Articles | Volume 6, issue 2
Solid Earth, 6, 497–514, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Deformation mechanisms and ductile strain localization in...
Research article 19 May 2015
Research article | 19 May 2015
Fracturing of ductile anisotropic multilayers: influence of material strength
E. Gomez-Rivas et al.
No articles found.
Florian Steinbach, Paul D. Bons, Albert Griera, Daniela Jansen, Maria-Gema Llorens, Jens Roessiger, and Ilka Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 10, 3071–3089,Short summary
How glaciers or ice sheets flow is a result of microscopic processes controlled by the properties of individual ice crystals. We performed computer simulations on these processes and the effect of air bubbles between crystals. The simulations show that small-scale ice deformation is locally stronger than in other regions, which is enhanced by bubbles. This causes the ice crystals to recrystallise and change their properties in a way that potentially also affects the large-scale flow properties.
D. Jansen, M.-G. Llorens, J. Westhoff, F. Steinbach, S. Kipfstuhl, P. D. Bons, A. Griera, and I. Weikusat
The Cryosphere, 10, 359–370,Short summary
In this study we present examples of typical small-scale folds observed in the NEEM ice core, North Greenland, and discuss their characteristics. Numerical modelling of viscoplastic deformation and dynamic recrystallisation was used to improve the understanding of the formation of the observed structures under simple shear boundary conditions. We conclude that the folds originate from bands of grains with a tilted lattice relative to the strong lattice preferred orientation below 1500 m depth.
Related subject area
Structural geologyDistribution, microphysical properties, and tectonic controls of deformation bands in the Miocene subduction wedge (Whakataki Formation) of the Hikurangi subduction zoneAnalysis of deformation bands associated with the Trachyte Mesa intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah: implications for reservoir connectivity and fluid flow around sill intrusionsCharacterization of discontinuities in potential reservoir rocks for geothermal applications in the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area (Germany)On a new robust workflow for the statistical and spatial analysis of fracture data collected with scanlines (or the importance of stationarity)Micro- and nano-porosity of the active Alpine Fault zone, New ZealandUnraveling the origins and P-T-t evolution of the allochthonous Sobrado unit (Órdenes Complex, NW Spain) using combined U–Pb titanite, monazite and zircon geochronology and rare-earth element (REE) geochemistryFracture attribute scaling and connectivity in the Devonian Orcadian Basin with implications for geologically equivalent sub-surface fractured reservoirsStructural control on fluid flow and shallow diagenesis: insights from calcite cementation along deformation bands in porous sandstonesThe growth of faults and fracture networks in a mechanically evolving, mechanically stratified rock mass: a case study from Spireslack Surface Coal Mine, ScotlandRelationship between microstructures and resistance in mafic assemblages that deform and transformMultiphase, decoupled faulting in the southern German Molasse Basin – evidence from 3-D seismic dataFault-controlled fluid circulation and diagenesis along basin-bounding fault systems in rifts – insights from the East Greenland rift systemNear-surface Palaeocene fluid flow, mineralisation and faulting at Flamborough Head, UK: new field observations and U–Pb calcite dating constraintsTowards the application of Stokes flow equations to structural restoration simulationsInversion tectonics: a brief petroleum industry perspectiveGeologic characterization of nonconformities using outcrop and core analogs: hydrologic implications for injection-induced seismicityMapping the fracture network in the Lilstock pavement, Bristol Channel, UK: manual versus automaticData acquisition by digitizing 2-D fracture networks and topographic lineaments in geographic information systems: further development and applicationsPrecambrian faulting episodes and insights into the tectonothermal history of north Australia: microstructural evidence and K–Ar, 40Ar–39Ar, and Rb–Sr dating of syntectonic illite from the intracratonic Millungera BasinExtensional reactivation of the Penninic Frontal Thrust 3 Ma ago as evidenced by U-Pb dating on calcite in fault zone cataclasiteTransverse jointing in foreland fold-and-thrust belts: a remote sensing analysis in the eastern PyreneesRegional-scale paleofluid system across the Tuscan Nappe–Umbria–Marche Apennine Ridge (northern Apennines) as revealed by mesostructural and isotopic analyses of stylolite–vein networksThe Piuquencillo Fault System: a long-lived, Andean-transverse fault system and its relationship with magmatic and hydrothermal activityExperimental evidence that viscous shear zones generate periodic pore sheets that focus mass transportEmplacement ofPre-inversion normal fault geometry controls inversion style and magnitude, Farsund Basin, offshore southern NorwayUncertainty assessment for 3D geologic modeling of fault zones based on geologic inputs and prior knowledgeStress field orientation controls on fault leakage at a natural CO2 reservoirControl of pre-existing fabric in fracture formation, reactivation and vein emplacement under variable fluid pressure conditions: an example from Archean greenstone belt, IndiaExtension and inversion of salt-bearing rift systemsDiagenetic evolution of fault zones in Urgonian microporous carbonates, impact on reservoir properties (Provence – southeast France)Structure and kinematics of an extensional growth fold, Hadahid Fault System, Suez Rift, EgyptThrow variations and strain partitioning associated with fault-bend folding along normal faultsResolved stress analysis, failure mode, and fault-controlled fluid conduitsAn active tectonic field for CO2 storage management: the Hontomín onshore case study (Spain)Evolution of structures and hydrothermal alteration in a Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal belt: Constraining paired deformation–fluid flow events in an Fe and Cu–Au prospective terrain in northern SwedenEstimating the depth and evolution of intrusions at resurgent calderas: Los Humeros (Mexico)Abutting faults: a