonic activity and Altiplano climatic fluctuations in the evolution of the arid western Andes. Based on geomorphic analysis coupled with terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide investigation, we point out the role of active faulting and wet events in the development of the Chuquibamba landslide (southern Peru). Our main outcome is that the last major debris flow coincides in time with the Ouki wet climatic event identified on the Altiplano.
P. G. C. Amaral, A. Vincens, J. Guiot, G. Buchet, P. Deschamps, J.-C. Doumnang, and F. Sylvestre
Clim. Past, 9, 223–241,
Related subject area
Subject area: Tectonic plate interactions, magma genesis, and lithosphere deformation at all scales | Editorial team: Structural geology and tectonics, paleoseismology, rock physics, experimental deformation | Discipline: Structural geologyThe Luangwa Rift Active Fault Database and fault reactivation along the southwestern branch of the East African RiftClustering has a meaning: optimization of angular similarity to detect 3D geometric anomalies in geological terrainsShear zone evolution and the path of earthquake ruptureMechanical compaction mechanisms in the input sediments of the Sumatra subduction complex – insights from microstructural analysis of cores from IODP Expedition 362Detecting micro fractures: a comprehensive comparison of conventional and machine-learning-based segmentation methodsMultiscale lineament analysis and permeability heterogeneity of fractured crystalline basement blocksStructural characterization and K–Ar illite dating of reactivated, complex and heterogeneous fault zones: lessons from the Zuccale Fault, Northern ApenninesHow do differences in interpreting seismic images affect estimates of geological slip rates?Progressive veining during peridotite carbonation: insights from listvenites in Hole BT1B, Samail ophiolite (Oman)Tectonic evolution of the Indio Hills segment of the San Andreas fault in southern California, southwestern USAStructural diagenesis in ultra-deep tight sandstones in the Kuqa Depression, Tarim Basin, ChinaVariscan structures and their control on latest to post-Variscan basin architecture: insights from the westernmost Bohemian Massif and southeastern GermanyMulti-disciplinary characterizations of the BedrettoLab – a new underground geoscience research facilityBiotite supports long-range diffusive transport in dissolution–precipitation creep in halite through small porosity fluctuationsDe-risking the energy transition by quantifying the uncertainties in fault stabilityVirtual field trip to the Esla Nappe (Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain): delivering traditional geological mapping skills remotely using real dataMarine forearc structure of eastern Java and its role in the 1994 Java tsunami earthquakeRoughness of fracture surfaces in numerical models and laboratory experimentsImpact of basement thrust faults on low-angle normal faults and rift basin evolution: a case study in the Enping sag, Pearl River BasinEvidence for and significance of the Late Cretaceous Asteroussia event in the Gondwanan Ios basement terranesInvestigating spatial heterogeneity within fracture networks using hierarchical clustering and graph distance metricsDating folding beyond folding, from layer-parallel shortening to fold tightening, using mesostructures: lessons from the Apennines, Pyrenees, and Rocky MountainsDeformation-enhanced diagenesis and bacterial proliferation in the Nankai accretionary prismRheological stratification in impure rock salt during long-term creep: morphology, microstructure, and numerical models of multilayer folds in the Ocnele Mari salt mine, RomaniaGeodynamic and seismotectonic model of a long-lived transverse structure: The Schio-Vicenza Fault System (NE Italy)Neogene kinematics of the Giudicarie Belt and eastern Southern Alpine orogenic front (northern Italy)Fault interpretation uncertainties using seismic data, and the effects on fault seal analysis: a case study from the Horda Platform, with implications for CO2 storageReply to Norini and Groppelli's comment on “Estimating the depth and evolution of intrusions at resurgent calderas: Los Humeros (Mexico)” by Urbani et al. (2020)Emplacement of “exotic” Zechstein slivers along the inverted Sontra Graben (northern Hessen, Germany): clues from balanced cross sections and geometrical forward modelingKinematics of subduction in the Ibero-Armorican arc constrained by 3D microstructural analysis of garnet and pseudomorphed lawsonite porphyroblasts from Île de Groix (Variscan belt)Frictional properties and microstructural evolution of dry and wet calcite–dolomite gougesExperimental evidence that viscous shear zones generate periodic pore sheetsInfluence of inherited structural domains and their particular strain distributions on the Roer Valley graben evolution from inversion to extensionThe Piuquencillo fault system: a long-lived, Andean-transverse fault system and its relationship with magmatic and hydrothermal activityDistribution, microphysical properties, and tectonic controls of deformation bands in the Miocene subduction wedge (Whakataki Formation) of the Hikurangi subduction zoneAnalysis of deformation bands associated with the Trachyte Mesa intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah: implications for reservoir connectivity and fluid flow around sill intrusionsCharacterization of discontinuities in potential reservoir rocks for geothermal applications in the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area (Germany)On a new robust workflow for the statistical and spatial analysis of fracture data collected with scanlines (or the importance of stationarity)Micro- and nano-porosity of the active Alpine Fault zone, New ZealandUnraveling the origins and P-T-t evolution of the allochthonous Sobrado unit (Órdenes Complex, NW Spain) using combined U–Pb titanite, monazite and zircon geochronology and rare-earth element (REE) geochemistryFracture attribute scaling and connectivity in the Devonian Orcadian Basin with implications for geologically equivalent sub-surface fractured reservoirsStructural control on fluid flow and shallow diagenesis: insights from calcite cementation along deformation bands in porous sandstonesThe growth of faults and fracture networks in a mechanically evolving, mechanically stratified rock mass: a case study from Spireslack Surface Coal Mine, ScotlandRelationship between microstructures and resistance in mafic assemblages that deform and transformMultiphase, decoupled faulting in the southern German Molasse Basin – evidence from 3-D seismic dataNear-surface Palaeocene fluid flow, mineralisation and faulting at Flamborough Head, UK: new field observations and U–Pb calcite dating constraintsGeologic characterization of nonconformities using outcrop and core analogs: hydrologic implications for injection-induced seismicityMapping the fracture network in the Lilstock pavement, Bristol Channel, UK: manual versus automaticPrecambrian faulting episodes and insights into the tectonothermal history of north Australia: microstructural evidence and K–Ar, 40Ar–39Ar, and Rb–Sr dating of syntectonic illite from the intracratonic Millungera BasinTransverse jointing in foreland fold-and-thrust belts: a remote sensing analysis in the eastern Pyrenees
Luke N. J. Wedmore, Tess Turner, Juliet Biggs, Jack N. Williams, Henry M. Sichingabula, Christine Kabumbu, and Kawawa Banda
Solid Earth, 13, 1731–1753,Short summary
Mapping and compiling the attributes of faults capable of hosting earthquakes are important for the next generation of seismic hazard assessment. We document 18 active faults in the Luangwa Rift, Zambia, in an active fault database. These faults are between 9 and 207 km long offset Quaternary sediments, have scarps up to ~30 m high, and are capable of hosting earthquakes from Mw 5.8 to 8.1. We associate the Molaza Fault with surface ruptures from two unattributed M 6+ 20th century earthquakes.
