Articles | Volume 1, issue 1
22 Feb 2010
22 Feb 2010
Earth's surface heat flux
J. H. Davies and D. R. Davies
Related subject area
GeophysicsWhat can seismic noise tell us about the Alpine reactivation of the Iberian Massif? An example in the Iberian Central SystemIn situ hydromechanical responses during well drilling recorded by fiber-optic distributed strain sensingCoherent diffraction imaging for enhanced fault and fracture network characterizationVertical seismic profiling with distributed acoustic sensing images the Rotliegend geothermal reservoir in the North German Basin down to 4.2 km depthOn the morphology and amplitude of 2D and 3D thermal anomalies induced by buoyancy-driven flow within and around fault zonesSparse 3D reflection seismic survey for deep-targeting iron-oxide deposits and their host rocks, Ludvika Mines-SwedenFault sealing and caprock integrity for CO2 storage: an in-situ injection experimentCharacterizing a decametre-scale granitic reservoir using ground-penetrating radar and seismic methodsMulti-scale analysis and Modeling of aeromagnetic data over the Bétaré-Oya area in the Eastern Cameroon, for structural evidences investigationsMantle flow below the central and greater Alpine region: insights from SKS anisotropy analysis at AlpArray and permanent stationsUpper Jurassic carbonate buildups in the Miechów Trough, southern Poland – insights from seismic data interpretationsWater- and land-borne geophysical surveys before and after the sudden water-level decrease of two large karst lakes in southern MexicoSeismic evidence for failed rifting in the Ligurian Basin, Western Alpine domainAzimuth-, angle- and frequency-dependent seismic velocities of cracked rocks due to squirt flowCharacteristics of a fracture network surrounding a hydrothermally altered shear zone from geophysical borehole logsBayesian full-waveform inversion of tube waves to estimate fracture aperture and complianceCorrelation of core and downhole seismic velocities in high-pressure metamorphic rocks: a case study for the COSC-1 borehole, SwedenNew regional stratigraphic insights from a 3D geological model of the Nasia sub-basin, Ghana, developed for hydrogeological purposes and based on reprocessed B-field data originally collected for mineral explorationThe relative contributions of scattering and viscoelasticity to the attenuation of S waves in Earth's mantleCharacterisation of subglacial water using a constrained transdimensional Bayesian transient electromagnetic inversionPrediction of seismic P-wave velocity using machine learningLarge-scale electrical resistivity tomography in the Cheb Basin (Eger Rift) at an International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) monitoring site to image fluid-related structuresA Python framework for efficient use of pre-computed Green's functions in seismological and other physical forward and inverse source problemsHydraulic fracture propagation in a heterogeneous stress field in a crystalline rock massAnisotropic P-wave travel-time tomography implementing Thomsen's weak approximation in TOMO3DFull-waveform inversion of short-offset, band-limited seismic data in the Alboran Basin (SE Iberia)Subsurface characterization of a quick-clay vulnerable area using near-surface geophysics and hydrological modellingFault interpretation in seismic reflection data: an experiment analysing the impact of conceptual model anchoring and vertical exaggerationImproving the quality of empirical Green's functions, obtained by cross-correlation of high-frequency ambient seismic noiseQuantifying the impact of the structural uncertainty on the gross rock volume in the Lubina and Montanazo oil fields (Western Mediterranean)Electrical formation factor of clean sand from laboratory measurements and digital rock physicsWhat happens to fracture energy in brittle fracture? Revisiting the Griffith assumptionSeismic attenuation and dispersion in poroelastic media with fractures of variable aperture distributionsDrill bit noise imaging without pilot trace, a near-surface interferometry exampleConstraining the geotherm beneath the British Isles from Bayesian inversion of Curie depth: integrated modelling of magnetic, geothermal, and seismic dataCrustal-scale depth imaging via joint full-waveform inversion of ocean-bottom seismometer data and pre-stack depth migration of multichannel seismic data: a case study from the eastern Nankai TroughImaging the East European Craton margin in northern Poland using extended correlation processing of regional seismic reflection profilesIonian Abyssal Plain: a window into the Tethys oceanic lithosphereCalibrating a new attenuation curve for the Dead Sea region using surface wave dispersion surveys in sites damaged by the 1927 Jericho earthquakeGranite microporosity changes due to fracturing and alteration: secondary mineral phases as proxies for porosity and permeability estimationStructural expression of a fading rift front: a case study from