case study of the evolution of strain at Courthouse branch point, Moab Fault, UtahFluid-mediated, brittle–ductile deformation at seismogenic depth – Part 2: Stress history and fluid pressure variations in a shear zone in a nuclear waste repository (Olkiluoto Island, Finland)Influence of inherited structural domains and their particular strain distributions on the Roer Valley Graben evolution from inversion to extensionFault zone architecture of a large plate-bounding strike-slip fault: a case study from the Alpine Fault, New ZealandAn automated fracture trace detection technique using the complex shearlet transformA numerical sensitivity study of how permeability, porosity, geological structure, and hydraulic gradient control the lifetime of a geothermal reservoirActors, actions, and uncertainties: optimizing decision-making based on 3-D structural geological modelsStructure of massively dilatant faults in Iceland: lessons learned from high-resolution unmanned aerial vehicle dataFracturing and crystal plastic behaviour of garnet under seismic stress in the dry lower continental crust (Musgrave Ranges, Central Australia)How can geologic decision-making under uncertainty be improved?Overprinting translational domains in passive margin salt basins: insights from analogue modellingFault slip envelope: a new parametric investigation tool for fault slip based on geomechanics and 3-D fault geometry2-D finite displacements and strain from particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) analysis of tectonic analogue models with TecPIV
Kathryn E. Elphick, Craig R. Sloss, Klaus Regenauer-Lieb, and Christoph E. Schrank
Solid Earth, 12, 141–170,Short summary
We analysed a sedimentary rock package located in Castlepoint, New Zealand, to test the control of the tectonic setting on the observed deformation structures. In extension and contraction, we observed faults and small fault-like structures characterised by complex spatial patterns and a reduction in porosity and grain size compared with the host rock. With these properties, the structures are likely to act as barriers to fluid flow and cause compartmentalisation of the sedimentary sequence.
Penelope I. R. Wilson, Robert W. Wilson, David J. Sanderson, Ian Jarvis, and Kenneth J. W. McCaffrey
Solid Earth, 12, 95–117,Short summary
Magma accommodation in the shallow crust leads to deformation of the surrounding host rock through the creation of faults, fractures and folds. This deformation will impact fluid flow around intrusive magma bodies (including sills and laccoliths) by changing the porosity and permeability network of the host rock. The results may have important implications for industries where fluid flow within the subsurface adds value (e.g. oil and gas, hydrology, geothermal and carbon sequestration).
Martin Balcewicz, Benedikt Ahrens, Kevin Lippert, and Erik H. Saenger
Solid Earth, 12, 35–58,Short summary
The geothermal potential of a carbonate reservoir in the Rhine-Ruhr area, Germany, was investigated by field and laboratory investigations. The carbonate layer of interest is approx. 150 m thick; located at 4 to 6 km depth; and might extend below Essen, Bochum, and Dortmund. We proposed focusing on discontinuities striking NNW–SSE for geothermal applications, as these are the most common, strike in the direction of the main horizontal stress, and dominate reservoir fluid flow.
Andrea Bistacchi, Silvia Mittempergher, Mattia Martinelli, and Fabrizio Storti
Solid Earth, 11, 2535–2547,Short summary
We present an innovative workflow for the statistical analysis of fracture data collected along scanlines. Our methodology is based on performing non-parametric statistical tests, which allow detection of important features of the spatial distribution of fractures, and on the analysis of the cumulative spacing function (CSF) and cumulative spacing derivative (CSD), which allows the boundaries of stationary domains to be defined in an objective way.
Martina Kirilova, Virginia Toy, Katrina Sauer, François Renard, Klaus Gessner, Richard Wirth, Xianghui Xiao, and Risa Matsumura
Solid Earth, 11, 2425–2438,Short summary
Processes associated with open pores can change the physical properties of rocks and cause earthquakes. In borehole samples from the Alpine Fault zone, we show that many pores in these rocks were filled by weak materials that can slide easily. The amount of open spaces was thus reduced, and fluids circulating within them built up high pressures. Both weak materials and high pressures within pores reduce the rock strength; thus the state of pores here can trigger the next Alpine Fault earthquake.
José Manuel Benítez-Pérez, Pedro Castiñeiras, Juan Gómez-Barreiro, José R. Martínez Catalán, Andrew Kylander-Clark, and Robert Holdsworth
Solid Earth, 11, 2303–2325,Short summary
The Sobrado unit represents an allochthonous tectonic slice of exhumed high-grade metamorphic rocks formed during a complex sequence of orogenic processes in the middle to lower crust. We have combined U–Pb geochronology and REE analyses (LASS-ICP-MS) of accessory minerals in migmatitic paragneiss (monazite, zircon) and mylonitic amphibolites (titanite) to constrain the evolution. A Middle Devonian minimum age for HP metamorphism has been obtained.
Anna M. Dichiarante, Ken J. W. McCaffrey, Robert E. Holdsworth, Tore I. Bjørnarå, and Edward D. Dempsey
Solid Earth, 11, 2221–2244,Short summary
We studied the characteristics of fracture systems in the Devonian rocks of the Orcadian Basin in Caithness. These mineral-filled fractures have properties that may be used to predict the size and spatial arrangement of similar structures in offshore basins. This includes the Clair field in the Faroe–Shetland Basin.
Leonardo Del Sole, Marco Antonellini, Roger Soliva, Gregory Ballas, Fabrizio Balsamo, and Giulio Viola
Solid Earth, 11, 2169–2195,Short summary
This study focuses on the impact of deformation bands on fluid flow and diagenesis in porous sandstones in two different case studies (northern Apennines, Italy; Provence, France) by combining a variety of multiscalar mapping techniques, detailed field and microstructural observations, and stable isotope analysis. We show that deformation bands buffer and compartmentalize fluid flow and foster and localize diagenesis, recorded by carbonate cement nodules spatially associated with the bands.
