Articles | Volume 8, issue 5
Research article 05 Sep 2017
Research article | 05 Sep 2017
Earthquake static stress transfer in the 2013 Gulf of Valencia (Spain) seismic sequence
Lluís Saló et al.
Related subject area
SeismologySeismic gaps and intraplate seismicity around Rodrigues Ridge (Indian Ocean) from time domain array analysisSeismic signature of the COVID-19 lockdown at the city-scale: A case study with low-cost seismometers in the city of Querétaro, MexicoRupture-dependent breakdown energy in fault models with thermo-hydro-mechanical processesUsing horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios to construct shear-wave velocity profilesCrustal structures beneath the Eastern and Southern Alps from ambient noise tomographySeismic monitoring of the Auckland Volcanic Field during New Zealand's COVID-19 lock-downSeismicity during and after stimulation of a 6.1 km deep Enhanced Geothermal System in Helsinki, FinlandSeismic evidences of the COVID-19 lockdown measures: Eastern Sicily case of studyIntroducing noisi: a Python tool for ambient noise cross-correlation modeling and noise source inversionDeep learning for fast simulation of seismic waves in complex mediaCrustal structure of southeast Australia from teleseismic receiver functionsSensing earth and environment dynamics by telecommunication fiber-optic sensors: An urban experiment in Pennsylvania USAPotential influence of overpressurized gas on the induced seismicity in the St. Gallen deep geothermal project (Switzerland)Seismicity characterization of oceanic earthquakes in the Mexican territorySeismic waveform tomography of the central and eastern Mediterranean upper mantleInfluence of reservoir geology on seismic response during decameter-scale hydraulic stimulations in crystalline rockCharacterizing the global ocean ambient noise as recorded by the dense seismo-acoustic Kazakh networkObservation and explanation of spurious seismic signals emerging in teleseismic noise correlationsFault reactivation by gas injection at an underground gas storage off the east coast of SpainLithospheric image of the Central Iberian Zone (Iberian Massif) using global-phase seismic interferometryModeling active fault systems and seismic events by using a fiber bundle model – example case: the Northridge aftershock sequenceVisual analytics of aftershock point cloud data in complex fault systemsPassive processing of active nodal seismic data: estimation of VP∕VS ratios to characterize structure and hydrology of an alpine valley infillMonitoring of induced distributed double-couple sources using Marchenko-based virtual receiversER3D: a structural and geophysical 3-D model of central Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy) for numerical simulation of earthquake ground motionLithospheric and sublithospheric deformation under the Borborema Province of northeastern Brazil from receiver function harmonic strippingInduced seismicity in geologic carbon storageMoment magnitude estimates for central Anatolian earthquakes using coda wavesMigration of reflector orientation attributes in deep seismic profiles: evidence for decoupling of the Yilgarn Craton lower crustThe cross-dip correction as a tool to improve imaging of crooked-line seismic data: a case study from the post-glacial Burträsk fault, SwedenGreen's theorem in seismic imaging across the scalesEffects of finite source rupture on landslide triggering: the 2016 Mw 7.1 Kumamoto earthquakeNear-surface structure of the North Anatolian Fault zone from Rayleigh and Love wave tomography using ambient seismic noiseEvent couple spectral ratio Q method for earthquake clusters: application to northwest BohemiaPower spectra of random heterogeneities in the solid earthA multi-technology analysis of the 2017 North Korean nuclear testObtaining reliable source locations with time reverse imaging: limits to array design, velocity models and signal-to-noise ratiosPermian plume beneath Tarim from receiver functionsOn the link between stress field and small-scale hydraulic fracture growth in anisotropic rock derived from microseismicityMantle roots of the Emeishan plume: an evaluation based on teleseismic P-wave tomographyObspyDMT: a Python toolbox for retrieving and processing large seismological data setsElement-by-element parallel spectral-element methods for 3-D teleseismic wave modelingStructure of the Suasselkä postglacial fault in northern Finland obtained by analysis of local events and ambient seismic noiseSeismic anisotropy inferred from direct S-wave-derived splitting measurements and its geodynamic implications beneath southeastern Tibetan PlateauPath and site effects deduced from merged transfrontier internet macroseismic data of two recent M4 earthquakes in northwest Europe using a grid cell approachThe imprint of crustal density heterogeneities on regional seismic wave propagationFully probabilistic seismic source inversion – Part 2: Modelling errors and station covariancesImproved finite-source inversion through joint measurements of rotational and translational ground motions: a numerical studyThe Pollino 2012 seismic sequence: clues from continuous radon monitoringStudying local earthquakes in the area Baltic-Bothnia Megashear using the data of the POLENET/LAPNET temporary array
Manvendra Singh and Georg Rümpker
Solid Earth, 11, 2557–2568,Short summary
Using seismic array methods, 63 events were located in the Rodrigues–CIR region, not reported by any global network, most of them being off the ridge axis. The lack of seismicity along this section of the CIR, as observed from global data and this study, can possibly be attributed to the presence of partially molten mantle beneath Rodrigues Ridge. The results will be of interest for a broad range of geoscientists interested in the tectonic evolution of Indian Ocean and plume–crust interaction.