Michał P. Michalak, Lesław Teper, Florian Wellmann, Jerzy Żaba, Krzysztof Gaidzik, Marcin Kostur, Yuriy P. Maystrenko, and Paulina Leonowicz
Solid Earth, 13, 1697–1720,Short summary
When characterizing geological/geophysical surfaces, various geometric attributes are calculated, such as dip angle (1D) or dip direction (2D). However, the boundaries between specific values may be subjective and without optimization significance, resulting from using default color palletes. This study proposes minimizing cosine distance among within-cluster observations to detect 3D anomalies. Our results suggest that the method holds promise for identification of megacylinders or megacones.
Erik M. Young, Christie D. Rowe, and James D. Kirkpatrick
Solid Earth, 13, 1607–1629,Short summary
Studying how earthquakes spread deep within the faults they originate from is crucial to improving our understanding of the earthquake process. We mapped preserved ancient earthquake surfaces that are now exposed in South Africa and studied their relationship with the shape and type of rocks surrounding them. We determined that these surfaces are not random and are instead associated with specific kinds of rocks and that their shape is linked to the evolution of the faults in which they occur.
Sivaji Lahiri, Kitty L. Milliken, Peter Vrolijk, Guillaume Desbois, and Janos L. Urai
Solid Earth, 13, 1513–1539,Short summary
Understanding the mechanism of mechanical compaction is important. Previous studies on mechanical compaction were mostly done by performing experiments. Studies on natural rocks are rare due to compositional heterogeneity of the sedimentary succession with depth. Due to remarkable similarity in composition and grain size, the Sumatra subduction complex provides a unique opportunity to study the micromechanism of mechanical compaction on natural samples.
Dongwon Lee, Nikolaos Karadimitriou, Matthias Ruf, and Holger Steeb
Solid Earth, 13, 1475–1494,Short summary
This research article focuses on filtering and segmentation methods employed in high-resolution µXRCT studies for crystalline rocks, bearing fractures, or fracture networks, of very small aperture. Specifically, we focus on the identification of artificially induced (via quenching) fractures in Carrara marble samples. Results from the same dataset from all five different methods adopted were produced and compared with each other in terms of their output quality and time efficiency.
Alberto Ceccato, Giulia Tartaglia, Marco Antonellini, and Giulio Viola
Solid Earth, 13, 1431–1453,Short summary
The Earth's surface is commonly characterized by the occurrence of fractures, which can be mapped, and their can be geometry quantified on digital representations of the surface at different scales of observation. Here we present a series of analytical and statistical tools, which can aid the quantification of fracture spatial distribution at different scales. In doing so, we can improve our understanding of how fracture geometry and geology affect fluid flow within the fractured Earth crust.
Giulio Viola, Giovanni Musumeci, Francesco Mazzarini, Lorenzo Tavazzani, Manuel Curzi, Espen Torgersen, Roelant van der Lelij, and Luca Aldega
Solid Earth, 13, 1327–1351,Short summary
A structural-geochronological approach helps to unravel the Zuccale Fault's architecture. By mapping its internal structure and dating some of its fault rocks, we constrained a deformation history lasting 20 Myr starting at ca. 22 Ma. Such long activity is recorded by now tightly juxtaposed brittle structural facies, i.e. different types of fault rocks. Our results also have implications on the regional evolution of the northern Apennines, of which the Zuccale Fault is an important structure.
Solid Earth, 13, 1281–1290,Short summary
Having a seismic image is generally expected to enable us to better determine fault geometry and thus estimate geological slip rates accurately. However, the process of interpreting seismic images may introduce unintended uncertainties, which have not yet been widely discussed. Here, a case of a shear fault-bend fold in the frontal Himalaya is used to demonstrate how differences in interpretations can affect the following estimates of slip rates and dependent conclusions.
Manuel D. Menzel, Janos L. Urai, Estibalitz Ukar, Thierry Decrausaz, and Marguerite Godard
Solid Earth, 13, 1191–1218,Short summary
Mantle rocks can bind large quantities of carbon by reaction with CO2, but this capacity requires fluid pathways not to be clogged by carbonate. We studied mantle rocks from Oman to understand the mechanisms allowing their transformation into carbonate and quartz. Using advanced imaging techniques, we show that abundant veins were essential fluid pathways driving the reaction. Our results show that tectonic stress was important for fracture opening and a key ingredient for carbon fixation.
Jean-Baptiste P. Koehl, Steffen G. Bergh, and Arthur G. Sylvester
Solid Earth, 13, 1169–1190,Short summary
The San Andreas fault is a major active fault associated with ongoing earthquake sequences in southern California. The present study investigates the development of the Indio Hills area in the Coachella Valley along the main San Andreas fault and the Indio Hills fault. The Indio Hills area is located near an area with high ongoing earthquake activity (Brawley seismic zone), and, therefore, its recent tectonic evolution has implications for earthquake prediction.
Jin Lai, Dong Li, Yong Ai, Hongkun Liu, Deyang Cai, Kangjun Chen, Yuqiang Xie, and Guiwen Wang
Solid Earth, 13, 975–1002,Short summary
(1) Structural diagenesis analysis is performed on the ultra-deep tight sandstone. (2) Fracture and intergranular pores are related to the low in situ stress magnitudes. (3) Dissolution is associated with the presence of fracture.
Hamed Fazlikhani, Wolfgang Bauer, and Harald Stollhofen
Solid Earth, 13, 393–416,Short summary
Interpretation of newly acquired FRANKEN 2D seismic survey data in southeeastern Germany shows that upper Paleozoic low-grade metasedimentary rocks and possible nappe units are transported by Variscan shear zones to ca. 65 km west of the Franconian Fault System (FFS). We show that the locations of post-Variscan upper Carboniferous–Permian normal faults and associated graben and half-graben basins are controlled by the geometry of underlying Variscan shear zones.
Xiaodong Ma, Marian Hertrich, Florian Amann, Kai Bröker, Nima Gholizadeh Doonechaly, Valentin Gischig, Rebecca Hochreutener, Philipp Kästli, Hannes Krietsch, Michèle Marti, Barbara Nägeli, Morteza Nejati, Anne Obermann, Katrin Plenkers, Antonio P. Rinaldi, Alexis Shakas, Linus Villiger, Quinn Wenning, Alba Zappone, Falko Bethmann, Raymi Castilla, Francisco Seberto, Peter Meier, Thomas Driesner, Simon Loew, Hansruedi Maurer, Martin O. Saar, Stefan Wiemer, and Domenico Giardini
Solid Earth, 13, 301–322,Short summary
Questions on issues such as anthropogenic earthquakes and deep geothermal energy developments require a better understanding of the fractured rock. Experiments conducted at reduced scales but with higher-resolution observations can shed some light. To this end, the BedrettoLab was recently established in an existing tunnel in Ticino, Switzerland, with preliminary efforts to characterize realistic rock mass behavior at the hectometer scale.