Billy James Andrews, Zoe Kai Shipton, Richard Lord, and Lucy McKay
Solid Earth, 11, 2119–2140,Short summary
Through geological mapping we find that fault zone internal structure depends on whether or not the fault cuts multiple lithologies, the presence of shale layers, and the orientation of joints and coal cleats at the time of faulting. During faulting, cementation of fractures (i.e. vein formation) is highest where the fractures are most connected. This leads to the counter-intuitive result that the highest-fracture-density part of the network often has the lowest open-fracture connectivity.
Nicolas Mansard, Holger Stünitz, Hugues Raimbourg, Jacques Précigout, Alexis Plunder, and Lucille Nègre
Solid Earth, 11, 2141–2167,Short summary
Our rock deformation experiments (solid-medium Griggs-type apparatus) on wet assemblages of mafic compositions show that the ability of minerals to react controls the portions of rocks that deform and that minor chemical and mineralogical variations can considerably modify the strength of deformed assemblages. Our study suggests that the rheology of mafic rocks, which constitute a large part of the oceanic crust, cannot be summarized as being rheologically controlled by monophase materials.
Vladimir Shipilin, David C. Tanner, Hartwig von Hartmann, and Inga Moeck
Solid Earth, 11, 2097–2117,Short summary
In our work, we carry out an in-depth structural analysis of a geometrically decoupled fault system in the southern German Molasse Basin using a high-resolution 3-D seismic dataset. Based on this analysis, we reconstruct the tectonic history and changes in the stress regimes to explain the structure and evolution of faults. The results contribute in understanding the driving mechanisms behind formation, propagation, and reactivation of faults during foreland basin formation.
Eric Salomon, Atle Rotevatn, Thomas Berg Kristensen, Sten-Andreas Grundvåg, Gijs Allard Henstra, Anna Nele Meckler, Richard Albert, and Axel Gerdes
Solid Earth, 11, 1987–2013,Short summary
This study focuses on the impact of major rift border faults on fluid circulation and hanging wall sediment diagenesis by investigating a well-exposed example in NE Greenland using field observations, U–Pb calcite dating, clumped isotope, and minor element analyses. We show that fault-proximal sediments became calcite cemented quickly after deposition to form a near-impermeable barrier along the fault, which has important implications for border fault zone evolution and reservoir assessments.
Nick M. W. Roberts, Jack K. Lee, Robert E. Holdsworth, Christopher Jeans, Andrew R. Farrant, and Richard Haslam
Solid Earth, 11, 1931–1945,Short summary
We characterise a well-known fractured and faulted exposure of Cretaceous chalk in NE England, combining field observations with novel U–Pb calcite dating. We show that the faulting and associated fluid flow occurred during the interval of ca. 64–56 Ma, predating earlier estimates of Alpine-related tectonic inversion. We demonstrate that the main extensional fault zone acted as a conduit linking voluminous fluid flow and linking deeper sedimentary layers with the shallow subsurface.
Melchior Schuh-Senlis, Cedric Thieulot, Paul Cupillard, and Guillaume Caumon
Solid Earth, 11, 1909–1930,Short summary
This paper presents a numerical method for restoring models of the subsurface to a previous state in their deformation history, acting as a numerical time machine for geological structures. The method relies on the assumption that rock layers can be modeled as highly viscous fluids. It shows promising results on simple setups, including models with faults and non-flat topography. While issues still remain, this could open a way to add more physics to reverse time structural modeling.
Gábor Tari, Didier Arbouille, Zsolt Schléder, and Tamás Tóth
Solid Earth, 11, 1865–1889,Short summary
Inversion tectonics has been studied in detail by both academic researchers and industry experts around the world for the last 30 years. Inverted structures provide important traps for petroleum exploration which can be categorized into two end-member modes of evolution. This paper attempts to provide a brief synoptic view of inversion tectonics from the point of view of the petroleum industry, emphasizing the main subsurface challenges of understanding this structural geology phenomenon.
Elizabeth S. Petrie, Kelly K. Bradbury, Laura Cuccio, Kayla Smith, James P. Evans, John P. Ortiz, Kellie Kerner, Mark Person, and Peter Mozley
Solid Earth, 11, 1803–1821,Short summary
A summary of observed rock properties across the contact between crystalline basement rock and the overlying younger sedimentary rocks from outcrop and core samples is presented. The data span a range of tectonic settings and describe the rock types immediately adjacent to the contact. The range of features observed at these contacts can influence the migration of fluids. The observations presented here are critical for the safe implementation of fluid injection and geothermal production.
Christopher Weismüller, Rahul Prabhakaran, Martijn Passchier, Janos L. Urai, Giovanni Bertotti, and Klaus Reicherter
Solid Earth, 11, 1773–1802,Short summary
We photographed a fractured limestone pavement with a drone to compare manual and automatic fracture tracing and analyze the evolution and spatial variation of the fracture network in high resolution. We show that automated tools can produce results comparable to manual tracing in shorter time but do not yet allow the interpretation of fracture generations. This work pioneers the automatic fracture mapping of a complete outcrop in detail, and the results can be used as fracture benchmark.
