Articles | Volume 12, issue 11
Research article
01 Nov 2021
Research article |  | 01 Nov 2021

Marine forearc structure of eastern Java and its role in the 1994 Java tsunami earthquake

Yueyang Xia, Jacob Geersen, Dirk Klaeschen, Bo Ma, Dietrich Lange, Michael Riedel, Michael Schnabel, and Heidrun Kopp

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Subject area: Tectonic plate interactions, magma genesis, and lithosphere deformation at all scales | Editorial team: Structural geology and tectonics, paleoseismology, rock physics, experimental deformation | Discipline: Structural geology
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Cited articles

Abercrombie, R. E., Antolik, M., Felzer, K., Ekstrom, G., and Ekström, G.: The 1994 Java tsunami earthquake: Slip over a subducting seamount, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 106, 6595–6607,, 2001. 
Ammon, C. J., Kanamori, H., Lay, T., and Velasco, A. A.: The 17 July 2006 Java tsunami earthquake, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, 1–5,, 2006. 
Bell, R., Sutherland, R., Barker, D. H. N., Henrys, S., Bannister, S., Wallace, L., and Beavan, J.: Seismic reflection character of the Hikurangi subduction interface, New Zealand, in the region of repeated Gisborne slow slip events, Geophys. J. Int., 180, 34–48,, 2010. 
Bilek, S. L. and Engdahl, E. R.: Rupture characterization and aftershock relocations for the 1994 and 2006 tsunami earthquakes in the Java subduction zone, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L20311,, 2007. 
Bilek, S. L. and Lay, T.: Tsunami earthquakes possibly widespread manifestations of frictional conditional stability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1–4,, 2002. 
Short summary
The 2 June 1994 Java tsunami earthquake ruptured in a seismically quiet subduction zone and generated a larger-than-expected tsunami. Here, we re-process a seismic line across the rupture area. We show that a subducting seamount is located up-dip of the mainshock in a region that did not rupture during the earthquake. Seamount subduction modulates the topography of the marine forearc and acts as a seismic barrier in the 1994 earthquake rupture.