Berit Schwichtenberg, Florian Fusseis, Ian B. Butler, and Edward Andò
Solid Earth, 13, 41–64,Short summary
Hydraulic rock properties such as porosity and permeability are relevant factors that have an impact on groundwater resources, geological repositories and fossil fuel reservoirs. We investigate the influence of chemical compaction upon the porosity evolution in salt–biotite mixtures and related transport length scales by conducting laboratory experiments in combination with 4-D analysis. Our observations invite a renewed discussion of the effect of sheet silicates on chemical compaction.
David Healy and Stephen Paul Hicks
Solid Earth, 13, 15–39,Short summary
The energy transition requires operations in faulted rocks. To manage the technical challenges and public concern over possible induced earthquakes, we need to quantify the risks. We calculate the probability of fault slip based on uncertain inputs, stresses, fluid pressures, and the mechanical properties of rocks in fault zones. Our examples highlight the specific gaps in our knowledge. Citizen science projects could produce useful data and include the public in the discussions about hazards.
Manuel I. de Paz-Álvarez, Thomas G. Blenkinsop, David M. Buchs, George E. Gibbons, and Lesley Cherns
Solid Earth, 13, 1–14,Short summary
We describe a virtual geological mapping course implemented in response to travelling and social restrictions derived from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The course was designed to replicate a physical mapping exercise as closely as possible with the aid of real field data and photographs collected by the authors during previous years in the Cantabrian Zone (NW Spain). The course is delivered through Google Earth via a KMZ file with outcrop descriptions and links to GitHub-hosted photographs.
Yueyang Xia, Jacob Geersen, Dirk Klaeschen, Bo Ma, Dietrich Lange, Michael Riedel, Michael Schnabel, and Heidrun Kopp
Solid Earth, 12, 2467–2477,Short summary
The 2 June 1994 Java tsunami earthquake ruptured in a seismically quiet subduction zone and generated a larger-than-expected tsunami. Here, we re-process a seismic line across the rupture area. We show that a subducting seamount is located up-dip of the mainshock in a region that did not rupture during the earthquake. Seamount subduction modulates the topography of the marine forearc and acts as a seismic barrier in the 1994 earthquake rupture.
Steffen Abe and Hagen Deckert
Solid Earth, 12, 2407–2424,Short summary
We use numerical simulations and laboratory experiments on rock samples to investigate how stress conditions influence the geometry and roughness of fracture surfaces. The roughness of the surfaces was analyzed in terms of absolute roughness and scaling properties. The results show that the surfaces are self-affine but with different scaling properties between the numerical models and the real rock samples. Results suggest that stress conditions have little influence on the surface roughness.
Chao Deng, Rixiang Zhu, Jianhui Han, Yu Shu, Yuxiang Wu, Kefeng Hou, and Wei Long
Solid Earth, 12, 2327–2350,Short summary
This study uses seismic reflection data to interpret the geometric relationship and evolution of intra-basement and rift-related structures in the Enping sag in the northern South China Sea. Our observations suggest the primary control of pre-existing thrust faults is the formation of low-angle normal faults, with possible help from low-friction materials, and the significant role of pre-existing basement thrust faults in fault geometry, paleotopography, and syn-rift stratigraphy of rift basins.
Sonia Yeung, Marnie Forster, Emmanuel Skourtsos, and Gordon Lister
Solid Earth, 12, 2255–2275,Short summary
We do not know when the ancient Tethys Ocean lithosphere began to founder, but one clue can be found in subduction accreted tectonic slices, including Gondwanan basement terranes on the island of Ios, Cyclades, Greece. We propose a 250–300 km southwards jump of the subduction megathrust with a period of flat-slab subduction followed by slab break-off. The initiation and its subsequent rollback of a new subduction zone would explain the onset of Oligo–Miocene extension and accompanying magmatism.
Rahul Prabhakaran, Giovanni Bertotti, Janos Urai, and David Smeulders
Solid Earth, 12, 2159–2209,Short summary
Rock fractures are organized as networks with spatially varying arrangements. Due to networks' influence on bulk rock behaviour, it is important to quantify network spatial variation. We utilize an approach where fracture networks are treated as spatial graphs. By combining graph similarity measures with clustering techniques, spatial clusters within large-scale fracture networks are identified and organized hierarchically. The method is validated on a dataset with nearly 300 000 fractures.
Olivier Lacombe, Nicolas E. Beaudoin, Guilhem Hoareau, Aurélie Labeur, Christophe Pecheyran, and Jean-Paul Callot
Solid Earth, 12, 2145–2157,Short summary
This paper aims to illustrate how the timing and duration of contractional deformation associated with folding in orogenic forelands can be constrained by the dating of brittle mesostructures observed in folded strata. The study combines new and already published absolute ages of fractures to provide, for the first time, an educated discussion about the factors controlling the duration of the sequence of deformation encompassing layer-parallel shortening, fold growth, and late fold tightening.
Vincent Famin, Hugues Raimbourg, Muriel Andreani, and Anne-Marie Boullier
Solid Earth, 12, 2067–2085,Short summary
Sediments accumulated in accretionary prisms are deformed by the compression imposed by plate subduction. Here we show that deformation of the sediments transforms some minerals in them. We suggest that these mineral transformations are due to the proliferation of microorganisms boosted by deformation. Deformation-enhanced microbial proliferation may change our view of sedimentary and tectonic processes in subduction zones.
Marta Adamuszek, Dan M. Tămaş, Jessica Barabasch, and Janos L. Urai
Solid Earth, 12, 2041–2065,Short summary
We analyse folded multilayer sequences in the Ocnele Mari salt mine (Romania) to gain insight into the long-term rheological behaviour of rock salt. Our results indicate the large role of even a small number of impurities in the rock salt for its effective mechanical behaviour. We demonstrate how the development of folds that occur at various scales can be used to constrain the viscosity ratio in the deformed multilayer sequence.
Dario Zampieri, Paola Vannoli, and Pierfrancesco Burrato
Solid Earth, 12, 1967–1986,Short summary
The long-lived Schio-Vicenza Fault System is a major shear zone cross-cutting the foreland and the thrust belt of the eastern southern Alps. We review 150 years of scientific works and explain its activity and kinematics, characterized by sinistral and dextral transcurrent motion along its southern and northern sections, respectively, by a geodynamic model that has the Adria indenter as the main actor and coherently reconciles the available geological and geophysical evidence collected so far.
Vincent F. Verwater, Eline Le Breton, Mark R. Handy, Vincenzo Picotti, Azam Jozi Najafabadi, and Christian Haberland
Solid Earth, 12, 1309–1334,Short summary
Balancing along geological cross sections reveals that the Giudicarie Belt comprises two kinematic domains. The SW domain accommodated at least ~ 18 km Late Oligocene to Early Miocene shortening. Since the Middle Miocene, the SW domain experienced at least ~ 12–22 km shortening, whereas the NE domain underwent at least ~ 25–35 km. Together, these domains contributed to ~ 40–47 km of sinistral offset of the Periadriatic Fault along the Northern Giudicarie Fault since the Late Oligocene.