Romesh Palamakumbura, Maarten Krabbendam, Katie Whitbread, and Christian Arnhardt
Solid Earth, 11, 1731–1746,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to describe, evaluate and develop a simple but robust low-cost method for capturing 2-D fracture network data in GIS and make them more accessible to a broader range of users in both academia and industry. We present a breakdown of the key steps in the methodology, which provides an understanding of how to avoid error and improve the accuracy of the final dataset. The 2-D digital method can be used to interpret traces of 2-D linear features on a wide variety of scales.
I. Tonguç Uysal, Claudio Delle Piane, Andrew James Todd, and Horst Zwingmann
Solid Earth, 11, 1653–1679,Short summary
This study represents an integrated approach to radiometric age dating using potassium-bearing clay minerals formed during faulting and provides insights into the enigmatic time–space distribution of Precambrian tectonic zones in north-central Australia. Specifically, our work firmly indicates a late Mesoproterzoic minimum age for the Millungera Basin in north Australia and a previously unrecorded concealed late Mesoproterozoic–early Neoproterozoic tectonic event in north-central Australia.
Antonin Bilau, Yann Rolland, Stéphane Schwartz, Nicolas Godeau, Abel Guihou, Pierre Deschamps, Benjamin Brigaud, Aurélie Noret, Thierry Dumont, and Cécile Gautheron
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
As a result of the collision between the European and Apulian plates, the Alps have experienced several evolutionary stages. The Penninic Frontal Thrust (PFT) (major thrust) was associated to compression and now seismic studies show ongoing extensional activity. Calcite mineralisations associated to extension and compresionnal strucures were sampled. Last deformation stage is dated by U-Pb at 4.9–2.3 Ma and isotopes analysis evidence deep crustal fluid's mobilisation.
Stefano Tavani, Pablo Granado, Amerigo Corradetti, Thomas Seers, Josep Maria Casas, and Josep Anton Muñoz
Solid Earth, 11, 1643–1651,Short summary
Using orthophotos, we manually digitized 30 000 joints in the eastern Ebro Basin of the Pyrenees. Joints are perpendicular to the belt in the frontal portion of the belt and in the inner and central portion of the foredeep basin. Joint orientations in the external portion of the foredeep become less clustered. Joints in the studied area formed in the foredeep in response to foredeep-parallel stretching, which becomes progressively less intense within the external portion of the foredeep basin.
Nicolas E. Beaudoin, Aurélie Labeur, Olivier Lacombe, Daniel Koehn, Andrea Billi, Guilhem Hoareau, Adrian Boyce, Cédric M. John, Marta Marchegiano, Nick M. Roberts, Ian L. Millar, Fanny Claverie, Christophe Pecheyran, and Jean-Paul Callot
Solid Earth, 11, 1617–1641,Short summary
This paper reports a multiproxy approach to reconstruct the depth, timing, and extent of the past fluid flow during the formation of a fold-and-thrust belt in the Northern Apennines, Italy. The unique combination of paleopiezometry and absolute dating returns the absolute timing of the sequence of deformation. Combined with burial models, this leads to predict the expected temperatures for fluid, highlighting a limited hydrothermal fluid flow we relate to the large-scale subsurface geometry.
Jose Piquer, Orlando Rivera, Gonzalo Yañez, and Nicolas Oyarzun
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
A proper recognition of deep, long-lived fault systems is very important for society. They can produce potentially dangerous earthquakes. They can also act as pathways for magmas and hydrothermal fluids, leading to the formation of volcanoes, geothermal systems and mineral deposits. However, the manifestations of these very old faults in the present-day surface can be very subtle. Here we present a detailed, multi-disciplinary study of a fault system of this type in the Andes of central Chile.
James Gilgannon, Marius Waldvogel, Thomas Poulet, Florian Fusseis, Alfons Berger, Auke Barnhoorn, and Marco Herwegh
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
Using experiments that simulate deep tectonic interfaces, known as viscous shear zones, we found that these zones spontaneously develop periodic sheets of small pores. The presence of porous layers in deep rocks undergoing tectonic deformation is significant because requires a change to the current model of how the Earth deforms. Emergent porous layers in viscous rocks will focus mineralising fluids and could lead to the seismic failure of rocks that are supposed to never have this occur.
exoticZechstein slivers along the inverted Sontra Graben (northern Hessen, Germany): clues from balanced crosssections and geometrical forward modelling
Jakob Bolz and Jonas Kley
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for SEShort summary
To assess the role smaller graben structures near the southern edge of the Central European Basin System play for the basin’s overall deformational history, we take advantage of a feature found on some of these structures, where slivers from older rock units appear along the graben's main fault, surrounded on both sides by younger strata. The implications for the geometry of the fault provide a substantially improved estimate for the magnitude of normal and thrust motion along the fault system.
Thomas B. Phillips, Christopher A.-L. Jackson, and James R. Norcliffe
Solid Earth, 11, 1489–1510,Short summary
Normal faults often reactivate under compression, in a process called inversion. The 3D geometry of these structures (and the effect on resultant inversion structural style) is often not considered. Using seismic reflection data, we examine how stresses form different inversion styles that are controlled by the geometry of the pre-existing structure. Geometrically simple faults are preferentially reactivated; more complex areas are typically not reactivated and instead experience bulk uplift.
Ashton Krajnovich, Wendy Zhou, and Marte Gutierrez
Solid Earth, 11, 1457–1474,Short summary
In this paper, a novel methodology of 3D geologic model uncertainty assessment that considers both input data and prior knowledge is developed and applied to characterize fault zones – areas of damaged rock surrounding a fault surface that are important to subsurface engineering projects. The results of the study demonstrate how existing frameworks can be expanded to incorporate new types of information to arrive at a realistic and straightforward model of fault zone geometry in the subsurface.