the Oligo-Miocene Irbid rift of northwest Arabia3-D seismic travel-time tomography validation of a detailed subsurface model: a case study of the Záncara river basin (Cuenca, Spain)The effect of rock composition on muon tomography measurementsSeismic imaging of dyke swarms within the Sorgenfrei–Tornquist Zone (Sweden) and implications for thermal energy storageSecond-order scalar wave field modeling with a first-order perfectly matched layerShear wave reflection seismic yields subsurface dissolution and subrosion patterns: application to the Ghor Al-Haditha sinkhole site, Dead Sea, JordanStructure of the central Sumatran subduction zone revealed by local earthquake travel-time tomography using an amphibious networkGeomagnetic field declination: from decadal to centennial scalesCrustal thickness of Antarctica estimated using data from gravimetric satellitesEffect of chemical composition on the electrical conductivity of gneiss at high temperatures and pressures
Juvenal Andrés, Puy Ayarza, Martin Schimmel, Imma Palomeras, Mario Ruiz, and Ramon Carbonell
Solid Earth, 11, 2499–2513,
Yi Zhang, Xinglin Lei, Tsutomu Hashimoto, and Ziqiu Xue
Solid Earth, 11, 2487–2497,Short summary
Spatially continuous strain responses in two monitoring wells induced by a well-drilling process were monitored using high-resolution fiber-optic distributed strain sensing (DSS). The modeling results suggest that the strain polarities and magnitudes along the wellbores may be indicative of the layered-permeability structure or heterogeneous formation damage. The performance and value of DSS as a novel hydrogeophysical tool for in situ subsurface monitoring are emphasized.
Benjamin Schwarz and Charlotte M. Krawczyk
Solid Earth, 11, 1891–1907,Short summary
Intricate fault and fracture networks cut through the upper crust, and their detailed delineation and characterization play an important role in the Earth sciences. While conventional geophysical sounding techniques only provide indirect means of detection, we present scale-spanning field data examples, in which coherent diffraction imaging – a framework inspired by optics and visual perception – enables the direct imaging of these crustal features at an unprecedented spatial resolution.
Jan Henninges, Evgeniia Martuganova, Manfred Stiller, Ben Norden, and Charlotte M. Krawczyk
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
We performed a seismic survey in two 4.3 km deep geothermal research wells using the novel method of distributed acoustic sensing and wireline cables. The characteristics of the acquired data, methods for data processing and quality improvement, and interpretations on the geometry and structure of the sedimentary and volcanic reservoir rocks are presented. The method enables measurements at high temperatures and reduced cost compared to conventional sensors.
Laurent Guillou-Frottier, Hugo Duwiquet, Gaëtan Launay, Audrey Taillefer, Vincent Roche, and Gaétan Link
Solid Earth, 11, 1571–1595,Short summary
In the first kilometers of the subsurface, temperature anomalies due to heat conduction rarely exceed 20–30°C. However, when deep hot fluids in the shallow crust flow upwards, for example through permeable fault zones, hydrothermal convection can form high-temperature geothermal reservoirs. Numerical modeling of hydrothermal convection shows that vertical fault zones may host funnel-shaped, kilometer-sized geothermal reservoirs whose exploitation would not need drilling at depths below 2–3 km.
Alireza Malehmir, Magdalena Markovic, Paul Marsden, Alba Gil, Stefan Buske, Lukasz Sito, Emma Bäckström, Martiya Sadeghi, and Stefan Luth
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
A smooth transition toward decarbonization demands access to more minerals of critical importance. Europe has a good geology for many of these mineral deposits but at depth requiring sensitive, environmentally-friendly and cost-effective methods for their exploration. In this context, we present a sparse 3D seismic dataset that allowed identification of potential iron-oxide resources at depth and helped to characterise key geological structures as well as a historical tailing in central Sweden.
Alba Zappone, Antonio Pio Rinaldi, Melchior Grab, Quinn Wenning, Clément Roques, Claudio Madonna, Anne Obermann, Stefano M. Bernasconi, Florian Soom, Paul Cook, Yves Guglielmi, Christophe Nussbaum, Domenico Giardini, and Stefan Wiemer
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
The success of geological storage of carbon dioxide is linked to the availability at depth of a capable reservoir and of an impermeable caprock. The sealing capacity of the caprock is a key parameter for the long-term CO2 containment. Faults crosscutting the caprock might represent preferential pathways for CO2 to escape. A decameter scale experiment of injection in a fault, monitored by an integrated network of multi-paramerter sensors shed light to the mobility of fluids within the fault.
