Articles | Volume 12, issue 1
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Distribution, microphysical properties, and tectonic controls of deformation bands in the Miocene subduction wedge (Whakataki Formation) of the Hikurangi subduction zone
Kathryn E. Elphick
School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia
Craig R. Sloss
School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia
School of Petroleum Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Christoph E. Schrank
School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia
No articles found.
Klaus Regenauer-Lieb, Manman Hu, Christoph Schrank, Xiao Chen, Santiago Peña Clavijo, Ulrich Kelka, Ali Karrech, Oliver Gaede, Tomasz Blach, Hamid Roshan, Antoine B. Jacquey, Piotr Szymczak, and Qingpei Sun
Solid Earth, 12, 1829–1849,Short summary
This paper presents a trans-disciplinary approach bridging the gap between observations of instabilities from the molecular scale to the very large scale. We show that all scales communicate via propagation of volumetric deformation waves. Similar phenomena are encountered in quantum optics where wave collisions can release sporadic bursts of light. Ocean waves show a similar phenomenon of rogue waves that seem to come from nowhere. This mechanism is proposed to be the trigger for earthquakes.
Klaus Regenauer-Lieb, Manman Hu, Christoph Schrank, Xiao Chen, Santiago Peña Clavijo, Ulrich Kelka, Ali Karrech, Oliver Gaede, Tomasz Blach, Hamid Roshan, and Antoine B. Jacquey
Solid Earth, 12, 869–883,Short summary
In this paper we expand on a recent discovery of slow cross-diffusion hydromechanical waves cast into a new concise reaction–diffusion equation for THMC coupling. If waves are excited through the THMC reaction terms unbounded reactions can be captured by inclusion of statistical information from the lower scale through nonlocal reaction–diffusion equations. These cross-diffusion coefficients regularize extreme earthquake-like events (rogue waves) through a new form of quasi-soliton wave.
David Boutelier, Christoph Schrank, and Klaus Regenauer-Lieb
Solid Earth, 10, 1123–1139,Short summary
Image correlation techniques have provided new ways to analyse the distribution in space and time of deformation in analogue models of tectonics. Here, we demonstrate how the correlation of successive time-lapse images of a deforming model allows calculating the finite displacements and finite strain tensor. We illustrate, using synthetic images, the ability of the algorithm to produce maps of the finite deformation.
James Gilgannon, Florian Fusseis, Luca Menegon, Klaus Regenauer-Lieb, and Jim Buckman
Solid Earth, 8, 1193–1209,Short summary
We examine rocks from the middle crust to explore how fluids circulate and influence a rock’s response to larger-scale tectonic movements. A model is developed in which fluids deep in the Earth migrate to clusters of pores generated during those movements. We document how distinct pores form in a specific order in association with local changes in how quartz deforms. The porosity evolves out of the deformation, changing the rate the rock moved under tectonic forces.
Related subject area
Subject area: Tectonic plate interactions, magma genesis, and lithosphere deformation at all scales | Editorial team: Structural geology and tectonics, paleoseismology, rock physics, experimental deformation | Discipline: Structural geologyA contribution to the quantification of crustal shortening and kinematics of deformation across the Western Andes ( ∼ 20–22° S)Rift thermal inheritance in the SW Alps (France): insights from RSCM thermometry and 1D thermal numerical modellingThe Luangwa Rift Active Fault Database and fault reactivation along the southwestern branch of the East African RiftClustering has a meaning: optimization of angular similarity to detect 3D geometric anomalies in geological terrainsTime-dependent Frictional Properties of Granular Materials Used In Analogue Modelling: Implications for mimicking fault healing during reactivation and inversionShear zone evolution and the path of earthquake ruptureAnalogue modelling of the inversion of multiple extensional basins in foreland fold-and-thrust beltsMechanical compaction mechanisms in the input sediments of the Sumatra subduction complex – insights from microstructural analysis of cores from IODP Expedition 362Detecting micro fractures: a comprehensive comparison of conventional and machine-learning-based segmentation methodsMultiscale lineament analysis and permeability heterogeneity of fractured crystalline basement blocksStructural characterization and K–Ar illite dating of reactivated, complex and heterogeneous fault zones: lessons from the Zuccale Fault, Northern ApenninesHow do differences in interpreting seismic images affect estimates of geological slip rates?Progressive veining during peridotite carbonation: insights from listvenites in Hole BT1B, Samail ophiolite (Oman)Tectonic evolution of the Indio Hills segment of the San Andreas fault in southern California, southwestern USAGrain size dependent large rheology contrasts of halite at low deviatoric stress: evidence from microstructural study of naturally deformed gneissic Zechstein-2 rock salt (Kristallbrockensalz) from the Northern NetherlandsStructural diagenesis in ultra-deep tight sandstones in the Kuqa Depression, Tarim Basin, ChinaVariscan structures and their control on latest to post-Variscan basin architecture: insights from the westernmost Bohemian Massif and southeastern GermanyMulti-disciplinary characterizations of the BedrettoLab – a new underground geoscience research facilityBiotite supports long-range diffusive transport in dissolution–precipitation creep in halite through small porosity fluctuationsDe-risking the energy transition by quantifying the uncertainties in fault stabilityVirtual field trip to the Esla Nappe (Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain): delivering traditional geological mapping skills remotely using real dataMarine forearc structure of eastern Java and its role in the 1994 Java tsunami earthquakeRoughness of fracture surfaces in numerical models and laboratory experimentsImpact of basement thrust faults on low-angle normal faults and rift basin evolution: a case study in the Enping sag, Pearl River BasinEvidence for and significance of the Late Cretaceous Asteroussia event in the Gondwanan Ios basement terranesInvestigating spatial heterogeneity within fracture networks