Articles | Volume 8, issue 2
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Uncertainty assessment in 3-D geological models of increasing complexity
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Geosciences (AGW), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Geosciences (AGW), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Geosciences (AGW), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
No articles found.
Jose M. Bastias Espejo, Chris Turnadge, Russell S. Crosbie, Philipp Blum, and Gabriel C. Rau
Analytical models estimate subsurface properties from subsurface-tidal load interactions. However, they have limited accuracy in representing subsurface physics and parameter estimation. We derived a new analytical solution which models flow to wells due to atmospheric tides, we applied it to field data and compared our findings with subsurface knowledge. Our results enhance understanding of subsurface systems, providing valuable information on their behavior.
Ruben Stemmle, Haegyeong Lee, Philipp Blum, and Kathrin Menberg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
Using 3D numerical heat transpot models, this study quantifies the potential of low-temperature Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) in an urban setting in Southwest Germany. Comparing the determined potential with existing heating and cooling demands shows substantial heating and cooling supply rates that could be achieved by a widespread application of ATES systems. The study also highlights possible greenhouse gas emission savings compared to conventional heating and cooling technologies.
José M. Bastías Espejo, Andy Wilkins, Gabriel C. Rau, and Philipp Blum
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 6257–6272,Short summary
The hydraulic and mechanical properties of the subsurface are inherently heterogeneous. RHEA is a simulator that can perform couple hydro-geomechanical processes in heterogeneous porous media with steep gradients. RHEA is able to fully integrate spatial heterogeneity, allowing allocation of distributed hydraulic and geomechanical properties at mesh element level. RHEA is a valuable tool that can simulate problems considering realistic heterogeneity inherent to geologic formations.
Sina Hale, Xavier Ries, David Jaeggi, and Philipp Blum
Solid Earth, 12, 1581–1600,Short summary
The construction of tunnels leads to substantial alterations of the surrounding rock, which can be critical concerning safety aspects. We use different mobile methods to assess the hydromechanical properties of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) in a claystone. We show that long-term exposure and dehydration preserve a notable fracture permeability and significantly increase strength and stiffness. The methods are suitable for on-site monitoring without any further disturbance of the rock.
Fabien Koch, Kathrin Menberg, Svenja Schweikert, Cornelia Spengler, Hans Jürgen Hahn, and Philipp Blum
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3053–3070,Short summary
In this study, we address the question of whether groundwater fauna in an urban area is natural or affected in comparison to forested land. We find noticeable differences in the spatial distribution of groundwater species and abiotic parameters. An ecological assessment reveals that conditions in the urban area are mainly not good. Yet, there is no clear spatial pattern in terms of land use and anthropogenic impacts. These are significant findings for conservation and usage of urban groundwater.
Arne Jacob, Markus Peltz, Sina Hale, Frieder Enzmann, Olga Moravcova, Laurence N. Warr, Georg Grathoff, Philipp Blum, and Michael Kersten
Solid Earth, 12, 1–14,Short summary
In this work, we combined different imaging and experimental measuring methods for analysis of cross-scale effects which reduce permeability of tight reservoir rocks. Simulated permeability of digital images of rocks is often overestimated, which is caused by non-resolvable clay content within the pores of a rock. By combining FIB-SEM with micro-XCT imaging, we were able to simulate the true clay mineral abundance to match experimentally measured permeability with simulated permeability.
Gabriel C. Rau, Mark O. Cuthbert, R. Ian Acworth, and Philipp Blum
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 6033–6046,Short summary
This work provides an important generalisation of a previously developed method that quantifies subsurface barometric efficiency using the groundwater level response to Earth and atmospheric tides. The new approach additionally allows the quantification of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. This enables improved and rapid assessment of subsurface processes and properties using standard pressure measurements.
Chaojie Cheng, Sina Hale, Harald Milsch, and Philipp Blum
Solid Earth, 11, 2411–2423,Short summary
Fluids (like water or gases) within the Earth's crust often flow and interact with rock through fractures. The efficiency with which these fluids may flow through this void space is controlled by the width of the fracture(s). In this study, three different physical methods to measure fracture width were applied and compared and their predictive accuracy was evaluated. As a result, the mobile methods tested may well be applied in the field if a number of limitations and requirements are observed.
Gabriel C. Rau, Vincent E. A. Post, Margaret Shanafield, Torsten Krekeler, Eddie W. Banks, and Philipp Blum
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3603–3629,Short summary
The flow of water is often inferred from water levels and gradients whose measurements are considered trivial despite the many steps and complexity of the instruments involved. We systematically review the four measurement steps required and summarise the systematic errors. To determine the accuracy with which flow can be resolved, we quantify and propagate the random errors. Our results illustrate the limitations of current practice and provide concise recommendations to improve data quality.
Susanne A. Benz, Peter Bayer, Gerfried Winkler, and Philipp Blum
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3143–3154,Short summary
Climate change is one of the most pressing challenges modern society faces. Increasing temperatures are observed both above ground and, as discussed here, in the groundwater – the source of most drinking water. Within Austria average temperature increased by 0.7 °C over the past 20 years, with an increase of more than 3 °C in some wells and temperature decrease in others. However, these extreme changes can be linked to local events such as the construction of a new drinking water supply.
Tobias Kling, Da Huo, Jens-Oliver Schwarz, Frieder Enzmann, Sally Benson, and Philipp Blum
Solid Earth, 7, 1109–1124,Short summary
A method is introduced to implement medical CT data of a fractured sandstone under varying confining pressures into fluid flow simulations to reproduce experimental permeabilities. The simulation results reproduce plausible fracture flow features (e.g. flow channeling, fracture closing/opening) and approximate the actual permeabilities, which are affected by the CT resolution and compositional matrix heterogeneities. Additionally, some recommendations are presented concerning future studies.
M. Huebsch, F. Grimmeisen, M. Zemann, O. Fenton, K. G. Richards, P. Jordan, A. Sawarieh, P. Blum, and N. Goldscheider
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1589–1598,Short summary
Two different in situ spectrophotometers, which were used in the field to determine highly time resolved nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations at two distinct spring discharge sites, are compared: a double and a multiple wavelength spectrophotometer. The objective of the study was to review the hardware options, determine ease of calibration, accuracy, influence of additional substances and to assess positive and negative aspects of the two sensors as well as troubleshooting and trade-offs.