Raphael S. M. De Plaen, Víctor Hugo Márquez-Ramírez, Xyoli Pérez-Campos, Francisco Ramón Zuñiga Davila-Madrid, Quetzalcoatl Rodríguez-Pérez, Juan Martín Gómez González, and Lucia Capra
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Preprint under review for SEShort summary
COVID19 pandemic lockdowns in countries with a dominant informal economy have been a greater challenge. This motivated the monitoring of the mobility of populations with seismic noise throughout the various phases of lockdown and sportive events in the city of Querétaro (central Mexico). Using a network of low-cost instruments, our results further emphasize the benefit of densifying urban seismic networks over exclusively relying on mobile technologies.
Valère Lambert and Nadia Lapusta
Solid Earth, 11, 2283–2302,
Janneke van Ginkel, Elmer Ruigrok, and Rien Herber
Solid Earth, 11, 2015–2030,Short summary
Knowledge of subsurface velocities is key to understand how earthquake waves travel through the Earth. We present a method to construct velocity profiles for the upper sediment layer on top of the Groningen field, the Netherlands. Here, the soft-sediment layer causes resonance of seismic waves, and this resonance is used to compute velocities from. Recordings from large earthquakes and the background noise signals are used to derive reliable velocities for the deep sedimentary layer.
Ehsan Qorbani, Dimitri Zigone, Mark R. Handy, Götz Bokelmann, and AlpArray-EASI working group
Solid Earth, 11, 1947–1968,Short summary
The crustal structure of the Eastern and Southern Alps is complex. Although several seismological studies have targeted the crust, the velocity structure under this area is still not fully understood. Here we study the crustal velocity structure using seismic ambient noise tomography. Our high-resolution models image several velocity anomalies and contrasts and reveal details of the crustal structure. We discuss our new models of the crust with respect to the geologic and tectonic features.
Kasper van Wijk, Calum J. Chamberlain, Thomas Lecocq, and Koen Van Noten
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
The Auckland Volcanic Field is monitored by a seismic network. The lockdown measures to combat COVID-19 in New Zealand proved an opportunity to evaluate the performance of the seismic stations in the network, and to search for small(er) local earthquakes, potentially hidden in the noise during
Maria Leonhardt, Grzegorz Kwiatek, Patricia Martínez-Garzón, Marco Bohnhoff, Tero Saarno, Pekka Heikkinen, and Georg Dresen
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SE
Andrea Cannata, Flavio Cannavò, Giuseppe Di Grazia, Marco Aliotta, Carmelo Cassisi, Raphael S. M. De Plaen, Stefano Gresta, Thomas Lecocq, Placido Montalto, and Mariangela Sciotto
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
During the COVID-19 pandemic, most countries put in place social interventions, aimed at restricting human mobility, which caused a decrease in the seismic noise, generated by human activities and called anthropogenic seismic noise. In particular, in the densely populated Eastern Sicily, we observed a decrease in the seismic amplitude reaching 50 %. We also found an impressive similarity between the patterns of this seismic noise and human mobility, as quantified by the mobile phone-derived data.