using hierarchical clustering and graph distance metricsDating folding beyond folding, from layer-parallel shortening to fold tightening, using mesostructures: lessons from the Apennines, Pyrenees, and Rocky MountainsDeformation-enhanced diagenesis and bacterial proliferation in the Nankai accretionary prismRheological stratification in impure rock salt during long-term creep: morphology, microstructure, and numerical models of multilayer folds in the Ocnele Mari salt mine, RomaniaGeodynamic and seismotectonic model of a long-lived transverse structure: The Schio-Vicenza Fault System (NE Italy)Neogene kinematics of the Giudicarie Belt and eastern Southern Alpine orogenic front (northern Italy)Fault interpretation uncertainties using seismic data, and the effects on fault seal analysis: a case study from the Horda Platform, with implications for CO2 storageReply to Norini and Groppelli's comment on “Estimating the depth and evolution of intrusions at resurgent calderas: Los Humeros (Mexico)” by Urbani et al. (2020)Emplacement of “exotic” Zechstein slivers along the inverted Sontra Graben (northern Hessen, Germany): clues from balanced cross sections and geometrical forward modelingKinematics of subduction in the Ibero-Armorican arc constrained by 3D microstructural analysis of garnet and pseudomorphed lawsonite porphyroblasts from Île de Groix (Variscan belt)Frictional properties and microstructural evolution of dry and wet calcite–dolomite gougesExperimental evidence that viscous shear zones generate periodic pore sheetsInfluence of inherited structural domains and their particular strain distributions on the Roer Valley graben evolution from inversion to extensionThe Piuquencillo fault system: a long-lived, Andean-transverse fault system and its relationship with magmatic and hydrothermal activityExtensional reactivation of the Penninic frontal thrust 3 Myr ago as evidenced by U–Pb dating on calcite in fault zone cataclasiteAnalysis of deformation bands associated with the Trachyte Mesa intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah: implications for reservoir connectivity and fluid flow around sill intrusionsCharacterization of discontinuities in potential reservoir rocks for geothermal applications in the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area (Germany)On a new robust workflow for the statistical and spatial analysis of fracture data collected with scanlines (or the importance of stationarity)Micro- and nano-porosity of the active Alpine Fault zone, New ZealandUnraveling the origins and P-T-t evolution of the allochthonous Sobrado unit (Órdenes Complex, NW Spain) using combined U–Pb titanite, monazite and zircon geochronology and rare-earth element (REE) geochemistryFracture attribute scaling and connectivity in the Devonian Orcadian Basin with implications for geologically equivalent sub-surface fractured reservoirsStructural control on fluid flow and shallow diagenesis: insights from calcite cementation along deformation bands in porous sandstonesThe growth of faults and fracture networks in a mechanically evolving, mechanically stratified rock mass: a case study from Spireslack Surface Coal Mine, ScotlandRelationship between microstructures and resistance in mafic assemblages that deform and transformMultiphase, decoupled faulting in the southern German Molasse Basin – evidence from 3-D seismic data
Tania Habel, Martine Simoes, Robin Lacassin, Daniel Carrizo, and German Aguilar
Solid Earth, 14, 17–42,Short summary
The Central Andes are one of the most emblematic reliefs on Earth, but their western flank remains understudied. Here we explore two rare key sites in the hostile conditions of the Atacama desert to build cross-sections, quantify crustal shortening, and discuss the timing of this deformation at ∼20–22°S. We propose that the structures of the Western Andes accommodated significant crustal shortening here, but only during the earliest stages of mountain building.
Naïm Célini, Frédéric Mouthereau, Abdeltif Lahfid, Claude Gout, and Jean-Paul Callot
Solid Earth, 14, 1–16,Short summary
We investigate the peak temperature of sedimentary rocks of the SW Alps (France), using Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material. This method provides an estimate of the peak temperature achieved by organic-rich rocks. To determine the timing and the tectonic context of the origin of these temperatures we use 1D thermal modelling. We find that the high temperatures up to 300 °C were achieved during precollisional extensional events, not during tectonic burial in the Western Alps.
Luke N. J. Wedmore, Tess Turner, Juliet Biggs, Jack N. Williams, Henry M. Sichingabula, Christine Kabumbu, and Kawawa Banda
Solid Earth, 13, 1731–1753,Short summary
Mapping and compiling the attributes of faults capable of hosting earthquakes are important for the next generation of seismic hazard assessment. We document 18 active faults in the Luangwa Rift, Zambia, in an active fault database. These faults are between 9 and 207 km long offset Quaternary sediments, have scarps up to ~30 m high, and are capable of hosting earthquakes from Mw 5.8 to 8.1. We associate the Molaza Fault with surface ruptures from two unattributed M 6+ 20th century earthquakes.
Michał P. Michalak, Lesław Teper, Florian Wellmann, Jerzy Żaba, Krzysztof Gaidzik, Marcin Kostur, Yuriy P. Maystrenko, and Paulina Leonowicz
Solid Earth, 13, 1697–1720,Short summary
When characterizing geological/geophysical surfaces, various geometric attributes are calculated, such as dip angle (1D) or dip direction (2D). However, the boundaries between specific values may be subjective and without optimization significance, resulting from using default color palletes. This study proposes minimizing cosine distance among within-cluster observations to detect 3D anomalies. Our results suggest that the method holds promise for identification of megacylinders or megacones.
Michael Rudolf, Matthias Rosenau, and Onno Oncken
Analogue models of tectonic processes rely on the reproduction of their geometry, kinematics and dynamics. An important property is fault behaviour which is linked to the frictional characteristics of the fault gouge. This is represented by granular materials, such as quartz sand. In our study we investigate the time-dependent frictional properties of various analogue materials and highlight their impact on the suitability of these materials for analogue models focusing on fault reactivation.