K. Menberg, P. Blum, B. L. Kurylyk, and P. Bayer
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4453–4466,
M. Huebsch, O. Fenton, B. Horan, D. Hennessy, K. G. Richards, P. Jordan, N. Goldscheider, C. Butscher, and P. Blum
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4423–4435,
A. Hartmann, M. Weiler, T. Wagener, J. Lange, M. Kralik, F. Humer, N. Mizyed, A. Rimmer, J. A. Barberá, B. Andreo, C. Butscher, and P. Huggenberger
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3305–3321,
Related subject area
Structural geologyRole of inheritance during tectonic inversion of a rift system in basement-involved to salt-decoupled transition: analogue modelling and application to the Pyrenean–Biscay systemWater release and homogenization by dynamic recrystallization of quartzTime-dependent frictional properties of granular materials used in analogue modelling: implications for mimicking fault healing during reactivation and inversionLarge grain-size-dependent rheology contrasts of halite at low differential stress: evidence from microstructural study of naturally deformed gneissic Zechstein 2 rock salt (Kristallbrockensalz) from the northern NetherlandsAnalogue modelling of the inversion of multiple extensional basins in foreland fold-and-thrust beltsInversion of transfer zones in salt-bearing extensional systems: insights from analogue modelingKinematics and time-resolved evolution of the main thrust-sense shear zone in the Eo-alpine orogenic wedge (the Vinschgau Shear Zone, Eastern Alps)A contribution to the quantification of crustal shortening and kinematics of deformation across the Western Andes ( ∼ 20–22° S)Rift thermal inheritance in the SW Alps (France): insights from RSCM thermometry and 1D thermal numerical modellingStructural control of inherited salt structures during inversion of a domino basement-fault system from an analogue modelling approachThe Luangwa Rift Active Fault Database and fault reactivation along the southwestern branch of the East African RiftClustering has a meaning: optimization of angular similarity to detect 3D geometric anomalies in geological terrainsShear zone evolution and the path of earthquake ruptureMechanical compaction mechanisms in the input sediments of the Sumatra subduction complex – insights from microstructural analysis of cores from IODP Expedition 362Detecting micro fractures: a comprehensive comparison of conventional and machine-learning-based segmentation methodsMultiscale lineament analysis and permeability heterogeneity of fractured crystalline basement blocksStructural characterization and K–Ar illite dating of reactivated, complex and heterogeneous fault zones: lessons from the Zuccale Fault, Northern ApenninesHow do differences in interpreting seismic images affect estimates of geological slip rates?Progressive veining during peridotite carbonation: insights from listvenites in Hole BT1B, Samail ophiolite (Oman)Tectonic evolution of the Indio Hills segment of the San Andreas fault in southern California, southwestern USAStructural diagenesis in ultra-deep tight sandstones in the Kuqa Depression, Tarim Basin, ChinaVariscan structures and their control on latest to post-Variscan basin architecture: insights from the westernmost Bohemian Massif and southeastern GermanyMulti-disciplinary characterizations of the BedrettoLab – a new underground geoscience research facilityBiotite supports long-range diffusive transport in dissolution–precipitation creep in halite through small porosity fluctuationsDe-risking the energy transition by quantifying the uncertainties in fault stabilityVirtual field trip to the Esla Nappe (Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain): delivering traditional geological mapping skills remotely using real dataMarine forearc structure of eastern Java and its role in the 1994 Java tsunami earthquakeRoughness of fracture surfaces in numerical models and laboratory experimentsImpact of basement thrust faults on low-angle normal faults and rift basin evolution: a case study in the Enping sag, Pearl River BasinEvidence for and significance of the Late Cretaceous Asteroussia event in the Gondwanan Ios basement terranesInvestigating spatial heterogeneity within fracture networks using hierarchical clustering and graph distance metricsDating folding beyond folding, from layer-parallel shortening to fold tightening, using mesostructures: lessons from the Apennines, Pyrenees, and Rocky MountainsDeformation-enhanced diagenesis and bacterial proliferation in the Nankai accretionary prismRheological stratification in impure rock salt during long-term creep: morphology, microstructure, and numerical models of multilayer folds in the Ocnele Mari salt mine, RomaniaGeodynamic and seismotectonic model of a long-lived transverse structure: The Schio-Vicenza Fault System (NE Italy)Neogene kinematics of the Giudicarie Belt and eastern Southern Alpine orogenic front (northern Italy)Fault interpretation uncertainties using seismic data, and the effects on fault seal analysis: a case study from the Horda Platform, with implications for CO2 storageApplication of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabrics to determine the kinematics of active tectonics: examples from the Betic Cordillera, Spain, and the Northern Apennines, ItalyReply to Norini and Groppelli's comment on “Estimating the depth and evolution of intrusions at resurgent calderas: Los Humeros (Mexico)” by Urbani et al. (2020)Emplacement of “exotic” Zechstein slivers along the inverted Sontra Graben (northern Hessen, Germany): clues from balanced cross sections and geometrical forward modelingKinematics of subduction in the Ibero-Armorican arc constrained by 3D microstructural analysis of garnet and pseudomorphed lawsonite porphyroblasts from Île de Groix (Variscan belt)Mapping and evaluating kinematics and the stress and strain field at active faults and fissures: a comparison between field and drone data at the NE rift, Mt Etna (Italy)Frictional properties and microstructural evolution of dry and wet calcite–dolomite gougesExperimental evidence that viscous shear zones generate periodic pore sheetsInfluence of inherited structural domains and their particular strain distributions on the Roer Valley graben evolution from inversion to extensionThe Piuquencillo fault system: a long-lived, Andean-transverse fault system and its relationship with magmatic and hydrothermal activityExtensional reactivation of the Penninic frontal thrust 3 Myr ago as evidenced by U–Pb dating on calcite in fault zone cataclasiteDistribution, microphysical properties, and tectonic controls of deformation bands in the Miocene subduction wedge (Whakataki Formation) of the Hikurangi subduction zoneAnalysis of deformation bands associated with the Trachyte Mesa intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah: implications for reservoir connectivity and fluid flow around sill intrusionsCharacterization of discontinuities in potential reservoir rocks for geothermal applications in the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area (Germany)
Jordi Miró, Oriol Ferrer, Josep Anton Muñoz, and Gianreto Manastchal
Solid Earth, 14, 425–445,Short summary
Using the Asturian–Basque–Cantabrian system and analogue (sandbox) models, this work focuses on the linkage between basement-controlled and salt-decoupled domains and how deformation is accommodated between the two during extension and subsequent inversion. Analogue models show significant structural variability in the transitional domain, with oblique structures that can be strongly modified by syn-contractional sedimentation. Experimental results are consistent with the case study.
Junichi Fukuda, Takamoto Okudaira, and Yukiko Ohtomo
Solid Earth, 14, 409–424,Short summary
We measured water distributions in deformed quartz by infrared spectroscopy mapping and used the results to discuss changes in water distribution resulting from textural development. Because of the grain size reduction process (dynamic recrystallization), water contents decrease from 40–1750 wt ppm in host grains of ~2 mm to 100–510 wt ppm in recrystallized regions composed of fine grains of ~10 µm. Our results indicate that water is released and homogenized by dynamic recrystallization.
Michael Rudolf, Matthias Rosenau, and Onno Oncken
Solid Earth, 14, 311–331,Short summary
Analogue models of tectonic processes rely on the reproduction of their geometry, kinematics and dynamics. An important property is fault behaviour, which is linked to the frictional characteristics of the fault gouge. This is represented by granular materials, such as quartz sand. In our study we investigate the time-dependent frictional properties of various analogue materials and highlight their impact on the suitability of these materials for analogue models focusing on fault reactivation.
Jessica Barabasch, Joyce Schmatz, Jop Klaver, Alexander Schwedt, and Janos L. Urai
Solid Earth, 14, 271–291,Short summary
We analysed Zechstein salt with microscopes and observed specific microstructures that indicate much faster deformation in rock salt with fine halite grains when compared to salt with larger grains. This is important because people build large cavities in the subsurface salt for energy storage or want to deposit radioactive waste inside it. When engineers and scientists use grain-size data and equations that include this mechanism, it will help to make better predictions in geological models.