Emma A. H. Michie, Mark J. Mulrooney, and Alvar Braathen
Solid Earth, 12, 1259–1286,Short summary
Generating an accurate model of the subsurface is crucial when assessing a site for CO2 storage, particularly for a fault-bound storage site that may act as a seal or could reactivate upon CO2 injection. However, we have shown how picking strategy, i.e. line spacing, chosen to create the model significantly influences any subsequent fault analyses but is surprisingly rarely discussed. This analysis has been performed on the Vette Fault bounding the Smeaheia potential CO2 storage site.
Stefano Urbani, Guido Giordano, Federico Lucci, Federico Rossetti, and Gerardo Carrasco-Núñez
Solid Earth, 12, 1111–1124,Short summary
Structural studies in active calderas have a key role in the exploration of geothermal systems. We reply in detail to the points raised by the comment of Norini and Groppelli (2020), strengthening the relevance of our structural fieldwork for geothermal exploration and exploitation in active caldera geothermal systems including the Los Humeros caldera.
Jakob Bolz and Jonas Kley
Solid Earth, 12, 1005–1024,Short summary
To assess the role smaller graben structures near the southern edge of the Central European Basin System play in the basin’s overall deformational history, we take advantage of a feature found on some of these structures, where slivers from older rock units appear along the graben's main fault, surrounded on both sides by younger strata. The implications for the geometry of the fault provide a substantially improved estimate for the magnitude of normal and thrust motion along the fault system.
Domingo G. A. M. Aerden, Alejandro Ruiz-Fuentes, Mohammad Sayab, and Aidan Forde
Solid Earth, 12, 971–992,Short summary
We studied the geometry of foliations and microfolds preserved within metamorphic garnet crystals using X-ray tomography. The studied rocks are blueschists from Ile de Groix formed during Late Devonian subduction of Gondwana under Armorica. Several sets of differently oriented microfabrics were found recording variations in the direction of subduction. Comparison with similar data for Iberia supports that Iberia rotated only 10–20° during the Cretaceous opening of the North Atlantic.
Matteo Demurtas, Steven A.F. Smith, Elena Spagnuolo, and Giulio Di Toro
Solid Earth, 12, 595–612,Short summary
We performed shear experiments on calcite–dolomite gouge mixtures to better understand the behaviour of carbonates during sub-seismic to seismic deformation in the shallow crust. The development of a foliation in the gouge was only restricted to coseismic sliding, whereas fluidisation occurred over a wide range of slip velocities (sub-seismic to coseismic) in the presence of water. These observations will contribute to a better interpretation of the rock record.
James Gilgannon, Marius Waldvogel, Thomas Poulet, Florian Fusseis, Alfons Berger, Auke Barnhoorn, and Marco Herwegh
Solid Earth, 12, 405–420,Short summary
Using experiments that simulate deep tectonic interfaces, known as viscous shear zones, we found that these zones spontaneously develop periodic sheets of small pores. The presence of porous layers in deep rocks undergoing tectonic deformation is significant because it requires a change to the current model of how the Earth deforms. Emergent porous layers in viscous rocks will focus mineralising fluids and could lead to the seismic failure of rocks that are never supposed to have this occur.
Jef Deckers, Bernd Rombaut, Koen Van Noten, and Kris Vanneste
Solid Earth, 12, 345–361,Short summary
This study shows the presence of two structural domains in the western border fault system of the Roer Valley graben. These domains, dominated by NW–SE-striking faults, displayed distinctly different strain distributions during both Late Cretaceous compression and Cenozoic extension. The southern domain is characterized by narrow, localized faulting, while the northern domain is characterized by wide, distributed faulting. The non-colinear WNW–ESE Grote Brogel fault links both domains.
José Piquer, Orlando Rivera, Gonzalo Yáñez, and Nicolás Oyarzún
Solid Earth, 12, 253–273,Short summary
A proper recognition of deep, long-lived fault systems is very important for society. They can produce potentially dangerous earthquakes. They can also act as pathways for magmas and hydrothermal fluids, leading to the formation of volcanoes, geothermal systems and mineral deposits. However, the manifestations of these very old faults in the present-day surface can be very subtle. Here, we present a detailed, multi-disciplinary study of a fault system of this type in the Andes of central Chile.
Kathryn E. Elphick, Craig R. Sloss, Klaus Regenauer-Lieb, and Christoph E. Schrank
Solid Earth, 12, 141–170,Short summary
We analysed a sedimentary rock package located in Castlepoint, New Zealand, to test the control of the tectonic setting on the observed deformation structures. In extension and contraction, we observed faults and small fault-like structures characterised by complex spatial patterns and a reduction in porosity and grain size compared with the host rock. With these properties, the structures are likely to act as barriers to fluid flow and cause compartmentalisation of the sedimentary sequence.
Penelope I. R. Wilson, Robert W. Wilson, David J. Sanderson, Ian Jarvis, and Kenneth J. W. McCaffrey
Solid Earth, 12, 95–117,Short summary
Magma accommodation in the shallow crust leads to deformation of the surrounding host rock through the creation of faults, fractures and folds. This deformation will impact fluid flow around intrusive magma bodies (including sills and laccoliths) by changing the porosity and permeability network of the host rock. The results may have important implications for industries where fluid flow within the subsurface adds value (e.g. oil and gas, hydrology, geothermal and carbon sequestration).
Martin Balcewicz, Benedikt Ahrens, Kevin Lippert, and Erik H. Saenger
Solid Earth, 12, 35–58,Short summary
The geothermal potential of a carbonate reservoir in the Rhine-Ruhr area, Germany, was investigated by field and laboratory investigations. The carbonate layer of interest is approx. 150 m thick; located at 4 to 6 km depth; and might extend below Essen, Bochum, and Dortmund. We proposed focusing on discontinuities striking NNW–SSE for geothermal applications, as these are the most common, strike in the direction of the main horizontal stress, and dominate reservoir fluid flow.
Andrea Bistacchi, Silvia Mittempergher, Mattia Martinelli, and Fabrizio Storti
Solid Earth, 11, 2535–2547,Short summary
We present an innovative workflow for the statistical analysis of fracture data collected along scanlines. Our methodology is based on performing non-parametric statistical tests, which allow detection of important features of the spatial distribution of fractures, and on the analysis of the cumulative spacing function (CSF) and cumulative spacing derivative (CSD), which allows the boundaries of stationary domains to be defined in an objective way.
Martina Kirilova, Virginia Toy, Katrina Sauer, François Renard, Klaus Gessner, Richard Wirth, Xianghui Xiao, and Risa Matsumura
Solid Earth, 11, 2425–2438,Short summary
Processes associated with open pores can change the physical properties of rocks and cause earthquakes. In borehole samples from the Alpine Fault zone, we show that many pores in these rocks were filled by weak materials that can slide easily. The amount of open spaces was thus reduced, and fluids circulating within them built up high pressures. Both weak materials and high pressures within pores reduce the rock strength; thus the state of pores here can trigger the next Alpine Fault earthquake.