Laura Ermert, Jonas Igel, Korbinian Sager, Eléonore Stutzmann, Tarje Nissen-Meyer, and Andreas Fichtner
Solid Earth, 11, 1597–1615,Short summary
We present an open-source tool to model ambient seismic auto- and cross-correlations with spatially varying source spectra. The modeling is based on pre-computed databases of seismic wave propagation, which can be obtained from public data providers. The aim of this tool is to facilitate the modeling of ambient noise correlations, which are an important seismologic observable, with realistic wave propagation physics. We present a description and benchmark along with example use cases.
Ben Moseley, Tarje Nissen-Meyer, and Andrew Markham
Solid Earth, 11, 1527–1549,Short summary
Simulations of seismic waves are very important; they allow us to understand how earthquakes spread and how the interior of the Earth is structured. However, whilst powerful, existing simulation methods usually require a large amount of computational power and time to run. In this research, we use modern machine learning techniques to accelerate these calculations inside complex models of the Earth.
Mohammed Bello, David G. Cornwell, Nicholas Rawlinson, Anya M. Reading, and Othaniel K. Likkason
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
In this study, ground motion caused by distant earthquakes recorded in southeast Australia is used to image the structure of the crust and underlying mantle. This part of the Australian continent was assembled over the last 500 million years, but it remains poorly understood. By studying variations in crustal properties and thickness, we find evidence for the presence of an old microcontinent that is embedded in the younger terrane, and forms a connection between Victoria and Tasmania.
Tieyuan Zhu, Junzhu Shen, and Eileen R. Martin
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SE
Dominik Zbinden, Antonio Pio Rinaldi, Tobias Diehl, and Stefan Wiemer
Solid Earth, 11, 909–933,Short summary
The deep geothermal project in St. Gallen, Switzerland, aimed at generating electricity and heat. The fluid pumped into the underground caused hundreds of small earthquakes and one larger one felt by the local population. Here we use computer simulations to study the physical processes that led to the earthquakes. We find that gas present in the subsurface could have intensified the seismicity, which may have implications for future geothermal projects conducted in similar geological conditions.
Quetzalcoatl Rodríguez-Pérez, Víctor Hugo Márquez-Ramírez, and Francisco Ramón Zúñiga
Solid Earth, 11, 791–806,Short summary
We analyzed reported oceanic earthquakes in Mexico. We used data from different agencies. By analyzing the occurrence of earthquakes, we can extract relevant information such as the level of seismic activity, the size of the earthquakes, hypocenter depths, etc. We also studied the focal mechanisms to classify the different types of earthquakes and calculated the stress in the region. The results will be useful to understand the physics of oceanic earthquakes.
Nienke Blom, Alexey Gokhberg, and Andreas Fichtner
Solid Earth, 11, 669–690,Short summary
We have developed a model of the Earth's structure in the upper 500 km beneath the central and eastern Mediterranean. Within this model, we can see parts of the African tectonic plate that have sunk underneath the European plate over the past tens of millions of years. This model was constructed using seismic waveform tomography by matching the seismograms from many earthquakes recorded at the surface to synthetic seismograms that were generated by simulating earthquake wave propagation.
Linus Villiger, Valentin Samuel Gischig, Joseph Doetsch, Hannes Krietsch, Nathan Oliver Dutler, Mohammadreza Jalali, Benoît Valley, Paul Antony Selvadurai, Arnaud Mignan, Katrin Plenkers, Domenico Giardini, Florian Amann, and Stefan Wiemer
Solid Earth, 11, 627–655,Short summary
Hydraulic stimulation summarizes fracture initiation and reactivation due to high-pressure fluid injection. Several borehole intervals covering intact rock and pre-existing fractures were targets for high-pressure fluid injections within a decameter-scale, crystalline rock volume. The observed induced seismicity strongly depends on the target geology. In addition, the severity of the induced seismicity per experiment counter correlates with the observed transmissivity enhancement.