Nicolás Molnar and Susanne Buiter
Solid Earth, 14, 213–235,Short summary
Progression of orogenic wedges over pre-existing extensional structures is common in nature, but deciphering the spatio-temporal evolution of deformation from the geological record remains challenging. Our laboratory experiments provide insights on how horizontal stresses are transferred across a heterogeneous crust, constrain which pre-shortening conditions can either favour or hinder the reactivatation of extensional structures, and explain what implications they have on critical taper theory.
Elizabeth Parker Wilson, Pablo Granado, Pablo Santolaria, Oriol Ferrer, and Josep Anton Muñoz
This work focuses on the control of transfer zone on extensional and subsequent inversion in salt-detached domains using sandbox analogue models. During extension, the transfer zone acts as a pathway for the movement of salt, changing the expected geometries. When inverted, the salt layer and syn-inversion sedimentation control the deformation style in the salt-detached cover system. Three natural cases are compared to the model results and show similar inversion geometries.
Chiara Montemagni, Stefano Zanchetta, Martina Rocca, Igor Maria Villa, Corrado Morelli, Volkmar Mair, and Andrea Zanchi
The Vinschgau Shear Zone is the most significant shear zones developed within the Austroalpine domain and dominated the structural setting of a large portion of central Austroalpine Late Cretaceous thrust stack. Here we explore the timing of deformation and kinematic of the flow along the Vinschgau Shear Zone and we propose that its evolution sheds new light on how large-scale thrust-sense shear zones act and how much exhumation they can accommodate in the frame of an evolving orogenic wedge.
Tania Habel, Martine Simoes, Robin Lacassin, Daniel Carrizo, and German Aguilar
Solid Earth, 14, 17–42,Short summary
The Central Andes are one of the most emblematic reliefs on Earth, but their western flank remains understudied. Here we explore two rare key sites in the hostile conditions of the Atacama desert to build cross-sections, quantify crustal shortening, and discuss the timing of this deformation at ∼20–22°S. We propose that the structures of the Western Andes accommodated significant crustal shortening here, but only during the earliest stages of mountain building.
Naïm Célini, Frédéric Mouthereau, Abdeltif Lahfid, Claude Gout, and Jean-Paul Callot
Solid Earth, 14, 1–16,Short summary
We investigate the peak temperature of sedimentary rocks of the SW Alps (France), using Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material. This method provides an estimate of the peak temperature achieved by organic-rich rocks. To determine the timing and the tectonic context of the origin of these temperatures we use 1D thermal modelling. We find that the high temperatures up to 300 °C were achieved during precollisional extensional events, not during tectonic burial in the Western Alps.
Oriol Ferrer, Eloi Carola, and Ken McClay
Using an experimental approach based on scaled sandbox models, this work aims to understand how salt above different fault blocks influences the geometry and evolution of the cover first during extension and then during shortening. The results show that inherited structures constrain contractional deformation. We show for the first time how depleted salt layers are reopened during contractional deformation, having direct implications for the subsurface exploration of natural resources.
Luke N. J. Wedmore, Tess Turner, Juliet Biggs, Jack N. Williams, Henry M. Sichingabula, Christine Kabumbu, and Kawawa Banda
Solid Earth, 13, 1731–1753,Short summary
Mapping and compiling the attributes of faults capable of hosting earthquakes are important for the next generation of seismic hazard assessment. We document 18 active faults in the Luangwa Rift, Zambia, in an active fault database. These faults are between 9 and 207 km long offset Quaternary sediments, have scarps up to ~30 m high, and are capable of hosting earthquakes from Mw 5.8 to 8.1. We associate the Molaza Fault with surface ruptures from two unattributed M 6+ 20th century earthquakes.
Michał P. Michalak, Lesław Teper, Florian Wellmann, Jerzy Żaba, Krzysztof Gaidzik, Marcin Kostur, Yuriy P. Maystrenko, and Paulina Leonowicz
Solid Earth, 13, 1697–1720,Short summary
When characterizing geological/geophysical surfaces, various geometric attributes are calculated, such as dip angle (1D) or dip direction (2D). However, the boundaries between specific values may be subjective and without optimization significance, resulting from using default color palletes. This study proposes minimizing cosine distance among within-cluster observations to detect 3D anomalies. Our results suggest that the method holds promise for identification of megacylinders or megacones.
Erik M. Young, Christie D. Rowe, and James D. Kirkpatrick
Solid Earth, 13, 1607–1629,Short summary
Studying how earthquakes spread deep within the faults they originate from is crucial to improving our understanding of the earthquake process. We mapped preserved ancient earthquake surfaces that are now exposed in South Africa and studied their relationship with the shape and type of rocks surrounding them. We determined that these surfaces are not random and are instead associated with specific kinds of rocks and that their shape is linked to the evolution of the faults in which they occur.
Sivaji Lahiri, Kitty L. Milliken, Peter Vrolijk, Guillaume Desbois, and Janos L. Urai
Solid Earth, 13, 1513–1539,Short summary
Understanding the mechanism of mechanical compaction is important. Previous studies on mechanical compaction were mostly done by performing experiments. Studies on natural rocks are rare due to compositional heterogeneity of the sedimentary succession with depth. Due to remarkable similarity in composition and grain size, the Sumatra subduction complex provides a unique opportunity to study the micromechanism of mechanical compaction on natural samples.
Dongwon Lee, Nikolaos Karadimitriou, Matthias Ruf, and Holger Steeb
Solid Earth, 13, 1475–1494,Short summary
This research article focuses on filtering and segmentation methods employed in high-resolution µXRCT studies for crystalline rocks, bearing fractures, or fracture networks, of very small aperture. Specifically, we focus on the identification of artificially induced (via quenching) fractures in Carrara marble samples. Results from the same dataset from all five different methods adopted were produced and compared with each other in terms of their output quality and time efficiency.
Alberto Ceccato, Giulia Tartaglia, Marco Antonellini, and Giulio Viola
Solid Earth, 13, 1431–1453,Short summary
The Earth's surface is commonly characterized by the occurrence of fractures, which can be mapped, and their can be geometry quantified on digital representations of the surface at different scales of observation. Here we present a series of analytical and statistical tools, which can aid the quantification of fracture spatial distribution at different scales. In doing so, we can improve our understanding of how fracture geometry and geology affect fluid flow within the fractured Earth crust.
Giulio Viola, Giovanni Musumeci, Francesco Mazzarini, Lorenzo Tavazzani, Manuel Curzi, Espen Torgersen, Roelant van der Lelij, and Luca Aldega
Solid Earth, 13, 1327–1351,Short summary
A structural-geochronological approach helps to unravel the Zuccale Fault's architecture. By mapping its internal structure and dating some of its fault rocks, we constrained a deformation history lasting 20 Myr starting at ca. 22 Ma. Such long activity is recorded by now tightly juxtaposed brittle structural facies, i.e. different types of fault rocks. Our results also have implications on the regional evolution of the northern Apennines, of which the Zuccale Fault is an important structure.
Solid Earth, 13, 1281–1290,Short summary
Having a seismic image is generally expected to enable us to better determine fault geometry and thus estimate geological slip rates accurately. However, the process of interpreting seismic images may introduce unintended uncertainties, which have not yet been widely discussed. Here, a case of a shear fault-bend fold in the frontal Himalaya is used to demonstrate how differences in interpretations can affect the following estimates of slip rates and dependent conclusions.