Erik M. Young, Christie D. Rowe, and James D. Kirkpatrick
Solid Earth, 13, 1607–1629,Short summary
Studying how earthquakes spread deep within the faults they originate from is crucial to improving our understanding of the earthquake process. We mapped preserved ancient earthquake surfaces that are now exposed in South Africa and studied their relationship with the shape and type of rocks surrounding them. We determined that these surfaces are not random and are instead associated with specific kinds of rocks and that their shape is linked to the evolution of the faults in which they occur.
Nicolás Molnar and Susanne Buiter
Progression of orogenic wedges over pre-existing extensional structures is common in nature, but deciphering the spatio-temporal evolution of deformation from the geological record remains challenging. Our laboratory experiments provide insights on how horizontal stresses are transferred across a heterogeneous crust, constrain which pre-shortening conditions can either favour or hinder the reactivatation of extensional structures, and explain what implications they have on critical taper theory.
Sivaji Lahiri, Kitty L. Milliken, Peter Vrolijk, Guillaume Desbois, and Janos L. Urai
Solid Earth, 13, 1513–1539,Short summary
Understanding the mechanism of mechanical compaction is important. Previous studies on mechanical compaction were mostly done by performing experiments. Studies on natural rocks are rare due to compositional heterogeneity of the sedimentary succession with depth. Due to remarkable similarity in composition and grain size, the Sumatra subduction complex provides a unique opportunity to study the micromechanism of mechanical compaction on natural samples.
Dongwon Lee, Nikolaos Karadimitriou, Matthias Ruf, and Holger Steeb
Solid Earth, 13, 1475–1494,Short summary
This research article focuses on filtering and segmentation methods employed in high-resolution µXRCT studies for crystalline rocks, bearing fractures, or fracture networks, of very small aperture. Specifically, we focus on the identification of artificially induced (via quenching) fractures in Carrara marble samples. Results from the same dataset from all five different methods adopted were produced and compared with each other in terms of their output quality and time efficiency.
Alberto Ceccato, Giulia Tartaglia, Marco Antonellini, and Giulio Viola
Solid Earth, 13, 1431–1453,Short summary
The Earth's surface is commonly characterized by the occurrence of fractures, which can be mapped, and their can be geometry quantified on digital representations of the surface at different scales of observation. Here we present a series of analytical and statistical tools, which can aid the quantification of fracture spatial distribution at different scales. In doing so, we can improve our understanding of how fracture geometry and geology affect fluid flow within the fractured Earth crust.
Giulio Viola, Giovanni Musumeci, Francesco Mazzarini, Lorenzo Tavazzani, Manuel Curzi, Espen Torgersen, Roelant van der Lelij, and Luca Aldega
Solid Earth, 13, 1327–1351,Short summary
A structural-geochronological approach helps to unravel the Zuccale Fault's architecture. By mapping its internal structure and dating some of its fault rocks, we constrained a deformation history lasting 20 Myr starting at ca. 22 Ma. Such long activity is recorded by now tightly juxtaposed brittle structural facies, i.e. different types of fault rocks. Our results also have implications on the regional evolution of the northern Apennines, of which the Zuccale Fault is an important structure.
Solid Earth, 13, 1281–1290,Short summary
Having a seismic image is generally expected to enable us to better determine fault geometry and thus estimate geological slip rates accurately. However, the process of interpreting seismic images may introduce unintended uncertainties, which have not yet been widely discussed. Here, a case of a shear fault-bend fold in the frontal Himalaya is used to demonstrate how differences in interpretations can affect the following estimates of slip rates and dependent conclusions.
Manuel D. Menzel, Janos L. Urai, Estibalitz Ukar, Thierry Decrausaz, and Marguerite Godard
Solid Earth, 13, 1191–1218,Short summary
Mantle rocks can bind large quantities of carbon by reaction with CO2, but this capacity requires fluid pathways not to be clogged by carbonate. We studied mantle rocks from Oman to understand the mechanisms allowing their transformation into carbonate and quartz. Using advanced imaging techniques, we show that abundant veins were essential fluid pathways driving the reaction. Our results show that tectonic stress was important for fracture opening and a key ingredient for carbon fixation.
Jean-Baptiste P. Koehl, Steffen G. Bergh, and Arthur G. Sylvester
Solid Earth, 13, 1169–1190,Short summary
The San Andreas fault is a major active fault associated with ongoing earthquake sequences in southern California. The present study investigates the development of the Indio Hills area in the Coachella Valley along the main San Andreas fault and the Indio Hills fault. The Indio Hills area is located near an area with high ongoing earthquake activity (Brawley seismic zone), and, therefore, its recent tectonic evolution has implications for earthquake prediction.
Jessica Barabasch, Joyce Schmatz, Jop Klaver, Alexander Schwedt, and Janos L. Urai
We analysed Zechstein salt under the microscope and observed specific microstructures that indicate a softer and much faster deformation in fine halite grains when compared to the large grains. This is important because people build large caveties in the subsurface salt for energy storage or want to put radioactive waste inside it. When engineers and scientists use equations that include this mechanisms that we observed, it will help to make better predictions in geological models.
Jin Lai, Dong Li, Yong Ai, Hongkun Liu, Deyang Cai, Kangjun Chen, Yuqiang Xie, and Guiwen Wang
Solid Earth, 13, 975–1002,Short summary
(1) Structural diagenesis analysis is performed on the ultra-deep tight sandstone. (2) Fracture and intergranular pores are related to the low in situ stress magnitudes. (3) Dissolution is associated with the presence of fracture.