Alexandr Smirnov, Marine De Carlo, Alexis Le Pichon, Nikolai M. Shapiro, and Sergey Kulichkov
Solid Earth Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for SEShort summary
Seismic and infrasound are techniques used to monitor natural events and explosions. In their low-frequency band signal can be dominated by a microbaroms and microseisms. The noise observations at the Kazakh network are performed and compared with source and propagation modeling. The network is dense and well situated for studying very distant source regions of the ambient noise. The prospects are opening for using ocean noise to do solid earth and atmosphere tomography.
Lei Li, Pierre Boué, and Michel Campillo
Solid Earth, 11, 173–184,
Antonio Villaseñor, Robert B. Herrmann, Beatriz Gaite, and Arantza Ugalde
Solid Earth, 11, 63–74,Short summary
We present new earthquake focal depths and fault orientations for earthquakes that occurred in 2013 in the vicinity of an underground gas storage off the east coast of Spain. Our focal depths are in the range of 5–10 km, notably deeper than the depth of the gas injection (2 km). The obtained fault orientations also differ from the predominant faults at shallow depths. This suggests that the faults reactivated are deeper, previously unmapped faults occurring beneath the sedimentary layers.
Juvenal Andrés, Deyan Draganov, Martin Schimmel, Puy Ayarza, Imma Palomeras, Mario Ruiz, and Ramon Carbonell
Solid Earth, 10, 1937–1950,
Marisol Monterrubio-Velasco, F. Ramón Zúñiga, José Carlos Carrasco-Jiménez, Víctor Márquez-Ramírez, and Josep de la Puente
Solid Earth, 10, 1519–1540,Short summary
Earthquake aftershocks display spatiotemporal correlations arising from their self-organized critical behavior. Stochastical models such as the fiber bundle (FBM) permit the use of an analog of the physical model that produces a statistical behavior with many similarities to real series. In this work, a new model based on FBM that includes geometrical faults systems is proposed. Our analysis focuses on aftershock statistics, and as a study case we modeled the Northridge sequence.
Chisheng Wang, Junzhuo Ke, Jincheng Jiang, Min Lu, Wenqun Xiu, Peng Liu, and Qingquan Li
Solid Earth, 10, 1397–1407,Short summary
The point cloud of located aftershocks contains the information which can directly reveal the fault geometry and temporal evolution of an earthquake sequence. However, there is a lack of studies using state-of-the-art visual analytics methods to explore the data to discover hidden information about the earthquake fault. We present a novel interactive approach to illustrate 3-D aftershock point clouds, which can help the seismologist to better understand the complex fault system.
Michael Behm, Feng Cheng, Anna Patterson, and Gerilyn S. Soreghan
Solid Earth, 10, 1337–1354,Short summary
New acquisition styles for active seismic source exploration provide a wealth of additional quasi-passive data. We show how these data can be used to gain complementary information about the subsurface. Specifically, we process an active-source dataset from an alpine valley in western Colorado with both active and passive inversion schemes. The results provide new insights on subsurface hydrology based on the ratio of P-wave and S-wave velocity structures.
Joeri Brackenhoff, Jan Thorbecke, and Kees Wapenaar
Solid Earth, 10, 1301–1319,Short summary
Earthquakes in the subsurface are hard to monitor due to their complicated signals. We aim to make the monitoring of the subsurface possible by redatuming the sources and the receivers from the surface of the Earth to the subsurface to monitor earthquakes originating from small faults in the subsurface. By using several sources together, we create complex earthquake signals for large-scale faults sources.
Peter Klin, Giovanna Laurenzano, Maria Adelaide Romano, Enrico Priolo, and Luca Martelli
Solid Earth, 10, 931–949,Short summary
Using geological and geophysical data, we set up a 3-D digital description of the underground structure in the central part of the Po alluvial plain. By means of computer-simulated propagation of seismic waves, we were able to identify the structural features that caused the unexpected elongation and amplification of the earthquake ground motion that was observed in the area during the 2012 seismic crisis. The study permits a deeper understanding of the seismic hazard in alluvial basins.