Manuel D. Menzel, Janos L. Urai, Estibalitz Ukar, Thierry Decrausaz, and Marguerite Godard
Solid Earth, 13, 1191–1218,Short summary
Mantle rocks can bind large quantities of carbon by reaction with CO2, but this capacity requires fluid pathways not to be clogged by carbonate. We studied mantle rocks from Oman to understand the mechanisms allowing their transformation into carbonate and quartz. Using advanced imaging techniques, we show that abundant veins were essential fluid pathways driving the reaction. Our results show that tectonic stress was important for fracture opening and a key ingredient for carbon fixation.
Jean-Baptiste P. Koehl, Steffen G. Bergh, and Arthur G. Sylvester
Solid Earth, 13, 1169–1190,Short summary
The San Andreas fault is a major active fault associated with ongoing earthquake sequences in southern California. The present study investigates the development of the Indio Hills area in the Coachella Valley along the main San Andreas fault and the Indio Hills fault. The Indio Hills area is located near an area with high ongoing earthquake activity (Brawley seismic zone), and, therefore, its recent tectonic evolution has implications for earthquake prediction.
Jin Lai, Dong Li, Yong Ai, Hongkun Liu, Deyang Cai, Kangjun Chen, Yuqiang Xie, and Guiwen Wang
Solid Earth, 13, 975–1002,Short summary
(1) Structural diagenesis analysis is performed on the ultra-deep tight sandstone. (2) Fracture and intergranular pores are related to the low in situ stress magnitudes. (3) Dissolution is associated with the presence of fracture.
Hamed Fazlikhani, Wolfgang Bauer, and Harald Stollhofen
Solid Earth, 13, 393–416,Short summary
Interpretation of newly acquired FRANKEN 2D seismic survey data in southeeastern Germany shows that upper Paleozoic low-grade metasedimentary rocks and possible nappe units are transported by Variscan shear zones to ca. 65 km west of the Franconian Fault System (FFS). We show that the locations of post-Variscan upper Carboniferous–Permian normal faults and associated graben and half-graben basins are controlled by the geometry of underlying Variscan shear zones.
Xiaodong Ma, Marian Hertrich, Florian Amann, Kai Bröker, Nima Gholizadeh Doonechaly, Valentin Gischig, Rebecca Hochreutener, Philipp Kästli, Hannes Krietsch, Michèle Marti, Barbara Nägeli, Morteza Nejati, Anne Obermann, Katrin Plenkers, Antonio P. Rinaldi, Alexis Shakas, Linus Villiger, Quinn Wenning, Alba Zappone, Falko Bethmann, Raymi Castilla, Francisco Seberto, Peter Meier, Thomas Driesner, Simon Loew, Hansruedi Maurer, Martin O. Saar, Stefan Wiemer, and Domenico Giardini
Solid Earth, 13, 301–322,Short summary
Questions on issues such as anthropogenic earthquakes and deep geothermal energy developments require a better understanding of the fractured rock. Experiments conducted at reduced scales but with higher-resolution observations can shed some light. To this end, the BedrettoLab was recently established in an existing tunnel in Ticino, Switzerland, with preliminary efforts to characterize realistic rock mass behavior at the hectometer scale.
Berit Schwichtenberg, Florian Fusseis, Ian B. Butler, and Edward Andò
Solid Earth, 13, 41–64,Short summary
Hydraulic rock properties such as porosity and permeability are relevant factors that have an impact on groundwater resources, geological repositories and fossil fuel reservoirs. We investigate the influence of chemical compaction upon the porosity evolution in salt–biotite mixtures and related transport length scales by conducting laboratory experiments in combination with 4-D analysis. Our observations invite a renewed discussion of the effect of sheet silicates on chemical compaction.
David Healy and Stephen Paul Hicks
Solid Earth, 13, 15–39,Short summary
The energy transition requires operations in faulted rocks. To manage the technical challenges and public concern over possible induced earthquakes, we need to quantify the risks. We calculate the probability of fault slip based on uncertain inputs, stresses, fluid pressures, and the mechanical properties of rocks in fault zones. Our examples highlight the specific gaps in our knowledge. Citizen science projects could produce useful data and include the public in the discussions about hazards.
Manuel I. de Paz-Álvarez, Thomas G. Blenkinsop, David M. Buchs, George E. Gibbons, and Lesley Cherns
Solid Earth, 13, 1–14,Short summary
We describe a virtual geological mapping course implemented in response to travelling and social restrictions derived from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The course was designed to replicate a physical mapping exercise as closely as possible with the aid of real field data and photographs collected by the authors during previous years in the Cantabrian Zone (NW Spain). The course is delivered through Google Earth via a KMZ file with outcrop descriptions and links to GitHub-hosted photographs.
Yueyang Xia, Jacob Geersen, Dirk Klaeschen, Bo Ma, Dietrich Lange, Michael Riedel, Michael Schnabel, and Heidrun Kopp
Solid Earth, 12, 2467–2477,Short summary
The 2 June 1994 Java tsunami earthquake ruptured in a seismically quiet subduction zone and generated a larger-than-expected tsunami. Here, we re-process a seismic line across the rupture area. We show that a subducting seamount is located up-dip of the mainshock in a region that did not rupture during the earthquake. Seamount subduction modulates the topography of the marine forearc and acts as a seismic barrier in the 1994 earthquake rupture.
Steffen Abe and Hagen Deckert
Solid Earth, 12, 2407–2424,Short summary
We use numerical simulations and laboratory experiments on rock samples to investigate how stress conditions influence the geometry and roughness of fracture surfaces. The roughness of the surfaces was analyzed in terms of absolute roughness and scaling properties. The results show that the surfaces are self-affine but with different scaling properties between the numerical models and the real rock samples. Results suggest that stress conditions have little influence on the surface roughness.
Chao Deng, Rixiang Zhu, Jianhui Han, Yu Shu, Yuxiang Wu, Kefeng Hou, and Wei Long
Solid Earth, 12, 2327–2350,Short summary
This study uses seismic reflection data to interpret the geometric relationship and evolution of intra-basement and rift-related structures in the Enping sag in the northern South China Sea. Our observations suggest the primary control of pre-existing thrust faults is the formation of low-angle normal faults, with possible help from low-friction materials, and the significant role of pre-existing basement thrust faults in fault geometry, paleotopography, and syn-rift stratigraphy of rift basins.
Sonia Yeung, Marnie Forster, Emmanuel Skourtsos, and Gordon Lister
Solid Earth, 12, 2255–2275,Short summary
We do not know when the ancient Tethys Ocean lithosphere began to founder, but one clue can be found in subduction accreted tectonic slices, including Gondwanan basement terranes on the island of Ios, Cyclades, Greece. We propose a 250–300 km southwards jump of the subduction megathrust with a period of flat-slab subduction followed by slab break-off. The initiation and its subsequent rollback of a new subduction zone would explain the onset of Oligo–Miocene extension and accompanying magmatism.