Hamed Fazlikhani, Wolfgang Bauer, and Harald Stollhofen
Solid Earth, 13, 393–416,Short summary
Interpretation of newly acquired FRANKEN 2D seismic survey data in southeeastern Germany shows that upper Paleozoic low-grade metasedimentary rocks and possible nappe units are transported by Variscan shear zones to ca. 65 km west of the Franconian Fault System (FFS). We show that the locations of post-Variscan upper Carboniferous–Permian normal faults and associated graben and half-graben basins are controlled by the geometry of underlying Variscan shear zones.
Xiaodong Ma, Marian Hertrich, Florian Amann, Kai Bröker, Nima Gholizadeh Doonechaly, Valentin Gischig, Rebecca Hochreutener, Philipp Kästli, Hannes Krietsch, Michèle Marti, Barbara Nägeli, Morteza Nejati, Anne Obermann, Katrin Plenkers, Antonio P. Rinaldi, Alexis Shakas, Linus Villiger, Quinn Wenning, Alba Zappone, Falko Bethmann, Raymi Castilla, Francisco Seberto, Peter Meier, Thomas Driesner, Simon Loew, Hansruedi Maurer, Martin O. Saar, Stefan Wiemer, and Domenico Giardini
Solid Earth, 13, 301–322,Short summary
Questions on issues such as anthropogenic earthquakes and deep geothermal energy developments require a better understanding of the fractured rock. Experiments conducted at reduced scales but with higher-resolution observations can shed some light. To this end, the BedrettoLab was recently established in an existing tunnel in Ticino, Switzerland, with preliminary efforts to characterize realistic rock mass behavior at the hectometer scale.
Berit Schwichtenberg, Florian Fusseis, Ian B. Butler, and Edward Andò
Solid Earth, 13, 41–64,Short summary
Hydraulic rock properties such as porosity and permeability are relevant factors that have an impact on groundwater resources, geological repositories and fossil fuel reservoirs. We investigate the influence of chemical compaction upon the porosity evolution in salt–biotite mixtures and related transport length scales by conducting laboratory experiments in combination with 4-D analysis. Our observations invite a renewed discussion of the effect of sheet silicates on chemical compaction.
David Healy and Stephen Paul Hicks
Solid Earth, 13, 15–39,Short summary
The energy transition requires operations in faulted rocks. To manage the technical challenges and public concern over possible induced earthquakes, we need to quantify the risks. We calculate the probability of fault slip based on uncertain inputs, stresses, fluid pressures, and the mechanical properties of rocks in fault zones. Our examples highlight the specific gaps in our knowledge. Citizen science projects could produce useful data and include the public in the discussions about hazards.
Manuel I. de Paz-Álvarez, Thomas G. Blenkinsop, David M. Buchs, George E. Gibbons, and Lesley Cherns
Solid Earth, 13, 1–14,Short summary
We describe a virtual geological mapping course implemented in response to travelling and social restrictions derived from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The course was designed to replicate a physical mapping exercise as closely as possible with the aid of real field data and photographs collected by the authors during previous years in the Cantabrian Zone (NW Spain). The course is delivered through Google Earth via a KMZ file with outcrop descriptions and links to GitHub-hosted photographs.
Yueyang Xia, Jacob Geersen, Dirk Klaeschen, Bo Ma, Dietrich Lange, Michael Riedel, Michael Schnabel, and Heidrun Kopp
Solid Earth, 12, 2467–2477,Short summary
The 2 June 1994 Java tsunami earthquake ruptured in a seismically quiet subduction zone and generated a larger-than-expected tsunami. Here, we re-process a seismic line across the rupture area. We show that a subducting seamount is located up-dip of the mainshock in a region that did not rupture during the earthquake. Seamount subduction modulates the topography of the marine forearc and acts as a seismic barrier in the 1994 earthquake rupture.
Steffen Abe and Hagen Deckert
Solid Earth, 12, 2407–2424,Short summary
We use numerical simulations and laboratory experiments on rock samples to investigate how stress conditions influence the geometry and roughness of fracture surfaces. The roughness of the surfaces was analyzed in terms of absolute roughness and scaling properties. The results show that the surfaces are self-affine but with different scaling properties between the numerical models and the real rock samples. Results suggest that stress conditions have little influence on the surface roughness.
Chao Deng, Rixiang Zhu, Jianhui Han, Yu Shu, Yuxiang Wu, Kefeng Hou, and Wei Long
Solid Earth, 12, 2327–2350,Short summary
This study uses seismic reflection data to interpret the geometric relationship and evolution of intra-basement and rift-related structures in the Enping sag in the northern South China Sea. Our observations suggest the primary control of pre-existing thrust faults is the formation of low-angle normal faults, with possible help from low-friction materials, and the significant role of pre-existing basement thrust faults in fault geometry, paleotopography, and syn-rift stratigraphy of rift basins.
Sonia Yeung, Marnie Forster, Emmanuel Skourtsos, and Gordon Lister
Solid Earth, 12, 2255–2275,Short summary
We do not know when the ancient Tethys Ocean lithosphere began to founder, but one clue can be found in subduction accreted tectonic slices, including Gondwanan basement terranes on the island of Ios, Cyclades, Greece. We propose a 250–300 km southwards jump of the subduction megathrust with a period of flat-slab subduction followed by slab break-off. The initiation and its subsequent rollback of a new subduction zone would explain the onset of Oligo–Miocene extension and accompanying magmatism.