Johannes M. Miocic, Gareth Johnson, and Stuart M. V. Gilfillan
Solid Earth, 11, 1361–1374,Short summary
At the St. Johns Dome, Arizona, CO2 naturally occurs in the subsurface, but there are travertine rocks on the surface which are an expression of CO2 leakage to the surface. These travertine deposits occur along faults, zones where the rock layers are fractured and displaced. In our research, we use geomechanical analysis to show that the CO2 leakage occurs at points where the faults are likely to be permeable due to the orientation of the geological stress field in the subsurface.
Sreyashi Bhowmick and Tridib Kumar Mondal
Solid Earth, 11, 1227–1246,Short summary
We explore pre-existing fabric in metabasalts replete with a wide range of crisscross fractures/faults, hosting quartz veins of variable orientations and thicknesses in the Chitradurga region, India. The fractures are identified as components of a riedel shear system. We evaluate reactivation potential of fractures and conclude that episodic changes in fluid pressure conditions triggered fault-valve action, thereby reactivating fabric and fractures, leading to vein emplacement in the region.
Tim P. Dooley and Michael R. Hudec
Solid Earth, 11, 1187–1204,Short summary
Sandbox models investigated extension and inversion of salt-bearing rifts such as those found in the Moroccan High Atlas, North Africa. Sand packs were stretched and the structural lows were filled with a salt analog. Models were then subjected to additional extension and loading that remobilized the salt into diapirs. During shortening the distribution of the salt in the overburden governed the structural styles and trends in the supra-salt strata, strongly decoupled from subsalt deformation.
Irène Aubert, Philippe Léonide, Juliette Lamarche, and Roland Salardon
Solid Earth, 11, 1163–1186,Short summary
In carbonate rocks, fault zones influence the fluid flows and lead to important diagenetic processes modifying reservoir properties. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of two polyphase fault zones on fluid flows and reservoir properties during basin history. We determined petro-physic and diagenetic properties on 92 samples. This study highlights that fault zones acted as drains at their onset and induced fault zone cementation, which has strongly altered local reservoir properties.
Christopher A.-L. Jackson, Paul S. Whipp, Robert L. Gawthorpe, and Matthew M. Lewis
Solid Earth, 11, 1027–1051,Short summary
Plate tectonics describes the creation, motion, and ultimate destruction of the Earth's continents and oceans. A key plate tectonic process is continental extension; this occurs when the Earth's plates are pulled apart to ultimately form a new ocean. Giant fractures (faults) accommodate plate stretching, although buckling (folding) is thought to be locally important. We use field data to understand how fracturing and buckling relate to each other, demonstrating they are spatially complex.
Efstratios Delogkos, Muhammad Mudasar Saqab, John J. Walsh, Vincent Roche, and Conrad Childs
Solid Earth, 11, 935–945,Short summary
Normal faults have irregular geometries on a range of scales. A quantitative model has been presented which illustrates the range of deformation arising from movement on fault surface irregularities, with fault-bend folding generating geometries reminiscent of normal drag and reverse drag. We show that fault throw can be subject to errors of up to ca. 50 % for realistic fault bend geometries (up to ca. 40°), even on otherwise sub-planar faults with constant displacement.
David A. Ferrill, Kevin J. Smart, and Alan P. Morris
Solid Earth, 11, 899–908,Short summary
This paper explores failure modes and deformation behavior of faults in the mechanically layered Eagle Ford Formation, an ultra-low permeability self-sourced oil and gas reservoir and aquitard in southwest Texas, USA. The role of dilation versus slip relates in predictable ways to mechanical stratigraphy, stress field, and dilation and slip tendency. We conclude that dilation tendency vs. slip tendency can be used to infer fault and fracture deformation modes and conduit versus seal behaviour.
Raúl Pérez-López, José F. Mediato, Miguel A. Rodríguez-Pascua, Jorge L. Giner-Robles, Adrià Ramos, Silvia Martín-Velázquez, Roberto Martínez-Orío, and Paula Fernández-Canteli
Solid Earth, 11, 719–739,Short summary
Long-term monitoring of CO2 of onshore storage has to consider thousands of years as a medium lifetime of the storage. In this wide time interval, the stress and strain properties of the reservoir change and earthquakes could occur. Therefore, we have to identify those fault sets which can be reactivated by changing the stress conditions. We need to know the role of active fault sets and model the changing conditions to prevent induced seismicity.
Joel B. H. Andersson, Tobias E. Bauer, and Edward P. Lynch
Solid Earth, 11, 547–578,Short summary
In this field-based study, geological structures and hydrothermal alterations in one of the least known geological terrains in Sweden are investigated. The area is located above the polar circle in northwestern Sweden that produces a significant portion of the iron and copper in the EU. A new tectonic model based on field evidence and microstructures is presented and it is shown that minerals typical for iron and copper–gold deposits can be linked to different phases of the structural evolution.
Stefano Urbani, Guido Giordano, Federico Lucci, Federico Rossetti, Valerio Acocella, and Gerardo Carrasco-Núñez
Solid Earth, 11, 527–545,Short summary
In Los Humeros, through field structural–geological mapping and analogue experiments, we show a discontinuous and small-scale (areal size ~ 1 km2) uplift of the caldera floor due to the emplacement of multiple shallow (< 1 km) magmatic bodies. These results allow for a better assessment of the subsurface structure of Los Humeros, with crucial implications for planning future geothermal exploration, which should account for the local geothermal gradient affected by such a shallow heat source.