Joseph Doetsch, Hannes Krietsch, Cedric Schmelzbach, Mohammadreza Jalali, Valentin Gischig, Linus Villiger, Florian Amann, and Hansruedi Maurer
Solid Earth, 11, 1441–1455,
Christian Emile Nyaban, Théophile Ndougsa-Mbarga, Marcelin Bikoro-Bi-Alou, Stella Amina Manekeng Tadjouteu, and Stephane Patrick Assembe
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for SEShort summary
A multi-scale analysis of aeromagnetic data combining tilt derivative, Euler deconvolution, upward continuation and the 2.75D modelling is applied over Cameroon territory between the latitudes 5°30′–6° N and the longitudes 13°30′–14°45′ E. It emerges that: major families of faults oriented ENE-WSW, E-W, NW-SE, N-S with a NE-SW prevalence are mapped.Depths of Interpreted faults ranges from 1000 to 3400 m; mylonitic veins were identified; 2.75D modelling revealed faults depth greater than 1200 m.
Laura Petrescu, Silvia Pondrelli, Simone Salimbeni, Manuele Faccenda, and the AlpArray Working Group
Solid Earth, 11, 1275–1290,Short summary
To place constraints on the mantle deformation beneath the Central Alps and the greater Alpine region, we analysed the appropriate seismic signal recorded by more than 100 stations, belonging to AlpArray and to other permanent networks. We took a picture of the imprinting that Alpine orogen history and related subductions left at depth, with a mainly orogen-parallel mantle deformation from Western Alps to Eastern Alps, but also N to S from the Po Plain to the Rhine Graben.
Łukasz Słonka and Piotr Krzywiec
Solid Earth, 11, 1097–1119,Short summary
This paper shows the results of seismic interpretations that document the presence of large Upper Jurassic carbonate buildups in the Miechów Trough (S Poland). Our work fills the gap in recognition of the Upper Jurassic carbonate depositional system of southern Poland. The results also provide an excellent generic reference point, showing how and to what extent seismic data can be used for studies of carbonate depositional systems, in particular for the identification of the carbonate buildups.
Matthias Bücker, Adrián Flores Orozco, Jakob Gallistl, Matthias Steiner, Lukas Aigner, Johannes Hoppenbrock, Ruth Glebe, Wendy Morales Barrera, Carlos Pita de la Paz, Emilio García García, José Alberto Razo Pérez, Johannes Buckel, Andreas Hördt, Antje Schwalb, and Liseth Perez
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
We use seismic, electromagnetic, and geoelectrical methods to assess sediment thickness and lake-bottom geology of two karst lakes. An unexpected drainage event provided us with the unusual opportunity to compare water-borne measurements with measurements carried out on the dry lake floor. The resulting data set does not only provide insight into the specific lake-bottom geology of the studied lakes but also evidences the potential and limitations of the employed field methods.
Anke Dannowski, Heidrun Kopp, Ingo Grevemeyer, Dietrich Lange, Martin Thorwart, Jörg Bialas, and Martin Wollatz-Vogt
Solid Earth, 11, 873–887,Short summary
The Ligurian Sea opened ~30–15 Ma during the SE migration of the Calabrian subduction zone. Seismic travel time tomography reveals the absence of oceanic crust, documenting that the extension of continental lithosphere stopped before seafloor spreading initiated. The extension led to extreme crustal thinning and possibly exhumed mantle accompanied by syn-rift sedimentation. Our new interpretation of the crust's nature is important for plate reconstruction modelling related to the Alpine orogen.
Yury Alkhimenkov, Eva Caspari, Simon Lissa, and Beatriz Quintal
Solid Earth, 11, 855–871,Short summary
We perform a three-dimensional numerical study of the fluid–solid deformation at the pore scale. We show that seismic wave velocities exhibit strong azimuth-, angle- and frequency-dependent behavior due to squirt flow between interconnected cracks. We conclude that the overall anisotropy mainly increases due to squirt flow, but in some specific planes it can locally decrease as well as increase, depending on the material properties.