Rahul Prabhakaran, Giovanni Bertotti, Janos Urai, and David Smeulders
Solid Earth, 12, 2159–2209,Short summary
Rock fractures are organized as networks with spatially varying arrangements. Due to networks' influence on bulk rock behaviour, it is important to quantify network spatial variation. We utilize an approach where fracture networks are treated as spatial graphs. By combining graph similarity measures with clustering techniques, spatial clusters within large-scale fracture networks are identified and organized hierarchically. The method is validated on a dataset with nearly 300 000 fractures.
Olivier Lacombe, Nicolas E. Beaudoin, Guilhem Hoareau, Aurélie Labeur, Christophe Pecheyran, and Jean-Paul Callot
Solid Earth, 12, 2145–2157,Short summary
This paper aims to illustrate how the timing and duration of contractional deformation associated with folding in orogenic forelands can be constrained by the dating of brittle mesostructures observed in folded strata. The study combines new and already published absolute ages of fractures to provide, for the first time, an educated discussion about the factors controlling the duration of the sequence of deformation encompassing layer-parallel shortening, fold growth, and late fold tightening.
Vincent Famin, Hugues Raimbourg, Muriel Andreani, and Anne-Marie Boullier
Solid Earth, 12, 2067–2085,Short summary
Sediments accumulated in accretionary prisms are deformed by the compression imposed by plate subduction. Here we show that deformation of the sediments transforms some minerals in them. We suggest that these mineral transformations are due to the proliferation of microorganisms boosted by deformation. Deformation-enhanced microbial proliferation may change our view of sedimentary and tectonic processes in subduction zones.
Marta Adamuszek, Dan M. Tămaş, Jessica Barabasch, and Janos L. Urai
Solid Earth, 12, 2041–2065,Short summary
We analyse folded multilayer sequences in the Ocnele Mari salt mine (Romania) to gain insight into the long-term rheological behaviour of rock salt. Our results indicate the large role of even a small number of impurities in the rock salt for its effective mechanical behaviour. We demonstrate how the development of folds that occur at various scales can be used to constrain the viscosity ratio in the deformed multilayer sequence.
Dario Zampieri, Paola Vannoli, and Pierfrancesco Burrato
Solid Earth, 12, 1967–1986,Short summary
The long-lived Schio-Vicenza Fault System is a major shear zone cross-cutting the foreland and the thrust belt of the eastern southern Alps. We review 150 years of scientific works and explain its activity and kinematics, characterized by sinistral and dextral transcurrent motion along its southern and northern sections, respectively, by a geodynamic model that has the Adria indenter as the main actor and coherently reconciles the available geological and geophysical evidence collected so far.
Vincent F. Verwater, Eline Le Breton, Mark R. Handy, Vincenzo Picotti, Azam Jozi Najafabadi, and Christian Haberland
Solid Earth, 12, 1309–1334,Short summary
Balancing along geological cross sections reveals that the Giudicarie Belt comprises two kinematic domains. The SW domain accommodated at least ~ 18 km Late Oligocene to Early Miocene shortening. Since the Middle Miocene, the SW domain experienced at least ~ 12–22 km shortening, whereas the NE domain underwent at least ~ 25–35 km. Together, these domains contributed to ~ 40–47 km of sinistral offset of the Periadriatic Fault along the Northern Giudicarie Fault since the Late Oligocene.
Emma A. H. Michie, Mark J. Mulrooney, and Alvar Braathen
Solid Earth, 12, 1259–1286,Short summary
Generating an accurate model of the subsurface is crucial when assessing a site for CO2 storage, particularly for a fault-bound storage site that may act as a seal or could reactivate upon CO2 injection. However, we have shown how picking strategy, i.e. line spacing, chosen to create the model significantly influences any subsequent fault analyses but is surprisingly rarely discussed. This analysis has been performed on the Vette Fault bounding the Smeaheia potential CO2 storage site.
Stefano Urbani, Guido Giordano, Federico Lucci, Federico Rossetti, and Gerardo Carrasco-Núñez
Solid Earth, 12, 1111–1124,Short summary
Structural studies in active calderas have a key role in the exploration of geothermal systems. We reply in detail to the points raised by the comment of Norini and Groppelli (2020), strengthening the relevance of our structural fieldwork for geothermal exploration and exploitation in active caldera geothermal systems including the Los Humeros caldera.
Jakob Bolz and Jonas Kley
Solid Earth, 12, 1005–1024,Short summary
To assess the role smaller graben structures near the southern edge of the Central European Basin System play in the basin’s overall deformational history, we take advantage of a feature found on some of these structures, where slivers from older rock units appear along the graben's main fault, surrounded on both sides by younger strata. The implications for the geometry of the fault provide a substantially improved estimate for the magnitude of normal and thrust motion along the fault system.
Domingo G. A. M. Aerden, Alejandro Ruiz-Fuentes, Mohammad Sayab, and Aidan Forde
Solid Earth, 12, 971–992,Short summary
We studied the geometry of foliations and microfolds preserved within metamorphic garnet crystals using X-ray tomography. The studied rocks are blueschists from Ile de Groix formed during Late Devonian subduction of Gondwana under Armorica. Several sets of differently oriented microfabrics were found recording variations in the direction of subduction. Comparison with similar data for Iberia supports that Iberia rotated only 10–20° during the Cretaceous opening of the North Atlantic.
Matteo Demurtas, Steven A.F. Smith, Elena Spagnuolo, and Giulio Di Toro
Solid Earth, 12, 595–612,Short summary
We performed shear experiments on calcite–dolomite gouge mixtures to better understand the behaviour of carbonates during sub-seismic to seismic deformation in the shallow crust. The development of a foliation in the gouge was only restricted to coseismic sliding, whereas fluidisation occurred over a wide range of slip velocities (sub-seismic to coseismic) in the presence of water. These observations will contribute to a better interpretation of the rock record.