Rahul Prabhakaran, Giovanni Bertotti, Janos Urai, and David Smeulders
Solid Earth, 12, 2159–2209,Short summary
Rock fractures are organized as networks with spatially varying arrangements. Due to networks' influence on bulk rock behaviour, it is important to quantify network spatial variation. We utilize an approach where fracture networks are treated as spatial graphs. By combining graph similarity measures with clustering techniques, spatial clusters within large-scale fracture networks are identified and organized hierarchically. The method is validated on a dataset with nearly 300 000 fractures.
Olivier Lacombe, Nicolas E. Beaudoin, Guilhem Hoareau, Aurélie Labeur, Christophe Pecheyran, and Jean-Paul Callot
Solid Earth, 12, 2145–2157,Short summary
This paper aims to illustrate how the timing and duration of contractional deformation associated with folding in orogenic forelands can be constrained by the dating of brittle mesostructures observed in folded strata. The study combines new and already published absolute ages of fractures to provide, for the first time, an educated discussion about the factors controlling the duration of the sequence of deformation encompassing layer-parallel shortening, fold growth, and late fold tightening.
Vincent Famin, Hugues Raimbourg, Muriel Andreani, and Anne-Marie Boullier
Solid Earth, 12, 2067–2085,Short summary
Sediments accumulated in accretionary prisms are deformed by the compression imposed by plate subduction. Here we show that deformation of the sediments transforms some minerals in them. We suggest that these mineral transformations are due to the proliferation of microorganisms boosted by deformation. Deformation-enhanced microbial proliferation may change our view of sedimentary and tectonic processes in subduction zones.
Marta Adamuszek, Dan M. Tămaş, Jessica Barabasch, and Janos L. Urai
Solid Earth, 12, 2041–2065,Short summary
We analyse folded multilayer sequences in the Ocnele Mari salt mine (Romania) to gain insight into the long-term rheological behaviour of rock salt. Our results indicate the large role of even a small number of impurities in the rock salt for its effective mechanical behaviour. We demonstrate how the development of folds that occur at various scales can be used to constrain the viscosity ratio in the deformed multilayer sequence.
Dario Zampieri, Paola Vannoli, and Pierfrancesco Burrato
Solid Earth, 12, 1967–1986,Short summary
The long-lived Schio-Vicenza Fault System is a major shear zone cross-cutting the foreland and the thrust belt of the eastern southern Alps. We review 150 years of scientific works and explain its activity and kinematics, characterized by sinistral and dextral transcurrent motion along its southern and northern sections, respectively, by a geodynamic model that has the Adria indenter as the main actor and coherently reconciles the available geological and geophysical evidence collected so far.
Vincent F. Verwater, Eline Le Breton, Mark R. Handy, Vincenzo Picotti, Azam Jozi Najafabadi, and Christian Haberland
Solid Earth, 12, 1309–1334,Short summary
Balancing along geological cross sections reveals that the Giudicarie Belt comprises two kinematic domains. The SW domain accommodated at least ~ 18 km Late Oligocene to Early Miocene shortening. Since the Middle Miocene, the SW domain experienced at least ~ 12–22 km shortening, whereas the NE domain underwent at least ~ 25–35 km. Together, these domains contributed to ~ 40–47 km of sinistral offset of the Periadriatic Fault along the Northern Giudicarie Fault since the Late Oligocene.
Emma A. H. Michie, Mark J. Mulrooney, and Alvar Braathen
Solid Earth, 12, 1259–1286,Short summary
Generating an accurate model of the subsurface is crucial when assessing a site for CO2 storage, particularly for a fault-bound storage site that may act as a seal or could reactivate upon CO2 injection. However, we have shown how picking strategy, i.e. line spacing, chosen to create the model significantly influences any subsequent fault analyses but is surprisingly rarely discussed. This analysis has been performed on the Vette Fault bounding the Smeaheia potential CO2 storage site.
David J. Anastasio, Frank J. Pazzaglia, Josep M. Parés, Kenneth P. Kodama, Claudio Berti, James A. Fisher, Alessandro Montanari, and Lorraine K. Carnes
Solid Earth, 12, 1125–1142,Short summary
The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) technique provides an effective way to interpret deforming mountain belts. In both the Betics, Spain, and Apennines, Italy, weak but well-organized AMS fabrics were recovered from young unconsolidated and unburied rocks that could not be analyzed with more traditional methods. Collectively, these studies demonstrate the novel ways that AMS can be combined with other data to resolve earthquake hazards in space and time.
Stefano Urbani, Guido Giordano, Federico Lucci, Federico Rossetti, and Gerardo Carrasco-Núñez
Solid Earth, 12, 1111–1124,Short summary
Structural studies in active calderas have a key role in the exploration of geothermal systems. We reply in detail to the points raised by the comment of Norini and Groppelli (2020), strengthening the relevance of our structural fieldwork for geothermal exploration and exploitation in active caldera geothermal systems including the Los Humeros caldera.
Jakob Bolz and Jonas Kley
Solid Earth, 12, 1005–1024,Short summary
To assess the role smaller graben structures near the southern edge of the Central European Basin System play in the basin’s overall deformational history, we take advantage of a feature found on some of these structures, where slivers from older rock units appear along the graben's main fault, surrounded on both sides by younger strata. The implications for the geometry of the fault provide a substantially improved estimate for the magnitude of normal and thrust motion along the fault system.
Domingo G. A. M. Aerden, Alejandro Ruiz-Fuentes, Mohammad Sayab, and Aidan Forde
Solid Earth, 12, 971–992,Short summary
We studied the geometry of foliations and microfolds preserved within metamorphic garnet crystals using X-ray tomography. The studied rocks are blueschists from Ile de Groix formed during Late Devonian subduction of Gondwana under Armorica. Several sets of differently oriented microfabrics were found recording variations in the direction of subduction. Comparison with similar data for Iberia supports that Iberia rotated only 10–20° during the Cretaceous opening of the North Atlantic.
Alessandro Tibaldi, Noemi Corti, Emanuela De Beni, Fabio Luca Bonali, Susanna Falsaperla, Horst Langer, Marco Neri, Massimo Cantarero, Danilo Reitano, and Luca Fallati
Solid Earth, 12, 801–816,Short summary
The Northeast Rift of Mt Etna is affected by ground deformation linked to gravity sliding of the volcano flank and dike injection. Drone surveys show that the rift is affected by NE-striking extensional fractures and normal faults. Given an age of 1614 CE for the offset lavas, we obtained an extension rate of 1.9 cm yr−1 for the last 406 years. The stress field is characterised by a NW–SE σHmin. Drone surveys allow us to quickly collect data with a resolution of 2–3 cm.
Matteo Demurtas, Steven A.F. Smith, Elena Spagnuolo, and Giulio Di Toro
Solid Earth, 12, 595–612,Short summary
We performed shear experiments on calcite–dolomite gouge mixtures to better understand the behaviour of carbonates during sub-seismic to seismic deformation in the shallow crust. The development of a foliation in the gouge was only restricted to coseismic sliding, whereas fluidisation occurred over a wide range of slip velocities (sub-seismic to coseismic) in the presence of water. These observations will contribute to a better interpretation of the rock record.