Eva Caspari, Andrew Greenwood, Ludovic Baron, Daniel Egli, Enea Toschini, Kaiyan Hu, and Klaus Holliger
Solid Earth, 11, 829–854,Short summary
A shallow borehole was drilled to explore the petrophysical and hydraulic characteristics of a hydrothermally active fault in the crystalline Aar massif of the Alps. A key objective of studying surficial features of this kind is to establish analogies with natural and deep-seated engineered hydrothermal systems. A wide range of geophysical borehole logs was acquired, which revealed a complex fracture network in the damage zone of the fault and a related compartmentalized hydraulic behavior.
Jürg Hunziker, Andrew Greenwood, Shohei Minato, Nicolás Daniel Barbosa, Eva Caspari, and Klaus Holliger
Solid Earth, 11, 657–668,Short summary
The characterization of fractures is crucial for a wide range of pertinent applications, such as geothermal energy production, hydrocarbon exploration, CO2 sequestration, and nuclear waste disposal. We estimate fracture parameters based on waves that travel along boreholes (tube waves) using a stochastic optimization approach.
Felix Kästner, Simona Pierdominici, Judith Elger, Alba Zappone, Jochem Kück, and Christian Berndt
Solid Earth, 11, 607–626,Short summary
Knowledge about physical properties at depth is crucial to image and understand structures linked with orogenic processes. We examined seismic velocities from core and downhole data from the COSC-1 borehole, Sweden, and calibrated our results with laboratory measurements on core samples. Despite a strong mismatch between the core and downhole velocities due to microcracks, mafic units are resolved at all scales, while at sample scale, strong seismic anisotropy correlates with the rock foliation.
Elikplim Abla Dzikunoo, Giulio Vignoli, Flemming Jørgensen, Sandow Mark Yidana, and Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo
Solid Earth, 11, 349–361,Short summary
Time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) geophysics data originally collected for mining purposes were reprocessed and inverted. The new inversions were used to construct a 3D model of the subsurface geology to facilitate hydrogeological investigations within a DANIDA-funded project. Improved resolutions from the TEM enabled the identification of possible paleovalleys of glacial origin, suggesting the need for a reevaluation of the current lithostratigraphy of the Voltaian sedimentary basin.
Susini deSilva and Vernon F. Cormier
Solid Earth, 11, 161–171,Short summary
Seismic waves attenuate with distance due to two effects: (1) removal of energy by internal friction and (2) redistribution of energy into different distances and time windows by scattering from heterogeneous Earth structure. The relative contribution of these two effects is estimated by synthesizing seismograms having varying amounts of internal friction and heterogeneities. The attenuation of observed S waveforms requires contributions from both internal friction and scattering.
Siobhan F. Killingbeck, Adam D. Booth, Philip W. Livermore, C. Richard Bates, and Landis J. West
Solid Earth, 11, 75–94,Short summary
This paper presents MuLTI-TEM, a Bayesian inversion tool for inverting TEM data with independent depth constraints to provide statistical properties and uncertainty analysis of the resistivity profile with depth. MuLTI-TEM is highly versatile, being compatible with most TEM survey designs, ground-based or airborne, along with the depth constraints being provided from any external source. Here, we present an application of MuLTI-TEM to characterise the subglacial water under a Norwegian glacier.
Ines Dumke and Christian Berndt
Solid Earth, 10, 1989–2000,Short summary
Knowing the velocity with which seismic waves travel through the top of the crust is important both for identifying anomalies, e.g. the presence of resources, and for geophysical data evaluation. Traditionally this has been done by using empirical functions. Here, we use machine learning to derive better seismic velocity estimates for the crust below the oceans. In most cases this methods performs better than empirical averages.
Tobias Nickschick, Christina Flechsig, Jan Mrlina, Frank Oppermann, Felix Löbig, and Thomas Günther
Solid Earth, 10, 1951–1969,Short summary
An active CO2 degassing site in the western Eger Rift, Czech Republic, was investigated with a 6.5 km long geophysical survey using a specific large-scale geoelectrical setup, supported by shallow geoelectrical surveys and gravity measurements. The experiment reveals unusually low resistivities in the sediments and basement below the degassing area of less than 10 Ω and provides a base for a custom geological model of the area for a future 400 m deep research drilling in this area.