James Gilgannon, Marius Waldvogel, Thomas Poulet, Florian Fusseis, Alfons Berger, Auke Barnhoorn, and Marco Herwegh
Solid Earth, 12, 405–420,Short summary
Using experiments that simulate deep tectonic interfaces, known as viscous shear zones, we found that these zones spontaneously develop periodic sheets of small pores. The presence of porous layers in deep rocks undergoing tectonic deformation is significant because it requires a change to the current model of how the Earth deforms. Emergent porous layers in viscous rocks will focus mineralising fluids and could lead to the seismic failure of rocks that are never supposed to have this occur.
Jef Deckers, Bernd Rombaut, Koen Van Noten, and Kris Vanneste
Solid Earth, 12, 345–361,Short summary
This study shows the presence of two structural domains in the western border fault system of the Roer Valley graben. These domains, dominated by NW–SE-striking faults, displayed distinctly different strain distributions during both Late Cretaceous compression and Cenozoic extension. The southern domain is characterized by narrow, localized faulting, while the northern domain is characterized by wide, distributed faulting. The non-colinear WNW–ESE Grote Brogel fault links both domains.
José Piquer, Orlando Rivera, Gonzalo Yáñez, and Nicolás Oyarzún
Solid Earth, 12, 253–273,Short summary
A proper recognition of deep, long-lived fault systems is very important for society. They can produce potentially dangerous earthquakes. They can also act as pathways for magmas and hydrothermal fluids, leading to the formation of volcanoes, geothermal systems and mineral deposits. However, the manifestations of these very old faults in the present-day surface can be very subtle. Here, we present a detailed, multi-disciplinary study of a fault system of this type in the Andes of central Chile.
Antonin Bilau, Yann Rolland, Stéphane Schwartz, Nicolas Godeau, Abel Guihou, Pierre Deschamps, Benjamin Brigaud, Aurélie Noret, Thierry Dumont, and Cécile Gautheron
Solid Earth, 12, 237–251,Short summary
As a result of the collision between the European and Apulian plates, the Alps have experienced several evolutionary stages. The Penninic frontal thrust (PFT) (major thrust) was associated with compression, and now seismic studies show ongoing extensional activity. Calcite mineralization associated with shortening and extensional structures was sampled. The last deformation stages are dated by U–Pb on calcite at ~ 3.5 and ~ 2.5 Ma. Isotope analysis evidences deep crustal fluid mobilization.
Penelope I. R. Wilson, Robert W. Wilson, David J. Sanderson, Ian Jarvis, and Kenneth J. W. McCaffrey
Solid Earth, 12, 95–117,Short summary
Magma accommodation in the shallow crust leads to deformation of the surrounding host rock through the creation of faults, fractures and folds. This deformation will impact fluid flow around intrusive magma bodies (including sills and laccoliths) by changing the porosity and permeability network of the host rock. The results may have important implications for industries where fluid flow within the subsurface adds value (e.g. oil and gas, hydrology, geothermal and carbon sequestration).
Martin Balcewicz, Benedikt Ahrens, Kevin Lippert, and Erik H. Saenger
Solid Earth, 12, 35–58,Short summary
The geothermal potential of a carbonate reservoir in the Rhine-Ruhr area, Germany, was investigated by field and laboratory investigations. The carbonate layer of interest is approx. 150 m thick; located at 4 to 6 km depth; and might extend below Essen, Bochum, and Dortmund. We proposed focusing on discontinuities striking NNW–SSE for geothermal applications, as these are the most common, strike in the direction of the main horizontal stress, and dominate reservoir fluid flow.
Andrea Bistacchi, Silvia Mittempergher, Mattia Martinelli, and Fabrizio Storti
Solid Earth, 11, 2535–2547,Short summary
We present an innovative workflow for the statistical analysis of fracture data collected along scanlines. Our methodology is based on performing non-parametric statistical tests, which allow detection of important features of the spatial distribution of fractures, and on the analysis of the cumulative spacing function (CSF) and cumulative spacing derivative (CSD), which allows the boundaries of stationary domains to be defined in an objective way.
Martina Kirilova, Virginia Toy, Katrina Sauer, François Renard, Klaus Gessner, Richard Wirth, Xianghui Xiao, and Risa Matsumura
Solid Earth, 11, 2425–2438,Short summary
Processes associated with open pores can change the physical properties of rocks and cause earthquakes. In borehole samples from the Alpine Fault zone, we show that many pores in these rocks were filled by weak materials that can slide easily. The amount of open spaces was thus reduced, and fluids circulating within them built up high pressures. Both weak materials and high pressures within pores reduce the rock strength; thus the state of pores here can trigger the next Alpine Fault earthquake.
José Manuel Benítez-Pérez, Pedro Castiñeiras, Juan Gómez-Barreiro, José R. Martínez Catalán, Andrew Kylander-Clark, and Robert Holdsworth
Solid Earth, 11, 2303–2325,Short summary
The Sobrado unit represents an allochthonous tectonic slice of exhumed high-grade metamorphic rocks formed during a complex sequence of orogenic processes in the middle to lower crust. We have combined U–Pb geochronology and REE analyses (LASS-ICP-MS) of accessory minerals in migmatitic paragneiss (monazite, zircon) and mylonitic amphibolites (titanite) to constrain the evolution. A Middle Devonian minimum age for HP metamorphism has been obtained.