James Gilgannon, Marius Waldvogel, Thomas Poulet, Florian Fusseis, Alfons Berger, Auke Barnhoorn, and Marco Herwegh
Solid Earth, 12, 405–420,Short summary
Using experiments that simulate deep tectonic interfaces, known as viscous shear zones, we found that these zones spontaneously develop periodic sheets of small pores. The presence of porous layers in deep rocks undergoing tectonic deformation is significant because it requires a change to the current model of how the Earth deforms. Emergent porous layers in viscous rocks will focus mineralising fluids and could lead to the seismic failure of rocks that are never supposed to have this occur.
Jef Deckers, Bernd Rombaut, Koen Van Noten, and Kris Vanneste
Solid Earth, 12, 345–361,Short summary
This study shows the presence of two structural domains in the western border fault system of the Roer Valley graben. These domains, dominated by NW–SE-striking faults, displayed distinctly different strain distributions during both Late Cretaceous compression and Cenozoic extension. The southern domain is characterized by narrow, localized faulting, while the northern domain is characterized by wide, distributed faulting. The non-colinear WNW–ESE Grote Brogel fault links both domains.
José Piquer, Orlando Rivera, Gonzalo Yáñez, and Nicolás Oyarzún
Solid Earth, 12, 253–273,Short summary
A proper recognition of deep, long-lived fault systems is very important for society. They can produce potentially dangerous earthquakes. They can also act as pathways for magmas and hydrothermal fluids, leading to the formation of volcanoes, geothermal systems and mineral deposits. However, the manifestations of these very old faults in the present-day surface can be very subtle. Here, we present a detailed, multi-disciplinary study of a fault system of this type in the Andes of central Chile.
Antonin Bilau, Yann Rolland, Stéphane Schwartz, Nicolas Godeau, Abel Guihou, Pierre Deschamps, Benjamin Brigaud, Aurélie Noret, Thierry Dumont, and Cécile Gautheron
Solid Earth, 12, 237–251,Short summary
As a result of the collision between the European and Apulian plates, the Alps have experienced several evolutionary stages. The Penninic frontal thrust (PFT) (major thrust) was associated with compression, and now seismic studies show ongoing extensional activity. Calcite mineralization associated with shortening and extensional structures was sampled. The last deformation stages are dated by U–Pb on calcite at ~ 3.5 and ~ 2.5 Ma. Isotope analysis evidences deep crustal fluid mobilization.
Kathryn E. Elphick, Craig R. Sloss, Klaus Regenauer-Lieb, and Christoph E. Schrank
Solid Earth, 12, 141–170,Short summary
We analysed a sedimentary rock package located in Castlepoint, New Zealand, to test the control of the tectonic setting on the observed deformation structures. In extension and contraction, we observed faults and small fault-like structures characterised by complex spatial patterns and a reduction in porosity and grain size compared with the host rock. With these properties, the structures are likely to act as barriers to fluid flow and cause compartmentalisation of the sedimentary sequence.
Penelope I. R. Wilson, Robert W. Wilson, David J. Sanderson, Ian Jarvis, and Kenneth J. W. McCaffrey
Solid Earth, 12, 95–117,Short summary
Magma accommodation in the shallow crust leads to deformation of the surrounding host rock through the creation of faults, fractures and folds. This deformation will impact fluid flow around intrusive magma bodies (including sills and laccoliths) by changing the porosity and permeability network of the host rock. The results may have important implications for industries where fluid flow within the subsurface adds value (e.g. oil and gas, hydrology, geothermal and carbon sequestration).
Martin Balcewicz, Benedikt Ahrens, Kevin Lippert, and Erik H. Saenger
Solid Earth, 12, 35–58,Short summary
The geothermal potential of a carbonate reservoir in the Rhine-Ruhr area, Germany, was investigated by field and laboratory investigations. The carbonate layer of interest is approx. 150 m thick; located at 4 to 6 km depth; and might extend below Essen, Bochum, and Dortmund. We proposed focusing on discontinuities striking NNW–SSE for geothermal applications, as these are the most common, strike in the direction of the main horizontal stress, and dominate reservoir fluid flow.
Alonso, E.: Crystal growth and geotechnics, Paper presented at the Arrigo Croce Lecture, 15 December 2011, Rome, Italy, 46 pp., available at: http://www.associazionegeotecnica.it/sites/default/files/rig/rig_2012_4_013alonso.pdf (last access: 7 December 2015), 2011.
Anagnostou, G., Pimentel, E., and Serafeimidis, K.: Swelling of sulphatic claystones – some fundamental questions and their practical relevance, Geomech. Tunn., 3, 567–572, https://doi.org/10.1002/geot.201000033, 2010.
Bárdossy, G. and Fodor, J.: Traditional and New Ways to Handle Uncertainty in Geology, Nat. Resour. Res., 10, 179–187, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012513107364, 2001.
Behrmann, J. H., Hermann, O., Horstmann, M., Tanner, D. C., and Bertrand, G.: Anatomy and kinematics of oblique continental rifting revealed: A three-dimensional case study of the southeast Upper Rhine graben (Germany), Am. Assoc. Petr. Geol. B., 87, 1105–1121, https://doi.org/10.1306/02180300153, 2003.
Bistacchi, A., Massironi, M., Superchi, L., Zorzi, L., Francese, R., Giorgi, M., Chistolini, F., and Genevois, R.: A 3-D Geological Model of the 1963 Vajont Landslide, Ital. J. Eng. Geol. Environ., 2013, 531–539, https://doi.org/10.4408/IJEGE.2013-06.B-51, 2013.
Boncio, P., Lavecchia, G., and Pace, B.: Defining a model of 3-D seismogenic sources for Seismic Hazard Assessment applications: The case of central Apennines (Italy), J. Seismol., 8, 407–425, https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOSE.0000038449.78801.05, 2004.
Bond, C. E.: Uncertainty in structural interpretation: Lessons to be learnt, J. Struct. Geol., 74, 185–200, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2015.03.003, 2015.
Butscher, C. and Huggenberger, P.: Implications for karst hydrology from 3-D geological modeling using the aquifer base gradient approach, J. Hydrol., 342, 184–198, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.05.025, 2007.
Butscher, C., Huggenberger, P., Auckenthaler, A., and Bänninger, D.: Risikoorientierte Bewilligung von Erdwärmesonden, Grundwasser, 16, 13–24, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00767-010-0154-5, 2011a.
Butscher, C., Huggenberger, P., Zechner, E., and Einstein, H. H.: Relation between hydrogeological setting and swelling potential of clay-sulfate rocks in tunneling, Eng. Geol., 122, 204–214, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2011.05.009, 2011b.
Butscher, C., Mutschler, T., and Blum, P.: Swelling of Clay-Sulfate Rocks: A Review of Processes and Controls, Rock Mech. Rock Eng., 49, 1533–1549, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-015-0827-6, 2015.
Campbell, S. D. G., Merritt, J. E., Dochartaigh, B. E. O., Mansour, M., Hughes, A. G., Fordyce, F. M., Entwisle, D. C., Monaghan, A. A., and Loughlin, S. C.: 3-D geological models and their hydrogeological applications: supporting urban development a case study in Glasgow-Clyde, UK, Z. Dtsch. Ges. Geowiss., 161, 251–262, 2010.
Caumon, G., Tertois, A.-L., and Zhang, L.: Elements for Stochastic Structural Perturbation of Stratigraphic models, in: Proceedings of Petroleum Geostatistics, European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers, https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201403041, 2007.