Sebastian Heimann, Hannes Vasyura-Bathke, Henriette Sudhaus, Marius Paul Isken, Marius Kriegerowski, Andreas Steinberg, and Torsten Dahm
Solid Earth, 10, 1921–1935,Short summary
We present an open-source software framework for fast and flexible forward modelling of seismic and acoustic wave phenomena and elastic deformation. It supports a wide range of applications across volcanology, seismology, and geodesy to study earthquakes, volcanic processes, landslides, explosions, mine collapses, ground shaking, and aseismic faulting. The framework stimulates reproducible research and open science through the exchange of pre-calculated Green's functions on an open platform.
Nathan Dutler, Benoît Valley, Valentin Gischig, Linus Villiger, Hannes Krietsch, Joseph Doetsch, Bernard Brixel, Mohammadreza Jalali, and Florian Amann
Solid Earth, 10, 1877–1904,Short summary
In this study, we present seismo-hydromechanical results from six hydraulic fracturing experiments executed in the framework of the In-situ Stimulation and Circulation (ISC) project. The well-characterized and extensively monitored target rock allows for the study of (1) the response of the rock mass, (2) the injection and pore pressure response, and (3) the geometry of newly created fractures and their interaction with the natural fracture network.
Adrià Meléndez, Clara Estela Jiménez, Valentí Sallarès, and César R. Ranero
Solid Earth, 10, 1857–1876,Short summary
A new code for anisotropic travel-time tomography is presented. We describe the equations governing the anisotropic ray propagation algorithm and the modified inversion solver. We study the sensitivity of two medium parameterizations and compare four inversion strategies on a canonical model. This code can provide better understanding of the Earth's subsurface in the rather common geological contexts in which seismic velocity displays a weak dependency on the polar angle of ray propagation.
Clàudia Gras, Daniel Dagnino, Clara Estela Jiménez-Tejero, Adrià Meléndez, Valentí Sallarès, and César R. Ranero
Solid Earth, 10, 1833–1855,Short summary
We present a workflow that combines different geophysical techniques, showing that a detailed seismic velocity model can be obtained even for non-optimal data sets, i.e. relatively short-offset, band-limited streamer data recorded in deep water. This fact has an important implication for the Marine seismic community, suggesting that many of the existing data sets should be revisited and analysed with new techniques to enhance our understanding of the subsurface, as in the Alboran Basin case.
Silvia Salas-Romero, Alireza Malehmir, Ian Snowball, and Benoît Dessirier
Solid Earth, 10, 1685–1705,Short summary
Land–river reflection seismic, hydrogeological modelling, and magnetic investigations in an area prone to quick-clay landslides in SW Sweden provide a detailed description of the subsurface structures, such as undulating fractured bedrock, a sedimentary sequence of intercalating leached and unleached clay, and coarse-grained deposits. Hydrological properties of the coarse-grained layer help us understand its role in the leaching process that leads to the formation of quick clays in the area.
Juan Alcalde, Clare E. Bond, Gareth Johnson, Armelle Kloppenburg, Oriol Ferrer, Rebecca Bell, and Puy Ayarza
Solid Earth, 10, 1651–1662,
Nikita Afonin, Elena Kozlovskaya, Jouni Nevalainen, and Janne Narkilahti
Solid Earth, 10, 1621–1634,
Carla Patricia Bárbara, Patricia Cabello, Alexandre Bouche, Ingrid Aarnes, Carlos Gordillo, Oriol Ferrer, Maria Roma, and Pau Arbués
Solid Earth, 10, 1597–1619,
Mohammed Ali Garba, Stephanie Vialle, Mahyar Madadi, Boris Gurevich, and Maxim Lebedev
Solid Earth, 10, 1505–1517,
Timothy R. H. Davies, Maurice J. McSaveney, and Natalya V. Reznichenko
Solid Earth, 10, 1385–1395,Short summary
Griffith (1921) assumed that energy used to create new surface area by breaking intact rock immediately becomes surface energy which is not available for further breakage. Our lab data disprove this assumption; we created much more new surface area, 90 % on submicron fragments, than the energy involved should allow. As technology allows ever smaller fragments to be measured, continued use of the Griffith assumption will lead to incorrect energy budgets for earthquakes and rock avalanches.
Simón Lissa, Nicolás D. Barbosa, J. Germán Rubino, and Beatriz Quintal
Solid Earth, 10, 1321–1336,Short summary
We quantify the effects that 3-D fractures with realistic distributions of aperture have on seismic wave attenuation and velocity dispersion. Attenuation and dispersion are caused by fluid pressure diffusion between the fractures and the porous background. We show that (i) both an increase in the density of contact areas and a decrease in their correlation length reduce attenuation and (ii) a simple planar fracture can be used to emulate the seismic response of realistic fracture models.