Anna M. Dichiarante, Ken J. W. McCaffrey, Robert E. Holdsworth, Tore I. Bjørnarå, and Edward D. Dempsey
Solid Earth, 11, 2221–2244,Short summary
We studied the characteristics of fracture systems in the Devonian rocks of the Orcadian Basin in Caithness. These mineral-filled fractures have properties that may be used to predict the size and spatial arrangement of similar structures in offshore basins. This includes the Clair field in the Faroe–Shetland Basin.
Leonardo Del Sole, Marco Antonellini, Roger Soliva, Gregory Ballas, Fabrizio Balsamo, and Giulio Viola
Solid Earth, 11, 2169–2195,Short summary
This study focuses on the impact of deformation bands on fluid flow and diagenesis in porous sandstones in two different case studies (northern Apennines, Italy; Provence, France) by combining a variety of multiscalar mapping techniques, detailed field and microstructural observations, and stable isotope analysis. We show that deformation bands buffer and compartmentalize fluid flow and foster and localize diagenesis, recorded by carbonate cement nodules spatially associated with the bands.
Billy James Andrews, Zoe Kai Shipton, Richard Lord, and Lucy McKay
Solid Earth, 11, 2119–2140,Short summary
Through geological mapping we find that fault zone internal structure depends on whether or not the fault cuts multiple lithologies, the presence of shale layers, and the orientation of joints and coal cleats at the time of faulting. During faulting, cementation of fractures (i.e. vein formation) is highest where the fractures are most connected. This leads to the counter-intuitive result that the highest-fracture-density part of the network often has the lowest open-fracture connectivity.
Nicolas Mansard, Holger Stünitz, Hugues Raimbourg, Jacques Précigout, Alexis Plunder, and Lucille Nègre
Solid Earth, 11, 2141–2167,Short summary
Our rock deformation experiments (solid-medium Griggs-type apparatus) on wet assemblages of mafic compositions show that the ability of minerals to react controls the portions of rocks that deform and that minor chemical and mineralogical variations can considerably modify the strength of deformed assemblages. Our study suggests that the rheology of mafic rocks, which constitute a large part of the oceanic crust, cannot be summarized as being rheologically controlled by monophase materials.
Vladimir Shipilin, David C. Tanner, Hartwig von Hartmann, and Inga Moeck
Solid Earth, 11, 2097–2117,Short summary
In our work, we carry out an in-depth structural analysis of a geometrically decoupled fault system in the southern German Molasse Basin using a high-resolution 3-D seismic dataset. Based on this analysis, we reconstruct the tectonic history and changes in the stress regimes to explain the structure and evolution of faults. The results contribute in understanding the driving mechanisms behind formation, propagation, and reactivation of faults during foreland basin formation.
Ackermann, R. V., Schlische, R. W., and Withjack, M. O.: The geometric and statistical evolution of normal fault systems: an experimental study of the effects of mechanical layer thickness on scaling laws, J. Struct. Geol., 23, 1803–1819, 2001.
Allmendinger, R. W., Cardozo, N., and Fisher, D. M.: Structural geology algorithms: Vectors and tensors, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2011.
Amoco New Zealand Exploration Ltd: Special core analsysis of various formations including basic rock properties, capillary pressure, pore-size distribution, Development, M. o. E. (Ed.), Wellington, 1992.
Anderson, E. M.: The Dynamics of Faulting and Dyke Fomration With Applications to Britain, Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, UK, 1951.
Antonellini, M. and Aydin, A.: Effect of faulting on fluid-flow in porous sandstones – petrophysical properties, AAPG Bull., 78, 355–377, 1994.
Antonellini, M. and Aydin, A.: Effect of faulting on fluid flow in porous sandstones: geometry and spatial distribution, AAPG Bull., 79, 642–670, 1995.
Antonellini, M. A., Aydin, A., and Pollard, D. D.: Microstructure of deformation bands in porous sandstones at Arches National Park, Utah, J. Struct. Geol., 16, 941–959, 1994.
Araujo, R. E. B., Bezerra, F. H. R., Nogueira, F. C. C., Balsamo, F., Carvalho, B., Souza, J. A. B., Sanglard, J. C. D., de Castro, D. L., and Melo, A. C. C.: Basement control on fault formation and deformation band damage zone evolution in the Rio do Peixe Basin, Brazil, Tectonophysics, 745, 117–131, 2018.
Archer, R., Abraham, L., Pecher, I., and Fohrmann, M.: Modelling gas hydrate production potential in the Hikurangi margin, New Zeal. J. Geol. Geop., 57, 102–105, 2014.
Ashton, M., Dee, S., and Wennberg, O.: Subseismic-scale reservoir deformation. Geol, Soc. SP., 459, 1–8, 2018.
Aydin, A.: Faulting in sandstone, PhD thesis, Department of Geology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA, 282 pp., 1977.
Aydin, A.: Small faults formed as deformation bands in sandstone, Pure Appl. Geophys., 116, 913–930, 1978.
Aydin, A. and Johnson, A. M.: Analysis of faulting in porous sandstones, J. Struct. Geol., 5, 19–31, 1983.
Aydin, A., Borja, R. I., and Eichhubl, P.: Geological and mathematical framework for failure modes in granular rock, J. Struct. Geol., 28, 83–98, 2006.
Bai, T. and Pollard, D. D.: Closely spaced fractures in layered rocks: initiation mechanism and propagation kinematics, J. Struct. Geol., 22, 1409–1425, 2000a.
Bai, T. and Pollard, D. D.: Fracture spacing in layered rocks: a new explanation based on the stress transition, J. Struct. Geol., 22, 43–57, 2000b.
Bailleul, J., Robin, C., Chanier, F., Guillocheau, F., Field, B., and Ferriere, J.: Turbidite Systems in the Inner Forearc Domain of the Hikurangi Convergent Margin (New Zealand): New Constraints on the Development of Trench-Slope Basins, J. Sediment. Res., 77, 263–283, 2007.