José Manuel Benítez-Pérez, Pedro Castiñeiras, Juan Gómez-Barreiro, José R. Martínez Catalán, Andrew Kylander-Clark, and Robert Holdsworth
Solid Earth, 11, 2303–2325,Short summary
The Sobrado unit represents an allochthonous tectonic slice of exhumed high-grade metamorphic rocks formed during a complex sequence of orogenic processes in the middle to lower crust. We have combined U–Pb geochronology and REE analyses (LASS-ICP-MS) of accessory minerals in migmatitic paragneiss (monazite, zircon) and mylonitic amphibolites (titanite) to constrain the evolution. A Middle Devonian minimum age for HP metamorphism has been obtained.
Anna M. Dichiarante, Ken J. W. McCaffrey, Robert E. Holdsworth, Tore I. Bjørnarå, and Edward D. Dempsey
Solid Earth, 11, 2221–2244,Short summary
We studied the characteristics of fracture systems in the Devonian rocks of the Orcadian Basin in Caithness. These mineral-filled fractures have properties that may be used to predict the size and spatial arrangement of similar structures in offshore basins. This includes the Clair field in the Faroe–Shetland Basin.
Leonardo Del Sole, Marco Antonellini, Roger Soliva, Gregory Ballas, Fabrizio Balsamo, and Giulio Viola
Solid Earth, 11, 2169–2195,Short summary
This study focuses on the impact of deformation bands on fluid flow and diagenesis in porous sandstones in two different case studies (northern Apennines, Italy; Provence, France) by combining a variety of multiscalar mapping techniques, detailed field and microstructural observations, and stable isotope analysis. We show that deformation bands buffer and compartmentalize fluid flow and foster and localize diagenesis, recorded by carbonate cement nodules spatially associated with the bands.
Billy James Andrews, Zoe Kai Shipton, Richard Lord, and Lucy McKay
Solid Earth, 11, 2119–2140,Short summary
Through geological mapping we find that fault zone internal structure depends on whether or not the fault cuts multiple lithologies, the presence of shale layers, and the orientation of joints and coal cleats at the time of faulting. During faulting, cementation of fractures (i.e. vein formation) is highest where the fractures are most connected. This leads to the counter-intuitive result that the highest-fracture-density part of the network often has the lowest open-fracture connectivity.
Nicolas Mansard, Holger Stünitz, Hugues Raimbourg, Jacques Précigout, Alexis Plunder, and Lucille Nègre
Solid Earth, 11, 2141–2167,Short summary
Our rock deformation experiments (solid-medium Griggs-type apparatus) on wet assemblages of mafic compositions show that the ability of minerals to react controls the portions of rocks that deform and that minor chemical and mineralogical variations can considerably modify the strength of deformed assemblages. Our study suggests that the rheology of mafic rocks, which constitute a large part of the oceanic crust, cannot be summarized as being rheologically controlled by monophase materials.
Vladimir Shipilin, David C. Tanner, Hartwig von Hartmann, and Inga Moeck
Solid Earth, 11, 2097–2117,Short summary
In our work, we carry out an in-depth structural analysis of a geometrically decoupled fault system in the southern German Molasse Basin using a high-resolution 3-D seismic dataset. Based on this analysis, we reconstruct the tectonic history and changes in the stress regimes to explain the structure and evolution of faults. The results contribute in understanding the driving mechanisms behind formation, propagation, and reactivation of faults during foreland basin formation.
Nick M. W. Roberts, Jack K. Lee, Robert E. Holdsworth, Christopher Jeans, Andrew R. Farrant, and Richard Haslam
Solid Earth, 11, 1931–1945,Short summary
We characterise a well-known fractured and faulted exposure of Cretaceous chalk in NE England, combining field observations with novel U–Pb calcite dating. We show that the faulting and associated fluid flow occurred during the interval of ca. 64–56 Ma, predating earlier estimates of Alpine-related tectonic inversion. We demonstrate that the main extensional fault zone acted as a conduit linking voluminous fluid flow and linking deeper sedimentary layers with the shallow subsurface.
Elizabeth S. Petrie, Kelly K. Bradbury, Laura Cuccio, Kayla Smith, James P. Evans, John P. Ortiz, Kellie Kerner, Mark Person, and Peter Mozley
Solid Earth, 11, 1803–1821,Short summary
A summary of observed rock properties across the contact between crystalline basement rock and the overlying younger sedimentary rocks from outcrop and core samples is presented. The data span a range of tectonic settings and describe the rock types immediately adjacent to the contact. The range of features observed at these contacts can influence the migration of fluids. The observations presented here are critical for the safe implementation of fluid injection and geothermal production.
Christopher Weismüller, Rahul Prabhakaran, Martijn Passchier, Janos L. Urai, Giovanni Bertotti, and Klaus Reicherter
Solid Earth, 11, 1773–1802,Short summary
We photographed a fractured limestone pavement with a drone to compare manual and automatic fracture tracing and analyze the evolution and spatial variation of the fracture network in high resolution. We show that automated tools can produce results comparable to manual tracing in shorter time but do not yet allow the interpretation of fracture generations. This work pioneers the automatic fracture mapping of a complete outcrop in detail, and the results can be used as fracture benchmark.
I. Tonguç Uysal, Claudio Delle Piane, Andrew James Todd, and Horst Zwingmann
Solid Earth, 11, 1653–1679,Short summary
This study represents an integrated approach to radiometric age dating using potassium-bearing clay minerals formed during faulting and provides insights into the enigmatic time–space distribution of Precambrian tectonic zones in north-central Australia. Specifically, our work firmly indicates a late Mesoproterzoic minimum age for the Millungera Basin in north Australia and a previously unrecorded concealed late Mesoproterozoic–early Neoproterozoic tectonic event in north-central Australia.
Stefano Tavani, Pablo Granado, Amerigo Corradetti, Thomas Seers, Josep Maria Casas, and Josep Anton Muñoz
Solid Earth, 11, 1643–1651,Short summary
Using orthophotos, we manually digitized 30 000 joints in the eastern Ebro Basin of the Pyrenees. Joints are perpendicular to the belt in the frontal portion of the belt and in the inner and central portion of the foredeep basin. Joint orientations in the external portion of the foredeep become less clustered. Joints in the studied area formed in the foredeep in response to foredeep-parallel stretching, which becomes progressively less intense within the external portion of the foredeep basin.
Agard, P., Monie, P., Jolivet, L., and Goffé, B.: Exhumation of the Schistes Lustre´s complex: in situ laser probe 40Ar/39Ar constraints and implications for the Western Alps, J. Metamorphic Geol., 20, 599–618, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1314.2002.00391.x, 2002.
Andrieu, S., Brigaud, B., Rabourg, T., and Noret, A.: The Mid-Cenomanian Event in shallow marine environments: Influence on carbonate producers and depositional sequences (northern Aquitaine Basin, France), Cretaceous Res., 56, 587–607, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2015.06.018, 2015.
Ault, A. K., Gautheron, C., and King, G. E.: Innovations in (U–Th)/He, fission track, and trapped charge thermochronometry with applications to earthquakes, weathering, surface-mantle connections, and the growth and decay of mountains, Tectonics, 38, 3705–3739, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018TC005312, 2019.
Barnaby, R. J. and Rimstidt, J. D.: Redox conditions of calcite cementation interpreted from Mn and Fe contents of authigenic calcites, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 101, 795–804, https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1989)101<0795:RCOCCI>2.3.CO;2, 1989.