Mehdi Asgharzadeh, Ashley Grant, Andrej Bona, and Milovan Urosevic
Solid Earth, 10, 1015–1023,Short summary
Data acquisition costs mainly borne by expensive vibrator machines (i.e., deployment, operations, and maintenance) can be regarded as the main impediment to wide application of seismic methods in the mining industry. Here, we show that drill bit noise can be used to image the shallow subsurface when it is optimally acquired and processed. Drill bit imaging methods have many applications in small scale near-surface projects, such as those in mining exploration and geotechnical investigation.
Ben Mather and Javier Fullea
Solid Earth, 10, 839–850,Short summary
The temperature in the crust can be constrained by the Curie depth, which is often interpreted as the 580 °C isotherm. We cast the estimation of Curie depth, from maps of the magnetic anomaly, within a Bayesian framework to properly quantify its uncertainty across the British Isles. We find that uncertainty increases considerably for deeper Curie depths, which demonstrates that generally this method is only reliable in hotter regions, such as Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Andrzej Górszczyk, Stéphane Operto, Laure Schenini, and Yasuhiro Yamada
Solid Earth, 10, 765–784,Short summary
In order to broaden our knowledge about the deep lithosphere using seismic methods, we develop leading-edge imaging workflows integrating different types of data. Here we exploit the complementary information carried by seismic wavefields, which are fundamentally different in terms of acquisition setting. We cast this information into our processing workflow and build a detailed model of the subduction zone, which is subject to further geological interpretation.
Miłosz Mężyk, Michał Malinowski, and Stanisław Mazur
Solid Earth, 10, 683–696,Short summary
The Precambrian East European Craton is one of the most important building blocks of the European plate. Unlike in Scandinavia, its crystalline crust in Poland is concealed beneath younger sediments. Reprocessing of ca. 950 km regional reflection seismic profiles acquired during shale gas exploration in NE Poland revealed reflectivity patterns interpreted as signs of Svekofennian orogeny, proving a similar mechanism of Paleoproterozoic crustal formation across the Baltic Sea.
Anke Dannowski, Heidrun Kopp, Frauke Klingelhoefer, Dirk Klaeschen, Marc-André Gutscher, Anne Krabbenhoeft, David Dellong, Marzia Rovere, David Graindorge, Cord Papenberg, and Ingo Klaucke
Solid Earth, 10, 447–462,Short summary
The nature of the Ionian Sea crust has been the subject of scientific debate for more than 30 years. Seismic data, recorded on ocean bottom instruments, have been analysed and support the interpretation of the Ionian Abyssal Plain as a remnant of the Tethys oceanic lithosphere with the Malta Escarpment as a transform margin and a Tethys opening in the NNW–SSE direction.
Yaniv Darvasi and Amotz Agnon
Solid Earth, 10, 379–390,
Martin Staněk and Yves Géraud
Solid Earth, 10, 251–274,Short summary
Granite is suitable to host geothermal wells or disposals of hazardous waste and in these cases the rock porosity and permeability are critical. Our detailed porosity and permeability data on variously deformed Lipnice granite yield a span of 5 orders of magnitude in permeability between the least and the most deformed facies. To facilitate the estimation of porosity and permeability in similar settings, we provide optical and chemical data on the characteristic minerals of each facies.
Reli Wald, Amit Segev, Zvi Ben-Avraham, and Uri Schattner
Solid Earth, 10, 225–250,Short summary
Plate-scale rifting is frequently expressed by the subsidence of structural basins along an axis, but postdating tectonic and magmatic activity mostly obscures them. A 3-D subsurface imaging and facies analysis down to 1 km reveals uniquely preserved Galilean basins subsiding along a failing rift front in two main stages. Rifting within a large releasing jog (20–9 Ma), followed by localized grabenization off the Dead Sea fault plate boundary (9–5 Ma), prevents them from dying out peacefully.
David Marti, Ignacio Marzan, Jana Sachsenhausen, Joaquina Alvarez-Marrón, Mario Ruiz, Montse Torne, Manuela Mendes, and Ramon Carbonell
Solid Earth, 10, 177–192,Short summary
A detailed knowledge of the very shallow subsurface has become of crucial interest for modern society, especially if it hosts critical surface infrastructures such as temporary waste storage sites. The use of indirect methods to characterize the internal structure of the subsurface has been successfully applied, based on the 3-D distribution of seismic velocities and well-log data, which are of great interest for civil engineering companies.