Gaelle Lamarque and Jordi Julià
Solid Earth, 10, 893–905,Short summary
Our goal is to better understand the evolution of the Earth's outer shell in northeast Brazil. We analyze the propagation properties (anisotropy) of distant seismic waves in order to look for subsurface, large-scale deformation structures. Results show that structures visible at the surface can be traced down to ~100 km depth, that the imprint of the opening of the Atlantic Ocean can be detected along the coast and that the continental interior is anomalous due to a complex deformation history.
Víctor Vilarrasa, Jesus Carrera, Sebastià Olivella, Jonny Rutqvist, and Lyesse Laloui
Solid Earth, 10, 871–892,Short summary
To meet the goal of the Paris Agreement to limit temperature increase below 2 ºC, geologic carbon storage (GCS) will be necessary at the gigatonne scale. But to successfully deploy GCS, seismicity induced by CO2 injection should be controlled and maintained below a threshold that does not generate nuisances to the population. We conclude that felt induced seismicity can be minimized provided that a proper site characterization, monitoring and pressure management are performed.
Solid Earth, 10, 713–723,Short summary
Proper magnitude estimates for earthquakes can give insight into the seismic energy released at an earthquake source. This is, in fact, essential for better seismic hazard assessments in tectonically active regions. In the present work, I examine local earthquakes in central Anatolia to estimate their moment magnitudes. The main outcome of this study is an empirical relation that can provide a direct physical quantity of seismic energy in the study region.
Andrew J. Calvert and Michael P. Doublier
Solid Earth, 10, 637–645,Short summary
Deep (> 40 km) seismic reflection surveys are acquired on land along crooked roads. Using the varying azimuth between source and receiver, the true 3-D orientation of crustal structures can be determined. Applying this method to a survey over the ancient Australian Yilgarn Craton reveals that most reflectors in the lower crust exhibit a systematic dip perpendicular to those in the overlying crust, consistent with lateral flow of a weak lower crust in the hotter early Earth 2.7 billion years ago.
Ruth A. Beckel and Christopher Juhlin
Solid Earth, 10, 581–598,Short summary
Scandinavia is crossed by extensive fault scarps that have likely been caused by huge earthquakes when the ice sheets of the last glacial melted. Due to the inaccessibility of the terrain, reflection seismic data have to be collected along crooked lines, which reduces the imaging quality unless special corrections are applied. We developed a new correction method that is very tolerant to noise and used it to improve the reflection image of such a fault and refine its geological interpretation.
Kees Wapenaar, Joeri Brackenhoff, and Jan Thorbecke
Solid Earth, 10, 517–536,Short summary
The earthquake seismology and seismic exploration communities have developed a variety of seismic imaging methods for passive- and active-source data. Despite the seemingly different approaches and underlying principles, many of these methods are based in some way or another on the same mathematical theorem. Starting with this theorem, we discuss a variety of classical and recent seismic imaging methods in a systematic way and explain their similarities and differences.
Sebastian von Specht, Ugur Ozturk, Georg Veh, Fabrice Cotton, and Oliver Korup
Solid Earth, 10, 463–486,Short summary
We show the landslide response to the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (Mw 7.1) in central Kyushu (Japan). Landslides are concentrated to the northeast of the rupture, coinciding with the propagation direction of the earthquake. This azimuthal variation in the landslide concentration is linked to the seismic rupture process itself and not to classical landslide susceptibility factors. We propose a new ground-motion model that links the seismic radiation pattern with the landslide distribution.
George Taylor, Sebastian Rost, Gregory A. Houseman, and Gregor Hillers
Solid Earth, 10, 363–378,Short summary
We constructed a seismic velocity model of the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey. We found that the fault is located within a region of reduced seismic velocity and skirts the edges of a geological unit that displays high seismic velocity, indicating that this unit could be stronger than the surrounding material. Furthermore, we found that seismic waves travel fastest in the NE–SW direction, which is the direction of maximum extension for this part of Turkey and indicates mineral alignment.
Marius Kriegerowski, Simone Cesca, Matthias Ohrnberger, Torsten Dahm, and Frank Krüger
Solid Earth, 10, 317–328,Short summary
We developed a method that allows to estimate the acoustic attenuation of seismic waves within regions with high earthquake source densities. Attenuation is of high interest as it allows to draw conclusions on the origin of seismic activity. We apply our method to north-west Bohemia, which is regularly affected by earthquake swarms during which thousands of earthquakes are registered within a few days. We find reduced attenuation within the active volume, which may indicate high fluid content.