Beaudoin, N., Huyghe, D., Bellahsen, N., Lacombe, O., Emmanuel, L., Mouthereau, F., and Ouanhnon, L.: Fluid systems and fracture development during syn-depositional fold growth: An example from the Pico del Aguila anticline, Sierras Exteriores, southern Pyrenees, Spain, J. Struct. Geol., 70, 23–38, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2014.11.003, 2015.
Beaudoin, N., Lacombe, O., Roberts, N. M. W., and Koehn, D.: U-Pb dating of calcite veins reveals complex stress evolution and thrust sequence in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, Geology, 46, 1015–1018, https://doi.org/10.1130/G45379.1, 2018.
Bellahsen, N., Mouthereau, F., Boutoux, A., Bellanger, M., Lacombe, O., Jolivet, L., and Rolland, Y.: Collision kinematics in the western external Alps, Tectonics, 33, 1055–1088, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013TC003453, 2014.
Bellanger, M., Augier, R., Bellahsen, N., Jolivet, L., Monié, P., Baudin, T., and Beyssac, O.: Shortening of the European Dauphinois margin (Oisans Massif, Western Alps): New insights from RSCM maximum temperature estimates and 40Ar∕39Ar in situ dating, J. Geodyn., 83, 37–64, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2014.09.004, 2015.
Beltrando, M., Lister, G. S., Forster, M., Dunlap, W. J., Fraser, G., and Hermann, J.: Dating microstructures by the 40Ar∕39Ar step-heating technique: Deformation–pressure–temperature–time history of the Penninic Units of the Western Alps, Lithos, 113, 801–819, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2009.07.006, 2009.
Bergemann, C. A., Gnos, E., and Whitehouse, M. J.: Insights into the tectonic history of the Western Alps through dating of fissure monazite in the Mont Blanc and Aiguilles Rouges Massifs, Tectonophysics, 750, 203–212, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2018.11.013, 2019.
Bergemann, C. A., Gnos, E., Berger, A., Janots, E., and Whitehouse, M. J.: Dating tectonic activity in the Lepontine Dome and Rhone-Simplon Fault regions through hydrothermal monazite-(Ce), Solid Earth, 11, 199–222, https://doi.org/10.5194/se-11-199-2020, 2020.
Bertrand, A. and Sue, C.: Reconciling late faulting over the whole Alpine belt: from structural analysis to geochronological constrains, Swiss J. Geosci., 110, 565–580, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00015-017-0265-4, 2017.
Beucher, R., van der Beek, P., Braun, J., and Batt, G. E.: Exhumation and relief development in the Pelvoux and Dora-Maira analysis and inversion of thermochronological age transects, J. Geophys. Res., 117, F03030, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JF002240, 2012.
Bons, P. D., Elburg, M. A., and Gomez-Rivas, E.: A review of the formation of tectonic veins and their microstructures, J. Struct. Geol., 43, 33–62, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2012.07.005, 2012.
Boutoux, A., Bellahsen, N., Nanni, U., Pik, R., Verlaguet, A., Rolland, Y., and Lacombe, O.: Thermal and structural evolution of the external Western Alps: Insights from (U–Th–Sm)/He thermochronology and RSCM thermometry in the Aiguilles Rouges/Mont Blanc massifs, Tectonophysics, 683, 109–123, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2016.06.010, 2016.
Cederbom, C. E., Sinclair, H. D., Schlunegger, F., and Rahn, M. K.: Climate induced rebound and exhumation of European Alps, Geology, 32, 709–712, https://doi.org/10.1130/G20491.1, 2004.
Cenki-Tok, B., Darling, J. R., Rolland, Y., Dhuime, B., and Storey, C. D.: Direct dating of mid-crustal shear zones with synkinematic allanite: new in situ U-Th-Pb geochronological approaches applied to the Mont Blanc massif, Terra Nova, 26, 29–37, https://doi.org/10.1111/ter.12066, 2014.
Ceriani, S. and Schmid, S. M.: From N-S collision to WNW-directed post-collisional thrusting and folding: Structural study of the Frontal Penninic Units in Savoie (Western Alps, France), Eclogae Geol. Helv., 97, 347–369, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00015-004-1129-2, 2004.
Ceriani, S., Fügenschuh, B., and Schmid, S. M.: Multi-stage thrusting at the “Penninic Front” in the Western Alps between Mont Blanc and Pelvoux massifs, Int. J. Earth Sci., 90, 685–702, https://doi.org/10.1007/s005310000188, 2001.
Champagnac, J. D., Molnar, P., Anderson, R. S., Sue, C., and Delacou, B.: Quaternary erosion-induced isostatic rebound in the western Alps, Geology, 35, 195–198, https://doi.org/10.1130/G23053A.1, 2007.
Crespo-Blanc, A., Masson, H., Sharp, Z., and Cosca, M.: A stable and 40Ar∕39Ar isotope study of a major thrust in the Helvetic nappes (Swiss Alps): Evidence for fluid flow and constraints on nappe kinematics, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 107, 1129–1144, https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1995)107<1129:ASAAAI>2.3.CO;2, 1995.
Duchêne, S., Blichert-Toft, J., Luais, B., Télouk, P., Lardeaux, J.-M., and Albarède, F.: The Lu–Hf dating of garnets and the ages of the Alpine high-pressure metamorphism, Nature, 387, 586–589, https://doi.org/10.1038/42446, 1997.
Dumont, T., Schwartz, S., Guillot, S., Simon-Labric, T., Tricart, P., and Jourdan, S.: Structural and sedimentary records of the Oligocene revolution in the Western Alpine arc, J. Geodyn., 56–57, 18–38, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2011.11.006, 2012.
Goodfellow, B. W., Viola, G., Bingen, B., Nuriel, P., and Kylander-Clark, A. R. C.: Palaeocene faulting in SE Sweden from U-Pb dating of slickenfibre calcite, Terra Nova, 29, 321–328, https://doi.org/10.1111/ter.12280, 2017.
Janots, E., Grand'Homme, A., Bernet, M., Guillaume, D., Gnos, E., Boiron, M.-C., Rossi, M., Seydoux-Guillaume, A.-M., and De Ascenção Guedes, R.: Geochronological and thermometric evidence of unusually hot fluids in an Alpine fissure of Lauzière granite (Belledonne, Western Alps), Solid Earth, 10, 211–223, https://doi.org/10.5194/se-10-211-2019, 2019.
Jochum, K. P., Weis, U., Stoll, B., Kuzmin, D., Yang, Q., Raczek, I., Jacob, D. E., Stracke, A., Birbaum, K., Frick, D. A., Günther, D., and Enzweiler, J.: Determination of reference values for NIST SRM 610–617 glasses following ISO guidelines, Geostand. Geoanal. Res., 35, 397–429, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-908X.2011.00120.x, 2011.
Kim, S.-T., Coplen, T. B., and Horita, J.: Normalization of stable isotope data for carbonate minerals: Implementation of IUPAC guidelines, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 158, 276–289, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2015.02.011, 2015.