Heijn van Gent and Janos L. Urai
Solid Earth, 11, 513–526,Short summary
Faults form due to stresses caused by crustal processes. As faults influence the stress field locally, fault interaction leads to local variations in the stress field, but this is difficult to observe directly. We describe an outcrop of one fault abuting into another one. By careful measurement of structures in the overlapping deformation zones and separating them using published relative age data, we show a rotation in the local stress field resulting from the faults growing to each other
Francesca Prando, Luca Menegon, Mark Anderson, Barbara Marchesini, Jussi Mattila, and Giulio Viola
Solid Earth, 11, 489–511,
Jef Deckers, Bernd Rombaut, Koen Van Noten, and Kris Vanneste
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
This study shows the presence of two structural domains in the western border fault system of the Roer Valley Graben. These domains, dominated by NW-SE striking faults, displayed distinctly different strain distributions during both Late Cretaceous compression and Cenozoic extension. The southern domain is characterized by narrow, localized faulting, while the northern domain is characterized by wide, distributed faulting. The non-colinear WNW-ESE Grote Brogel fault links both domains.
Bernhard Schuck, Anja M. Schleicher, Christoph Janssen, Virginia G. Toy, and Georg Dresen
Solid Earth, 11, 95–124,
Rahul Prabhakaran, Pierre-Olivier Bruna, Giovanni Bertotti, and David Smeulders
Solid Earth, 10, 2137–2166,Short summary
This contribution describes a technique to automatically extract digitized fracture patterns from images of fractured rock. Digitizing fracture patterns, accurately and rapidly with minimal human intervention, is a desirable objective in fractured rock characterization. Our method can extract fractures at varying scales of rock discontinuities, and results are presented from three different outcrop settings. The method enables faster processing of copious amounts of fractured outcrop image data.
Johanna F. Bauer, Michael Krumbholz, Elco Luijendijk, and David C. Tanner
Solid Earth, 10, 2115–2135,Short summary
We use a 4-D numerical sensitivity study to investigate which geological parameters exert a dominant control on the quality of a deep geothermal reservoir. We constrain how the variability of these parameters affects the economic potential of a reservoir. We show that the interplay of high permeability and hydraulic gradient is the dominant control on reservoir lifetime. Fracture anisotropy, typical for faults, leads to fluid channelling and thus restricts the exploitable volume significantly.
Fabian Antonio Stamm, Miguel de la Varga, and Florian Wellmann
Solid Earth, 10, 2015–2043,
Christopher Weismüller, Janos L. Urai, Michael Kettermann, Christoph von Hagke, and Klaus Reicherter
Solid Earth, 10, 1757–1784,Short summary
We use drones to study surface geometries of massively dilatant faults (MDFs) in Iceland, with apertures up to tens of meters at the surface. Based on throw, aperture and structures, we define three geometrically different endmembers of the surface expression of MDFs and show that they belong to one continuum. The transition between the endmembers is fluent and can change at one fault over short distances, implying less distinct control of deeper structures on surface geometries than expected.
Friedrich Hawemann, Neil Mancktelow, Sebastian Wex, Giorgio Pennacchioni, and Alfredo Camacho
Solid Earth, 10, 1635–1649,
Cristina G. Wilson, Clare E. Bond, and Thomas F. Shipley
Solid Earth, 10, 1469–1488,Short summary
In this paper, we outline the key insights from decision-making research about how, when faced with uncertainty, humans constrain decisions through the use of heuristics (rules of thumb), making them vulnerable to systematic and suboptimal decision biases. We also review existing strategies to debias decision-making that have applicability in the geosciences, giving special attention to strategies that make use of information technology and artificial intelligence.
Zhiyuan Ge, Matthias Rosenau, Michael Warsitzka, and Rob L. Gawthorpe
Solid Earth, 10, 1283–1300,Short summary
Salt basins are important as they bear abundant natural resources and record valuable geological information. However, some models of salt basin evolution do not fully reconcile with natural examples. Using state-of-the-art analogue modelling, we investigate how a relatively stable area, the translational domain, occurs and gets overprinted in salt basins. The results suggest that that variation of sediment deposition is the key factor for overprinting the translational domain.
Roger Soliva, Frantz Maerten, Laurent Maerten, and Jussi Mattila
Solid Earth, 10, 1141–1154,Short summary
We propose innovative parametric modeling allowing for analysis of a very large number of fault-slip numerical simulations on 3-D discrete fault network. The approach allows for the first time producing failure envelopes of large rock volumes containing faults, using variations of geological conditions such as remote stresses, cohesion, friction, and fluid pressure. This tool helps to define the most conservative fault slip hazard case or to account for potential uncertainties in the input data.
David Boutelier, Christoph Schrank, and Klaus Regenauer-Lieb
Solid Earth, 10, 1123–1139,Short summary
Image correlation techniques have provided new ways to analyse the distribution in space and time of deformation in analogue models of tectonics. Here, we demonstrate how the correlation of successive time-lapse images of a deforming model allows calculating the finite displacements and finite strain tensor. We illustrate, using synthetic images, the ability of the algorithm to produce maps of the finite deformation.
Anderson, T. L.: Fracture mechanics: fundamentals and applications, 3rd Edition, CRC Press Taylor & Francis, 640 pp., 2005.
Arslan, A., Passchier, C. W., and Koehn, D.: Foliation boudinage, J. Struct. Geol., 30, 291–309, 2008.
Behrmann, J. H.: A precautionary note on shear bands as kinematic indicators, J. Struct. Geol., 9, 659–666, 1987.
Bons, P. D., Druguet, E., Hamann, I., Carreras, J., and Passchier, C. W.: Apparent boudinage in dykes, J. Struct. Geol., 26, 625–636, 2004.