Solid Earth, 10, 275–292,Short summary
Recent seismological observations clarified that the velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle is randomly heterogeneous. I compile reported power spectral density functions of random velocity fluctuations based on various types of measurements. Their spectral envelope is approximated by the third power of wavenumber. It is interesting to study what kinds of geophysical processes created such a power-law spectral envelope at different scales and in different geological environments.
Peter Gaebler, Lars Ceranna, Nima Nooshiri, Andreas Barth, Simone Cesca, Michaela Frei, Ilona Grünberg, Gernot Hartmann, Karl Koch, Christoph Pilger, J. Ole Ross, and Torsten Dahm
Solid Earth, 10, 59–78,Short summary
On 3 September 2017 official channels of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea announced the successful test of a nuclear device. This study provides a multi-technology analysis of the 2017 North Korean event and its aftermath using a wide array of geophysical methods (seismology, infrasound, remote sensing, radionuclide monitoring, and atmospheric transport modeling). Our results clearly indicate that the September 2017 North Korean event was in fact a nuclear test.
Claudia Werner and Erik H. Saenger
Solid Earth, 9, 1487–1505,Short summary
Time reverse imaging is a method for locating quasi-simultaneous or low-amplitude earthquakes. Numerous three-dimensional synthetic simulations were performed to discover the influence of station distributions, complex velocity models and high noise rates on the reliability of localisations. The guidelines obtained enable the estimation of the localisation success rates of an existing station set-up and provide the basis for designing new arrays.
Lev Vinnik, Yangfan Deng, Grigoriy Kosarev, Sergey Oreshin, and Larissa Makeyeva
Solid Earth, 9, 1179–1185,Short summary
We used seismology data to estimate the thickness of the MTZ and found it thinned beneath Tarim, which is exactly beneath the Permian basalts. This relation can be reconciled with coherent translation of a tectosphere that extends to a depth of 410 km or more. Combined with observations in the Siberian large igneous province and Greenland, these features may confirm the existence of a deep tectosphere. Alternatively, the shift of Tarim is less than predicted by an order of magnitude.
Valentin Samuel Gischig, Joseph Doetsch, Hansruedi Maurer, Hannes Krietsch, Florian Amann, Keith Frederick Evans, Morteza Nejati, Mohammadreza Jalali, Benoît Valley, Anne Christine Obermann, Stefan Wiemer, and Domenico Giardini
Solid Earth, 9, 39–61,
Chuansong He and M. Santosh
Solid Earth, 8, 1141–1151,Short summary
Our work demonstrated that the Emeishan large igneous province was generated by the crustal and/or mantle lithospheric delamination rather than the upwelling mantle plume.
Kasra Hosseini and Karin Sigloch
Solid Earth, 8, 1047–1070,Short summary
This paper presents obspyDMT, a free, open-source software toolbox for the query, retrieval, processing and management of seismological data sets, including very large, heterogeneous and/or dynamically growing ones. ObspyDMT facilitates data archival, preprocessing, instrument correction and quality control. While primarily a productivity tool for research seismologists and observatories, easy-to-use syntax and plotting functionality also make obspyDMT an effective teaching aid.
Shaolin Liu, Dinghui Yang, Xingpeng Dong, Qiancheng Liu, and Yongchang Zheng
Solid Earth, 8, 969–986,Short summary
Teleseismic wave adjoint tomography is able to image the deep structure of the lithosphere. Here we proposed the element-by-element spectral-element method (EBE-SEM) for efficient teleseismic wave modeling. A detailed discussion of the teleseismic seismic incident boundary condition and PML absorbing boundary condition for the scattered waves are presented. Beside the high efficiency of EBE-SEM for the forward modeling of teleseismic waves, it is able to easily construct misfit kernels.