Alessandro Lechmann, David Mair, Akitaka Ariga, Tomoko Ariga, Antonio Ereditato, Ryuichi Nishiyama, Ciro Pistillo, Paola Scampoli, Fritz Schlunegger, and Mykhailo Vladymyrov
Solid Earth, 9, 1517–1533,Short summary
Muon tomography is a technology, similar to X-ray tomography, to image the interior of an object, including geologically interesting ones. In this work, we examined the influence of rock composition on the physical measurements, and the possible error that is made by assuming a too-simplistic rock model. We performed numerical simulations for a more realistic rock model and found that beyond 300 m of rock, the composition starts to play a significant role and has to be accounted for.
Alireza Malehmir, Bo Bergman, Benjamin Andersson, Robert Sturk, and Mattis Johansson
Solid Earth, 9, 1469–1485,Short summary
Interest and demand for green-type energy usage and storage are growing worldwide. Among several, thermal energy storage that stores energy (excess heat or cold) in fluids is particularly interesting. For an upscaling purpose, three seismic profiles were acquired within the Tornquist suture zone in the southwest of Sweden and historical crustal-scale offshore BABEL lines revisited. A number of dykes have been imaged and implications for the storage and tectonic setting within the zone discussed.
Xiaoyu Zhang, Dong Zhang, Qiong Chen, and Yan Yang
Solid Earth, 9, 1277–1298,Short summary
We propose a new boundary matched algorithm which can effectively combine the traditional first-order perfectly matched layer algorithm into the conventional-grid finite-difference scheme in a second-order system. This novel boundary method takes the advantages of the conventional-grid scheme and perfectly matched layer boundary conditions, making a good compromise of accuracy, excellent absorption effect, and high computational efficiency. Our method is also easy to implement.
Ulrich Polom, Hussam Alrshdan, Djamil Al-Halbouni, Eoghan P. Holohan, Torsten Dahm, Ali Sawarieh, Mohamad Y. Atallah, and Charlotte M. Krawczyk
Solid Earth, 9, 1079–1098,Short summary
The alluvial fan of Ghor Al-Haditha (Dead Sea) is affected by subsidence and sinkholes. Different models and hypothetical processes have been suggested in the past; high-resolution shear wave reflection surveys carried out in 2013 and 2014 showed the absence of evidence for a massive shallow salt layer as formerly suggested. Thus, a new process interpretation is proposed based on both the dissolution and physical erosion of Dead Sea mud layers.
Dietrich Lange, Frederik Tilmann, Tim Henstock, Andreas Rietbrock, Danny Natawidjaja, and Heidrun Kopp
Solid Earth, 9, 1035–1049,Short summary
Venera Dobrica, Crisan Demetrescu, and Mioara Mandea
Solid Earth, 9, 491–503,Short summary
By analyzing frequency constituents of declination secular variation at inter-decadal and sub-centennial timescales from geomagnetic observatories with data longer than 1 century and several historical data sets, we suggest that the geomagnetic jerk concept should be considered as a more general notion, namely the evolution of the secular variation as a result of the superposition of two (or more) constituents describing the effects of processes in the Earth’s core at two (or more) timescales.
Muriel Llubes, Lucia Seoane, Sean Bruinsma, and Frédérique Rémy
Solid Earth, 9, 457–467,Short summary
We computed a global map of crustal thickness covering the entire Antarctic continent from GOCE satellite gravimetric data. We compare our result to seismological models: a fairly good agreement is shown. However, better resolution is obtained using the gravity observations than using only seismological ones. This research will help us to understand the geology of Antarctica.
Lidong Dai, Wenqing Sun, Heping Li, Haiying Hu, Lei Wu, and Jianjun Jiang
Solid Earth, 9, 233–245,Short summary
The gneiss conductivities markedly increase with total alkali and calcium ion content. The influence of pressure on gneiss conductivity is weaker than temperature, although conductivity still increases with pressure. The results cannot be used to interpret the HC anomalies in the Dabie–Sulu UHPM belt. However, the conductivity–depth profiles for gneiss may provide an important constraint on the interpretation of field magnetotelluric conductivity results in the regional metamorphic belt.
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