Bons, P. D., Druguet, E., Castaño, L. M., and Elburg, M. A.: Finding what is not there anymore: recognizing missing fluid and magma volumes, Geology, 36, 851–854, 2008.
Bons, P. D., Becker, J. K., Elburg, M. A., and Urtson, K.: Granite formation: Stepwise accumulation of melt or connected networks?, Earth. Env. Sci. T. R. So., 100, 105–115, 2010.
Carreras, J., Julivert, M., Soldevila, A., Griera, A., and Soler, D.: A deformation stage for analogue modelling of structures developed under variable degree of non-coaxiality, in: Geoscience 2000 Abstracts volume, University of Manchester, section Modelling in Structural Geology, 126, 2000.
Cobbold, P. R., Cosgrove, J. W., and Summers, J. M.: Development of internal structures in deformed anisotropic rocks, Tectonophysics, 12, 23–53, 1971.
Davidson, C., Schmid, S. M., and Hollister, L. S.: Role of melt during deformation in the deep crust, Terra Nova, 6, 133–142, 1994.
Druguet, E. and Carreras, J.: Analogue modelling of syntectonic leucosomes in migmatitic schists, J. Struct. Geol., 28, 1734–1747, 2006.
Druguet, E. and Castaño, L. M.: Analysis of syntectonic magmatic veins at the mesoscale, J. Geol. Soc. India, 75, 60–73, 2010.
Exner, U., Mancktelow, N. S., and Grasemann, B.: Progressive development of s-type flanking folds in simple shear, J. Struct. Geol., 26, 2191–2201, 2004.
Fagereng, Å.: On stress and strain in a continuous-discontinuous shear zone undergoing simple shear and volume loss, J. Struct. Geol., 50, 44–53, 2013.
Fusseis, F., Handy, M. R., and Schrank, C.: Networking of shear zones at the brittle-to-viscous transition (Cap de Creus, NE Spain), J. Struct. Geol., 28, 1228–1243, 2006.
Fusseis, F., Regenauer-Lieb, K., Liu, J., Hough, R. M., and De Carlo, F.: Creep cavitation can establish a dynamic granular fluid pump in ductile shear zones, Nature, 459, 974–977, 2009.
Gomez-Rivas, E.: Localización de deformación en medios dúctiles y anisótropos: estudio de campo, experimental y numérico, Ph.D. thesis, Universitat Autònoma de Barceloma, 247 pp, available at: http://www.tesisenxarxa.net/TDX-1120108-151236/ (last access: 11 May 2015), 2008.
Gomez-Rivas, E. and Griera, A.: Influence of mechanical anisotropy on shear fracture development, Trab. Geol., 29, 305–311, 2009.
Gomez-Rivas, E. and Griera, A.: Strain rate influence on fracture development in experimental ductile multilayers, Tectonophysics, 502, 351–363, 2011.
Gomez-Rivas, E. and Griera, A.: Shear fractures in anisotropic ductile materials: an experimental approach, J. Struct. Geol., 34, 61–76, 2012.
Gomez-Rivas, E., Bons, P. D., Griera, A., Carreras, J., Druguet, E., and Evans, L.: Strain and vorticity analysis using small-scale faults and associated drag folds, J. Struct. Geol., 29, 1882–1899, 2007.
Grasemann, B., Exner, U., and Tschegg, C.: Displacement–length scaling of brittle faults in ductile shear, J. Struct. Geol., 33, 1650–1661, 2011.
Griera, A., Bons, P. D., Jessell, M. W., Lebensohn, R. A., Evans, L., and Gomez-Rivas, E.: Strain localization and porphyroclast rotation, Geology, 39, 275–278, 2011.
Griera, A., Llorens, M.-G., Gomez-Rivas, E., Bons, P. D., Jessell, M. W., Evans, L. A., and Lebensohn, R.: Numerical modelling of porphyroclast and porphyroblast rotation in anisotropic rocks, Tectonophysics, 587, 4–29, 2013.
Guermani, A. and Pennacchioni, G.: Brittle precursors of plastic deformation in a granite: an example from the Mont Blanc Massif (Helvetic, Western Alps), J. Struct. Geol., 20, 135–148, 1998.
Hanmer, S., Corrigan, D., and Ganas, A.: Orientation of nucleating faults in anisotropic media: insights from three-dimensional deformation experiments, Tectonophysics, 267, 275–290, 1996.
Harris, L. B. and Cobbold, P. R.: Development of conjugate shear bands during bulk simple shearing, J. Struct. Geol., 7, 37–44, 1985.
Hobbs, B. E., Ord, A., and Teyssier, C.: Earthquakes in the ductile regime?, Pure Appl. Geophys., 124, 309–336, 1986.
Kidan, T. W. and Cosgrove, J. W.: The deformation of multilayers by layer-normal compression: an experimental investigation, J. Struct. Geol., 18, 461–474, 1996.
Kim, Y.-S. and Sanderson, D. J.: The relationship between displacement and length of faults: a review, Earth-Sci. Rev., 68, 317–334, 2005.
Kocher, T. and Mancktelow, N. S.: Dynamic reverse modelling of flanking structures: a source of quantitative kinematic information, J. Struct. Geol., 27, 1346–1354, 2005.
Kocher, T. and Mancktelow, N. S.: Flanking structure development in anisotropic viscous rock, J. Struct. Geol., 28, 1139–1145, 2006.
Mancktelow, N. S.: The rheology of paraffin wax and its usefulness as an analogue for rocks, Bull. Geol. Institutions Univ. Uppsala, 14, 181–193, 1988.