Lanari, P., Guillot, S., Schwartz, S., Vidal, O., Tricart, P., Riel, N., and Beyssac, O.: Diachronous evolution of the alpine continental wedge: evidences from P-T estimates in the Briançonnais Zone houillère (France-Western Alps), J. Geodyn., 56-57, 39–54, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2011.09.006, 2012.
Lanari, P., Rolland, Y., Schwartz, S., Vidal, O., Guillot, S., Tricart, P., and Dumont, T.: P-T-t estimation of syn-kinematic strain in low-grade rocks (< 300 ∘C) using thermodynamic modelling and 40Ar∕39Ar dating techniques: example of the Plan-de-Phasy shear zone (Briançonnais Zone, Western Alps), Terra Nova, 26, 130–138, https://doi.org/10.1111/ter.12079, 2014.
Lardeaux, J. M., Schwartz, S., Tricart, P., Paul, A., Guillot, S., Béthoux, N., and Masson, F.: A crustal-scale cross-section of the southwestern Alps combining geophysical and geological imagery, Terra Nova, 18, 412–422, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3121.2006.00706.x, 2006.
Larroque, C., Delouis, B., Godel, B., and Nocquet, J.-M.: Active deformation at the southwestern Alps–Ligurian basin junction (France–Italy boundary): Evidence for recent change from compression to extension in the Argentera massif, Tectonophysics, 467, 22–34, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2008.12.013, 2009.
Malusà, M., Zhao, L., Eva, E., Solarino, S., Paul, A., Guillot, S., Schwartz, S., Dumont, T., Aubert, C., Salimbeni, S., Pondrelli, S., Wang, Q., and Zhu, R.: Earthquakes in the western alpine mantle wedge, Gondwana Res., 44, 89–95, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2016.11.012, 2017.
Mathey, M., Walpersdorf, A., Sue, C., Baize, S., and Deprez, A.: Seismogenic potential of the High Durance Fault constrained by 20 yr of GNSS measurements in the Western European Alps, Geophy. J. Int., 222, 2136–2146, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggaa292, 2020.
Mugnier, J. L., Loubat, H., and Cannic, S.: Correlation of seismic images and geology at the boundary between internal and external domains of the Western Alps, Bull. Soc. Géol. Fr., 164, 697–708, 1993.
Nardini, N., Muñoz-López, D., Cruset, D., Cantarero, I., Martín-Martín, J., Benedicto, A., Gomez-Rivas, E., John, C., and Travé, A.: From Early Contraction to Post-Folding Fluid Evolution in the Frontal Part of the Bóixols Thrust Sheet (Southern Pyrenees) as Revealed by the Texture and Geochemistry of Calcite Cements, Minerals, 9, 117–146, https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020117, 2019.
Nocquet, J. M., Sue, C., Walpersdorf, A., Tran, T., Lenôtre, N., Vernant, P., Cushing, M., Jouanne, F., Masson, F., Baize, S., Chéry, J., and Van der Beek, P. A.: Present-day uplift of the western Alps, Sci. Rep., 6, 1–6, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep28404, 2016.
Passchier, C. W. and Trouw, R. A. J.: Microtectonics, 2nd rev. edn., Springer, Berlin, Germany, New York, USA, 2005.
Paton, C., Hellstrom, J., Paul, B., Woodhead, J., and Hergt, J.: Iolite: Freeware for the visualisation and processing of mass spectrometric data, J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 26, 2508–2518, https://doi.org/10.1039/c1ja10172b, 2011.
Ring, U. and Gerdes, A.: Kinematics of the Alpenrhein-Bodensee graben system in the Central Alps: Oligocene/Miocene transtension due to formation of the Western Alps arc, Tectonics, 35, 1367–1391, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015TC004085, 2016.
Roberts, N. M. W., Rasbury, E. T., Parrish, R. R., Smith, C. J., Horstwood, M. S. A., and Condon, D. J.: A calcite reference material for LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology: Calcite RM for LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating, Geochem. Geophy. Geosy., 18, 2807–2814, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GC006784, 2017.
Roberts, N. M. W., Drost, K., Horstwood, M. S. A., Condon, D. J., Chew, D., Drake, H., Milodowski, A. E., McLean, N. M., Smye, A. J., Walker, R. J., Haslam, R., Hodson, K., Imber, J., Beaudoin, N., and Lee, J. K.: Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U–Pb carbonate geochronology: strategies, progress, and limitations, Geochronology, 2, 33–61, https://doi.org/10.5194/gchron-2-33-2020, 2020.
Rolland, Y. and Rossi, M.: Two-stage fluid flow and element transfers in shear zones during collision burial-exhumation cycle: Insights from the Mont Blanc Crystalline Massif (Western Alps), J. Geodyn., 101, 88–108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jog.2016.03.016, 2016.
Rolland, Y., Rossi, M., Cox, S. F., Corsini, M., Mancktelow, N., Pennacchioni, G., Fronari, M., and Boullier, A. M.: 40Ar∕39Ar dating of synkinematic white mica: insights from fluid-rock reaction in low-grade shear zones (Mont Blanc Massif) and constraints on timing of deformation in the NW external Alps, Geol. Soc. Lond., Special Publications, 299, 293–315, https://doi.org/10.1144/SP299.18, 2008.
Rossi, M. and Rolland, Y.: Stable isotope and Ar/Ar evidence of prolonged multiscale fluid flow during exhumation of orogenic crust: Example from the Mont Blanc and Aar Massifs (NW Alps): Multi-scale fluid flow in the Alps, Tectonics, 33, 1681–1709, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013TC003438, 2014.
Rossi, M., Rolland, Y., Vidal, O., and Cox, S. F.: Geochemical variations and element transfer during shear-zone development and related episyenites at middle crust depths: insights from the Mont Blanc granite (French-Italian Alps), Geol. Soc. Lond., Special Publications, 245, 373–396, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2005.245.01.18, 2005.
Rothé, E.: La seismicité des Alpes occidentales, B. Soc. Géol. Fr., 5, 295–320, 1942.
Rubatto, D. and Hermann, J.: Zircon formation during fluid circulation in eclogites (Monviso, Western Alps): implications for Zr and Hf budget in subduction zones, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 67, 2173–2187, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(02)01321-2, 2003.
Salimbeni, S., Zhao, L., Malusà, M., Guillot, S., Pondrelli, S., Margheriti, L., Paul, A., Solarino, S., Aubert, C., Dumont, T., Schwartz, S., Wang, Q., Xu, X., Zheng, T., and Zhu, R.: Fossil and active mantle flows in the western Alpine region unravelled by seismic anisotropy analysis and high-resolution P wave tomography, Tectonophysics, 731–732, 35–47, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2018.03.002, 2018.
Sanchez, G., Rolland, Y., Schneider, J., Corsini, M., Oliot, E., Goncalves, P., Verati, C., Lardeaux, J.-M., and Marquer, D.: Dating low-temperature deformation by 40Ar∕39Ar on white mica, insights from the Argentera-Mercantour Massif (SW Alps), Lithos, 125, 521–536, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2011.03.009, 2011.