Nikita Afonin, Elena Kozlovskaya, Ilmo Kukkonen, and DAFNE/FINLAND Working Group
Solid Earth, 8, 531–544,
Ashwani Kant Tiwari, Arun Singh, Tuna Eken, and Chandrani Singh
Solid Earth, 8, 435–452,Short summary
New splitting measurements are obtained using direct-S waves by correcting source-side contamination using data from southeastern Tibet, near Namcha Barwa. A highly deformed lithospheric and sub-lithospheric mantle reveals fast-axis patterns close to the surficial expressions of the local geology. Significant anisotropy observed at stations where null or no measurements were obtained in earlier studies indicates the importance of using direct-S waves for anisotropic measurements.
Koen Van Noten, Thomas Lecocq, Christophe Sira, Klaus-G. Hinzen, and Thierry Camelbeeck
Solid Earth, 8, 453–477,Short summary
Every person is a seismometer. By using people’s reports submitted online to European seismological agencies, we made new grid cell shaking intensity maps of the 2011 Goch (DE) and 2015 Ramsgate (UK) M4 earthquakes. Both events were widely felt in NW Europe and had non-concentric shaking intensity patterns which are strongly linked to the bedrock depth in the felt area. Storing intensity data in grid cells is a promising tool for seismological agencies to share intensity data anonymously.
Agnieszka Płonka, Nienke Blom, and Andreas Fichtner
Solid Earth, 7, 1591–1608,Short summary
Imaging the inside of the Earth requires knowledge of how the Earth's properties affect seismic recordings. However, certain properties, such as density, affect seismograms in a way that is not fully known. Using numerical simulations, we can calculate a synthetic seismogram for a medium with and without density heterogeneities, and then compare the two signals. That way, we quantify the density effect on a seismogram. We also show that it is visible and growing as the wavefield gets scattered.
Simon C. Stähler and Karin Sigloch
Solid Earth, 7, 1521–1536,Short summary
Seismic source inversion is the method of inferring the spatial orientation of an earthquake source from seismic records. The results come with large uncertainties, which we try to estimate in a Bayesian approach. We propose an empirical relationship for the likelihood function based on a large dataset of deterministic solutions. This allows using the cross-correlation coefficient as a misfit criterion, which is better suited for waveform comparison than the popular root mean square or L2 norm.
Michael Reinwald, Moritz Bernauer, Heiner Igel, and Stefanie Donner
Solid Earth, 7, 1467–1477,Short summary
The goal of this study is to test the effect of incorporating rotational ground motion data into finite-source inversions for different types of earthquakes. We run numerical simulations with and without rotation data and directly compare the results. They clearly suggest that seismological studies can benefit from the ability of seismometers to also measure rotational ground motions, especially for faults which also fracture in vertical direction.
Antonio Piersanti, Valentina Cannelli, and Gianfranco Galli
Solid Earth, 7, 1303–1316,Short summary
We investigate in an innovative way the dynamics of radon emanation in a seismically active area. We analysed 3 years of data, collected during a long-term radon monitoring experiment. The complexity of the relationships among the investigated variables led us to consider the problem both from a phenomenological point of view and by means of original numerical analyses. Different approaches converge on the existence of a physical relation between soil radon emanation and seismicity.
Olga Usoltseva and Elena Kozlovskaya
Solid Earth, 7, 1095–1108,Short summary
We address the problem of seismicity in the intraplate area of northern Fennoscandia using the information on local events recorded by the POLENET/LAPNET seismic array. We relocate the seismic events, calculate a 3-D tomographic P wave velocity model of the uppermost crust and investigate a focal mechanism of the event. Our results demonstrate that the Baltic-Bothnia Megashear is an important large-scale, reactivated tectonic structure that has to be taken into account when estimating seismic hazard.
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Fault movement on the crust is governed by stress levels. Our study focuses on the effect of stress transfer between faults, a mechanism long known to have potential for generating earthquakes. Our results suggest that static stress transfer would have acted as a destabilizing trigger during the sequence and that the experienced events would not have shortened the occurrence of future damaging shakes. The study aims to provide insight on an issue related to energy resources management.
Fault movement on the crust is governed by stress levels. Our study focuses on the effect of...