Mancktelow, N. S.: How ductile are ductile shear zones?, Geology, 34, 345–348, 2006.
Mancktelow, N. S.: Interaction between brittle fracture and ductile flow during crustal deformation, B. Soc. Geol. Ital., 127, 217–220, 2008.
Mancktelow, N. S. and Pennacchioni, G.: The control of precursor brittle fracture and fluid–rock interaction on the development of single and paired ductile shear zones, J. Struct. Geol., 27, 645–661, 2005.
Mancktelow, N. S.: Fracture and flow in natural rock deformation, Trabajos de Geología, 29, 29–35, 2009.
Mandl, G.: Faulting in Brittle Rocks, Springer-Verlag, Berlin–Heidelberg–New York, 434 pp., 2000.
McClay, K. R.: The rheology of plasticine, Tectonophysics, 33, T7–T15, 1976.
Misra, S., Mandal, N., Dhar, R., and Chakraborty, C.: Mechanisms of deformation localization at the tips of shear fractures: Findings from analogue experiments and field evidence, J. Geophys. Res., 114, B04204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JB005737, 2009,
Passchier, C. W.: The generation of ductile and brittle shear bands in a low-angle mylonite zone, J. Struct. Geol., 6, 273–281, 1984.
Passchier, C. W.: Flanking structures, J. Struct. Geol., 23, 951–962, 2001.
Paterson, M. S.: Experimental rock deformation: the brittle field, 2nd Edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1978.
Pennacchioni, G.: Control of the geometry of precursor brittle structures on the type of ductile shear zone in the Adamello tonalites, Southern Alps (Italy), J. Struct. Geol., 27, 627–644, 2005.
Pennacchioni, G. and Cesare, B.: Ductile-brittle transition in pre-Alpine amphibolite facies mylonites during evolution from water-present to water-deficient conditions (Mont Mary Nappe, Italian Western Alps), J. Metamorph. Geol., 15, 777–791, 1997.
Pennacchioni, G. and Mancktelow, N. S.: Nucleation and initial growth of a shear zone network within compositionally and structurally heterogeneous granitoids under amphibolite facies conditions, J. Struct. Geol., 29, 1757–1780, 2007.
Perez, N.: Fracture Mechanics, 284 pp., ISBN 978-1-4020-7861-3, Springer, New York, USA, 2004.
Pfiffner, O. and Ramsay, J.: Constraints on geological strain rates: arguments from finite strain states of naturally deformed rocks, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 87, 311–321, 1982.
Platt, J. P. and Vissers, R. L. M.: Extensional structures in anisotropic rocks, J. Struct. Geol., 2, 397–410, 1980.
Poliakov, A. N. B., Cundall, P. A., Podladchikov, Y. Y., and Lyakhovsky, V. A.: An explicit inertial method for the simulation of viscoelastic flow: an evaluation of elastic effects on diapiric flow in two- and three-layers models, in: Flow and Creep in the Solar System: Observations, Modeling and Theory, edited by: Stone, D. B. and Runcorn, S. K., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 175–195, 1993.
Ramberg, H.: Gravity, Deformation and the Earth's Crust, Academic Press, London, UK, 214 pp., 1981.
Ranalli, G.: Rheology of the Earth, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 414 pp., 1995.
Reiner, M.: The Deborah Number, Physics Today, 17, p. 62, 1964.
Rybacki, E., Wirth, R., and Dresen, G.: High-strain creep of feldspar rocks: Implications for cavitation and ductile failure in the lower crust, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L04304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032478, 2008.
Schmalholz, S. M. and Maeder, X.: Pinch-and-swell structure and shear zones in viscoplastic layers, J. Struct. Geol., 37, 75–88, 2012.
Schöpfer, M. and Zulauf, G.: Strain-dependent rheology and the memory of plasticine, Tectonophysics, 354, 85–99, 2002.
Segall, P. and Simpson, C.: Nucleation of ductile shear zones on dilatant fractures, Geology, 14, 56–59, 1986.
Simpson, C.: Deformation of granitic rocks across the brittle-ductile transition. J. Struct. Geol., 7, 503–511, 1985.
Smithson, S. B.: Densities of metamorphic rocks, Geophysics, 36, 690–694, 1971.
Talbot, C. J.: Can field data constrain rock viscosities?, J. Struct. Geol., 21, 949–957, 1999.
Treagus, S. H.: Deformation partitioning in folds: implications for fold geometry and cleavage patterns, in: Evolution of Geological Structures in Micro- to Macro-Scales, edited by: Sengupta, S., Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 341–372, 1997.
Twiss, R. J. and Moores, E. M.: Structural Geology, W. H. Freeman, New York, USA, 544 pp., 1992.
Walsh, J. J. and Watterson, J.: Distributions of cumulative displacement and seismic slip on a single normal fault surface, J. Struct. Geol., 9, 1039–1046, 1987.
Walsh, J. J., Nicol, A., and Childs, C.: An alternative model for the growth of faults, J. Struct. Geol., 24, 1669–1675, 2002.
Weijermars, R.: Principles of rock mechanics, Alboran Science Publishing, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 359 pp., 1997.
Weijermars, R. and Schmeling, H.: Scaling of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid dynamics without inertia for quantitative modelling of rock flow due to gravity (including the concept of rheological similarity), Phys. Earth Planet. In., 43, 316–330, 1986.
Zulauf, J. and Zulauf, G.: Rheology of plasticine used as rock analogue: the impact of temperature, composition and strain, J. Struct. Geol., 26, 725–737, 2004.