Caumon, G., Collon-Drouaillet, P., Le Carlier de Veslud, C., Viseur, S., and Sausse, J.: Surface-Based 3-D Modeling of Geological Structures, Math. Geosci., 41, 927–945, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11004-009-9244-2, 2009.
Cherpeau, N. and Caumon, G.: Stochastic structural modelling in sparse data situations, Petrol. Geosci., 21, 233–247, https://doi.org/10.1144/petgeo2013-030, 2015.
Cherpeau, N., Caumon, G., and Lévy, B.: Stochastic simulations of fault networks in 3-D structural modeling, C. R. Geosci., 342, 687–694, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crte.2010.04.008, 2010.
Collon, P., Steckiewicz-Laurent, W., Pellerin, J., Laurent, G., Caumon, G., Reichart, G., and Vaute, L.: 3-D geomodelling combining implicit surfaces and Voronoi-based remeshing: A case study in the Lorraine Coal Basin (France), Comput. Geosci., 77, 29–43, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2015.01.009, 2015.
Culshaw, M.: From concept towards reality: developing the attributed 3-D geological model of the shallow subsurface, Q. J. Eng. Geol. Hydroge., 38, 231–284, https://doi.org/10.1144/1470-9236/04-072, 2005.
De Luca, A. and Termini, S.: A definition of a nonprobabilistic entropy in the setting of fuzzy sets theory, Inf. Control, 20, 301–312, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0019-9958(72)90199-4, 1972.
Einstein, H.: Tunnelling in difficult ground–swelling behaviour and identification of swelling rocks, Rock Mech. Rock Eng., 29, 113–124, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01032649, 1996.
Frank, T., Tertois, A. L., and Mallet, J. L.: 3-D-reconstruction of complex geological interfaces from irregularly distributed and noisy point data, Comput. Geosci., 33, 932–943, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2006.11.014, 2007.
Genser, H.: Geologie der Vorbergzone am südwestlichen Schwarzwaldrand zwischen Staufen und Badenweiler, PhD thesis, Naturwiss.-Math. Fakultät, Freiburg i. B., Germany, 119 pp., 1958.
Grimm, M., Stober, I., Kohl, T., and Blum, P.: Schadensfallanalyse von Erdwärmesondenbohrungen in Baden-Württemberg, Grundwasser, 19, 275–286, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00767-014-0269-1, 2014.
Groschopf, R., Guntram, K., Leiber, J., Maus, H., Ohmert, W., Schreiner, A., and Wimmenauer, W. (Eds.): Erläuterung zur Geologischen Karte von Freiburg im Breisgau und Umgebung 1 : 25 000, 2. edn., Geologisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart, Germany, 1981.
Hack, R., Orlic, B., Ozmutlu, S., Zhu, S., and Rengers, N.: Three and more dimensional modelling in geo-engineering, B. Eng. Geol. Environ., 65, 143–153, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-005-0021-2, 2006.
Hassen, I., Gibson, H., Hamzaoui-Azaza, F., Negro, F., Rachid, K., and Bouhlila, R.: 3-D geological modeling of the Kasserine Aquifer System, Central Tunisia: New insights into aquifer-geometry and interconnections for a better assessment of groundwater resources, J. Hydrol., 539, 223–236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.05.034, 2016.
Holden, L., Mostad, P., Nielsen, B. F., Gjerde, J., Townsend, C., and Ottesen, S.: Stochastic structural modeling, Math. Geol., 35, 899–914, https://doi.org/10.1023/B:MATG.0000011584.51162.69, 2003.
Hou, W., Yang, L., Deng, D., Ye, J., Clarke, K., Yang, Z., Zhuang, W., Liu, J., and Huang, J.: Assessing quality of urban underground spaces by coupling 3-D geological models: The case study of Foshan city, South China, Comput. Geosci., 89, 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2015.07.016, 2016.
Jeannin, P. Y., Eichenberger, U., Sinreich, M., Vouillamoz, J., Malard, A., and Weber, E.: KARSYS: A pragmatic approach to karst hydrogeological system conceptualisation. Assessment of groundwater reserves and resources in Switzerland, Environ. Earth Sci., 69, 999–1013, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-1983-6, 2013.
Jessell, M. W., Ailleres, L., and de Kemp, E. A.: Towards an integrated inversion of geoscientific data: What price of geology?, Tectonophysics, 490, 294–306, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2010.05.020, 2010.
Julio, C., Caumon, G., and Ford, M.: Sampling the uncertainty associated with segmented normal fault interpretation using a stochastic downscaling method, Tectonophysics, 639, 56–67, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2014.11.013, 2015.
Kessler, H., Turner, A. K., Culshaw, M., and Royse, K.: Unlocking the potential of digital 3-D geological subsurface models for geotechnical engineers, in: Eur. econference Int. Assoc. Eng. Geol., Asociacion Espanola de Geologia Aplicada a la Ingenieria, 15–20 September 2008, Madrid, Spain, 15–20, available at: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/3817/ (last access: 18 April 2016), 2008.
Kinkeldey, C., MacEachren, A. M., Riveiro, M., and Schiewe, J.: Evaluating the effect of visually represented geodata uncertainty on decision-making: systematic review, lessons learned, and recommendations, Cartogr. Geogr. Inf. Sci., 44, 1–21, https://doi.org/10.1080/15230406.2015.1089792, 2015.
Klir, G. J.: Uncertainty and Information: Foundations of Generalized Information Theory, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, https://doi.org/10.1002/0471755575.ch3, 2005.
Lark, R. M., Mathers, S. J., Thorpe, S., Arkley, S. L. B., Morgan, D. J., and Lawrence, D. J. D.: A statistical assessment of the uncertainty in a 3-D geological framework model, P. Geol. Assoc., 124, 946–958, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pgeola.2013.01.005, 2013.
Leung, Y., Goodchild, M. F., Lin, C. C., Leung, Y., Goodchild, M. F., and Lin, C. C.: Visualization of fuzzy scenes and probability fields, Comput. Sci. Stat., 24, 416–422, 1992.
LGRB: Geologische Untersuchungen von Baugrundhebungen im Bereich des Erdwärmesondenfeldes beim Rathaus in der historischen Altstadt von Staufen i. Br., Tech. rep., Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau (LGRB), available at: http://www.lgrb-bw.de/geothermie/staufen (last access: 5 July 2016), 2010.
LGRB: Zweiter Sachstandsbericht zu den seit dem 01.03.2010 erfolgten Untersuchungen im Bereich des Erdwärmesondenfeldes beim Rathaus in der historischen Altstadt von Staufen i. Br., Tech. rep., Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau (LGRB), available at: http://www.lgrb-bw.de/geothermie/staufen (last access: 5 July 2016), 2012.
Lindsay, M. D., Aillères, L., Jessell, M. W., de Kemp, E. A., and Betts, P. G.: Locating and quantifying geological uncertainty in three-dimensional models: Analysis of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia, Tectonophysics, 546–547, 10–27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2012.04.007, 2012.
Lindsay, M. D., Jessell, M. W., Ailleres, L., Perrouty, S., de Kemp, E., and Betts, P. G.: Geodiversity: Exploration of 3-D geological model space, Tectonophysics, 594, 27–37, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2013.03.013, 2013.