Schmid, S. M. and Kissling, E.: The arc of the western Alps in the light of geophysical data on deep crustal structure, Tectonics, 19, 62–85, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999TC900057, 2000.
Schwartz, S., Lardeaux, J. M., Tricart, P., Guillot, S., and Labrin, E.: Diachronous exhumation of HP-LT metamorphic rocks from south-western Alps: evidence from fission-track analysis, Terra Nova, 19, 133–140, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3121.2006.00728.x, 2007.
Schwartz, S., Gautheron, C., Audin, L., Dumont, T., Nomade, J., Barbarand, J., Pinna-Jamme, R., and van der Beek, P.: Foreland exhumation controlled by crustal thickening in the Western Alps, Geology, 45, 139–142, https://doi.org/10.1130/G38561.1, 2017.
Seward, D. and Mancktelow, N. S.: Neogene kinematics of the central and western Alps: Evidence from fission-track dating, Geology, 22, 803–806, https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<0803:NKOTCA>2.3.CO;2, 1994.
Simon-Labric, T., Rolland, Y., Dumont, T., Heymes, T., Authemayou, C., Corsini, M., and Fornari, M.: 40Ar∕39Ar dating of Penninic Front tectonic displacement (W Alps) during the Lower Oligocene (31–34 Ma), Terra Nova, 21, 127–136, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3121.2009.00865.x, 2009.
Smeraglia, L., Fabbri, O., Choulet, F., Buatier, M., Boulvais, P., Bernasconi, S. M., and Castorina, F.: Syntectonic fluid flow and deformation mechanisms within the frontal thrust of a foreland fold-and-thrust belt: Example from the Internal Jura, Eastern France, Tectonophysics, 778, 228178, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2019.228178, 2020.
Sternai, P., Sue, C., Husson, L., Serpelloni, E., Becker, T. W., Willett, S. D., Faccenna, C., Di Giulio, A., Spada, G., Jolivet, L., Valla, P., Petit, C., Nocquet, J.-M., Walpersdorf, A., and Castelltort, S.: Present-day uplift of the European Alps: Evaluating mechanisms and models of their relative contributions, Earth-Sci. Rev., 190, 589–604, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.01.005, 2019.
Sue, C. and Tricart, P.: Late Alpine brittle extension above the Frontal Pennine Thrust near Briançon, Western Alps, Eclogae Geol. Helv., 92, 171–181, https://doi.org/10.5169/SEALS-168659, 1999.
Sue, C. and Tricart, P.: Neogene to ongoing normal faulting in the inner western Alps: a major evolution of the alpine tectonics, Tectonics, 22, 1–25, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002TC001426, 2003.
Sue, C., Thouvenot, F., Fréchet, J., and Tricart, P.: Widespread extension in the core of the western Alps revealed by earthquake analysis, J. Geophy. Res.-Sol. Ea., 104, 25611–25622, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JB900249, 1999.
Sue, C., Delacou, B., Champagnac, J.-D., Allanic, C., Tricart, P., and Burkhard, M.: Extensional neotectonics around the bend of the Western/Central Alps: an overview, Int. J. Earth Sci. (Geol Rundsch), 96, 1101–1129, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-007-0181-3, 2007.
Tardy, M., Deville, E., Fudral, S. E. R. E., Guellec, S., Ménard, G., Thouvenot, F., and Vialon, P.: Interprétation structurale des données du profil de sismique réflexion profonde ECORS-CROP Alpes entre le front Pennique et la ligne du Canavese (Alpes occidentales), Mém. S. Géo. F., 156, 217–226, 1990.
Thouvenot, F., Fréchet, J., Pinter, N., Gyula, G., Weber, J., Stein, S., and Medak, D. (Eds.): Seismicity along the northwestern edge of the Adria Microplate, The Adria Microplate: GPS Geodesy, Tectonics and Hazards, Nato Si. S. IV Ear. En. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 335–349, https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4235-3_23, 2006.
Tricart, P.: From passive margin to continental collision; a tectonic scenario for the Western Alps, Am. J. Sci., 284, 97–120, https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.284.2.97, 1984.
Tricart, P., Schwartz, S., Sue, C., Poupeau, G., and Lardeaux, J.-M.: La denudation tectonique de la zone ultradauphinoise et l'inversion du front brianconnais au sud-est du Pelvoux (Alpes occidentales); une dynamique miocene a actuelle, B. Soc. Geol. Fr., 172, 49–58, https://doi.org/10.2113/172.1.49, 2001.
Tricart, P., Lardeaux, J.-M., Schwartz, S., and Sue, C.: The late extension in the inner western Alps: a synthesis along the south-Pelvoux transect, B. Soc. Geol. Fr., 177, 299–310, https://doi.org/10.2113/gssgfbull.177.6.299, 2006.
Tricart, P., Van Der Beek, P., Schwartz, S., and Labrin, E.: Diachronous late-stage exhumation across the western Alpine arc: constraints from apatite fission-track thermochronology between the Pelvoux and Dora-Maira Massifs, J. Geol. Soc., 164, 163–174, https://doi.org/10.1144/0016-76492005-174, 2007.
Vermeesch, P.: IsoplotR: A free and open toolbox for geochronology, Geosci. Front., 9, 1479–1493, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2018.04.001, 2018.
Walker, J., Cliff, R. A., and Latham, A. G.: U-Pb isotopic age of the StW 573 hominid from Sterkfontein, South Africa, Science, 314, 1592–1594, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1132916, 2006.
Walpersdorf, A., Pinget, L., Vernant, P., Sue, C., Deprez, A., and the RENAG team: Does Long-Term GPS in the Western Alps Finally Confirm Earthquake Mechanisms?, Tectonics, 37, 3721–3737, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018TC005054, 2018.
Wells, D. L. and Coppersmith, K. J.: New empirical relationships among magnitude, rupture length, rupture width, rupture area, and surface displacement, B. Seismol. Soc. Am., 84, 974–1002, 1994.
Woodhead, J. D. and Hergt, J. M.: Strontium, Neodymium and Lead Isotope Analyses of NIST Glass Certified Reference Materials: SRM 610, 612, 614, Geostand. Geoanal. Res., 25, 261–266, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-908X.2001.tb00601.x, 2001.
Zhao, L., Paul, A., Solarino, S., Guillot, S., Malusà, M., Zheng, T., Aubert, C., Salimbeni, S., Dumont, T., Schwartz, S., Pondrelli, S., Zhu, R., and Wang, Q.: First seismic evidence for continental subduction beneath the Western Alps, Geology, 43, 815–818, https://doi.org/10.1130/G36833.1, 2015.
As a result of the collision between the European and Apulian plates, the Alps have experienced several evolutionary stages. The Penninic frontal thrust (PFT) (major thrust) was associated with compression, and now seismic studies show ongoing extensional activity. Calcite mineralization associated with shortening and extensional structures was sampled. The last deformation stages are dated by U–Pb on calcite at ~ 3.5 and ~ 2.5 Ma. Isotope analysis evidences deep crustal fluid mobilization.
As a result of the collision between the European and Apulian plates, the Alps have experienced...