Lindsay, M. D., Perrouty, S., Jessell, M., and Ailleres, L.: Inversion and Geodiversity: Searching Model Space for the Answers, Math. Geosci., 46, 971–1010, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11004-014-9538-x, 2014.
Liu, J., Tang, H., Zhang, J., and Shi, T.: Glass landslide: the 3-D visualization makes study of landslide transparent and virtualized, Environ. Earth Sci., 72, 3847–3856, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3183-z, 2014.
Mallet, J. L.: Discrete Smooth Interpolation in geometric modelling, Comput. Des., 24, 178–191., 1992.
Mallet, J.-L.: Space – Time Mathematical Framework for Sedimentary Geology, Math. Geol., 36, 1–32, https://doi.org/10.1023/B:MATG.0000016228.75495.7c, 2004.
Mann, J. C.: Uncertainty in Geology, in: Comput. Geol. – 25 Years Prog., edited by: Davis, J. C. and Herzfeld, U. C., p. 298, Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, USA, 1993.
Panteleit, B. R., Jensen, S., Seiter, K., Budde, H., and McDiarmid, J.: A regional geological and groundwater flow model of Bremen (Germany): an example management tool for resource administration, Z. Dtsch. Ges. Geowiss., 164, 569–580, https://doi.org/10.1127/1860-1804/2013/0035, 2013.
Paradigm: SKUA-GOCAD™ – Paradigm® 15.5 User Guide, available at: http://www.pdgm.com/products/skua-gocad/ (last access: 11 April 2017), 2015.
Park, H., Scheidt, C., Fenwick, D., Boucher, A., and Caers, J.: History matching and uncertainty quantification of facies models with multiple geological interpretations, Comput. Geosci., 17, 609–621, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10596-013-9343-5, 2013.
Paul, S. and Maji, P.: City block distance for identification of co-expressed microRNAs, Mol. BioSyst., 10, 1509–1523, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03756-1_35, 2014.
R Core Team: R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, available at: https://www.R-project.org/ (last access: 12 April 2017), 2016.
Røe, P., Georgsen, F., and Abrahamsen, P.: An Uncertainty Model for Fault Shape and Location, Math. Geosci., 46, 957–969, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11004-014-9536-z, 2014.
Ruch, C. and Wirsing, G.: Erkundung und Sanierungsstrategien im Erdwärmesonden-Schadensfall Staufen i. Br., Geotechnik, 36, 147–159, https://doi.org/10.1002/gete.201300005, 2013.
Sawatzki, G. and Eichhorn, F. (Eds.): Vorl. Geol. Karte Baden-Württemberg, 1 : 25 000, Bl. 8112 Staufen im Breisgau, Landesamtes für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau Baden-Wüttemberg (LGRB), 2. preliminary revised edn., Freiburg i. Br., Germany, 1999.
Schamper, C., Jørgensen, F., Auken, E., and Effersø, F.: Case History Assessment of near-surface mapping capabilities by airborne transient electromagnetic data – An extensive comparison to conventional borehole data, Geophysics, 79, B187–B199, https://doi.org/10.1190/Geo2013-0256.1, 2014.
Scheidt, C. and Caers, J.: Representing spatial uncertainty using distances and kernels, Math. Geosci., 41, 397–419, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11004-008-9186-0, 2009a.
Scheidt, C. and Caers, J.: Uncertainty Quantification in Reservoir Performance Using Distances and Kernel Methods–Application to a West Africa Deepwater Turbidite Reservoir, SPE J., 14, 680–692, https://doi.org/10.2118/118740-PA, 2009b.
Schöttle, M. (Ed.): Geotope im Regierungsbezirk Freiburg, Landesanstalt für Umweltschutz Baden-Württemberg, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2005.
Schreiner, A.: Geologie und Landschaft, in: Markgräflerland – Entwicklung und Nutzung einer Landschaft, edited by: Hoppe, A., 81, 7–24, 6 Abb., Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, Freiburg i. Br., Germany, 1991.
Shannon, C. E.: A mathematical theory of communication, Bell Syst. Tech. J., 27, 379–423, https://doi.org/10.1145/584091.584093, 1948.
Suzuki, S., Caumon, G., and Caers, J.: Dynamic data integration for structural modeling: Model screening approach using a distance-based model parameterization, Comput. Geosci., 12, 105–119, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10596-007-9063-9, 2008.
Tacher, L., Pomian-Srzednicki, I., and Parriaux, A.: Geological uncertainties associated with 3-D subsurface models, Comput. Geosci., 32, 212–221, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2005.06.010, 2006.
Tertois, A.-L. and Mallet, J.-L.: Editing Faults within tetrahedral volume models in real time, in: Structurally Complex Reservoirs, edited by: Jolley, S. J., Barr, D., Walsh, J. J., and Knipe, R. J., Geol. Society Spec. Publ., 292, 89–101, https://doi.org/10.1144/sp292.5, 2007.
Thiele, S. T., Jessell, M. W., Lindsay, M., Ogarko, V., Wellmann, J. F., and Pakyuz-Charrier, E.: The topology of geology 1: Topological analysis, J. Struct. Geol., 91, 27–38, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2016.08.009, 2016a.
Thiele, S. T., Jessell, M. W., Lindsay, M., Wellmann, J. F., and Pakyuz-Charrier, E.: The topology of geology 2: Topological uncertainty, J. Struct. Geol., 91, 74–87, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2016.08.010, 2016b.
Webb, A. R. and Copsey, K. D.: Measures of dissimilarity, in: Stat. Pattern Recognit., chap. A1, 419–429, second edn., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2003.
Wellmann, J. F.: Information theory for correlation analysis and estimation of uncertainty reduction in maps and models, Entropy, 15, 1464–1485, https://doi.org/10.3390/e15041464, 2013.
Wellmann, J. F. and Regenauer-Lieb, K.: Uncertainties have a meaning: Information entropy as a quality measure for 3-D geological models, Tectonophysics, 526–529, 207–216, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2011.05.001, 2012.
Wellmann, J. F., Horowitz, F. G., Schill, E., and Regenauer-Lieb, K.: Towards incorporating uncertainty of structural data in 3-D geological inversion, Tectonophysics, 490, 141–151, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2010.04.022,, 2010.
Yager, R. R.: Measures of entropy and fuzziness related to aggregation operators, Inform. Sciences, 82, 147–166, https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-0255(94)00030-F, 1995.
Yamamoto, J. K., Koike, K., Kikuda, A. T., Campanha, G. A. D. C., and Endlen, A.: Post-processing for uncertainty reduction in computed 3-D geological models, Tectonophysics, 633, 232–245, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2014.07.013, 2014.
Zadeh, L.: Fuzzy sets, Inf. Control, 8, 338–353, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0019-9958(65)90241-X, 1965.
- Full-text XML
Any 3-D geological model is subject to uncertainty. We applied the concept of information entropy in order to visualize and quantify changes in uncertainty between geological models based on different types of geological input data. Furthermore, we propose two measures, the city-block and the Jaccard distance, to directly compare dissimilarities between models. The presented approach helps to locate areas of uncertainty within the model domain and quantify model improvements due to added data.
Any 3-D geological model is subject to uncertainty. We applied the concept of information...