Bailleul, J., Chanier, F., Ferrière, J., Robin, C., Nicol, A., Mahieux, G., Gorini, C., and Caron, V.: Neogene evolution of lower trench-slope basins and wedge development in the central Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand, Tectonophysics, 591, 152–174, 2013.
Ballance, P. F.: Late Cenozoic time-lines and calc-alkaline volcanic arcs in northern New Zealand – further discussion, J. Roy. Soc. New Zeal., 18, 347–358, 1988.
Ballance, P. F., Hayward, B. W., and Brook, F. J.: Subduction regression of volcanism in New Zealand, Nature, 313, 820–820, 1985.
Ballas, G., Soliva, R., Sizun, J. P., Fossen, H., Benedicto, A., and Skurtveit, E.: Shear-enhanced compaction bands formed at shallow burial conditions, implications for fluid flow (Provence, France), J. Struct. Geol., 47, 3–15, 2013.
Ballas, G., Soliva, R., Benedicto, A., and Sizun, J.-P.: Control of tectonic setting and large-scale faults on the basin-scale distribution of deformation bands in porous sandstone (Provence, France), Mar. Petrol. Geol., 55, 142–159, 2014.
Ballas, G., Fossen, H., and Soliva, R.: Factors controlling permeability of cataclastic deformation bands and faults in porous sandstone reservoirs, J. Struct. Geol., 76, 1–21, 2015.
Balsamo, F. and Storti, F.: Grain size and permeability evolution of soft-sediment extensional sub-seismic and seismic fault zones in high-porosity sediments from the Crotone basin, southern Apennines, Italy, Mar. Pet. Geol., 27, 822–837, 2010.
Balsamo, F. and Storti, F.: Size-dependent comminution, tectonic mixing, and sealing behavior of a “structurally oversimplified” fault zone in poorly lithified sands: Evidence for a coseismic rupture?, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 123, 601–619, 2011.
Balsamo, F., Storti, F., Salvini, F., Silva, A., and Lima, C.: Structural and petrophysical evolution of extensional fault zones in low-porosity, poorly lithified sandstones of the Barreiras Formation, NE Brazil, J. Struct. Geol., 32, 1806–1826, 2010.
Balsamo, F., Storti, F., and Gröcke, D.: Fault-related fluid flow history in shallow marine sediments from carbonate concretions, Crotone basin, south Italy, J. Geol. Soc., 169, 613–626, 2012.
Barnes, P. M., Lamarche, G., Bialas, J., Henrys, S., Pecher, I., Netzeband, G. L., Greinert, J., Mountjoy, J. J., Pedley, K., and Crutchley, G.: Tectonic and geological framework for gas hydrates and cold seeps on the Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand, Mar. Geol., 272, 26–48, 2010.
Bustin, R.: Organic maturity in the western Canada sedimentary basin, Int. J. Coal Geol., 19, 319–358, 1991.
Cai, J.: A super-critical stress model for polymodal faulting of rocks, J. Geodyn., 130, 12–21, 2019.
Cape, C., Lamb, S., Vella, P., Wells, P., and Woodward, D.: Geological structure of Wairarapa Valley, New Zealand, from seismic reflection profiling, J. Roy. Soc. New Zeal., 20, 85–105, 1990.
Chanier, F. and Ferrière, J.: From a passive to an active margin: tectonic and sedimentary processes linked to the birth of an accretionary prism (Hikurangi margin, New Zealand), B. Soc. Geol. Fr., 162, 649–660, 1991.
Chanier, F., Ferrière, J., and Angelier, J.: Extensional deformation across an active margin, relations with subsidence, uplift, and rotations: The Hikurangi subduction, New Zealand, Tectonics, 18, 862–876, 1999.
Chapple, W. M. and Spang, J. H.: Significance of layer-parallel slip during folding of layered sedimentary rocks, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 85, 1523–1534, 1974.
Chemenda, A. I.: The formation of tabular compaction-band arrays: Theoretical and numerical analysis, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 57, 851–868, 2009.
Chemenda, A. I., Wibberley, C., and Saillet, E.: Evolution of compactive shear deformation bands: Numerical models and geological data, Tectonophysics, 526, 56–66, 2012.
Chemenda, A. I., Ballas, G., and Soliva, R.: Impact of a multilayer structure on initiation and evolution of strain localization in porous rocks: Field observations and numerical modeling, Tectonophysics, 631, 29–36, 2014.
Crundwell, M.: Neogene stratigraphy and geological history of the Wainuioru Valley, east Wairarapa, New Zealand, MS thesis (unpublished), Victoria University, Wellington, Australia, 151 pp., 1987.
Delvaux, D. and Sperner, B.: Stress tensor inversion from fault kinematic indicators and focal mechanism data: the TENSOR program, Geol. Soc. SP., 212, 75–100, 2003.
Donath, F. A. and Parker, R. B.: Folds and folding, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 75, 45–62, 1964.
Du Bernard, X., Labaume, P., Darcel, C., Davy, P., and Bour, O.: Cataclastic slip band distribution in normal fault damage zones, Nubian sandstones, Suez rift, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 107, 2141, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JB000493, 2002.
Edbrooke, S. W.: The geological map of New Zealand, GNS Science geological map 2, Lower Hutt, New Zealand, GNS Science, 2017.183, 2017.
Eichhubl, P., Hooker, J. N., and Laubach, S. E.: Pure and shear-enhanced compaction bands in Aztec Sandstone, J. Struct. Geol., 32, 1873–1886, 2010.
Farrell, N., Healy, D., and Taylor, C.: Anisotropy of permeability in faulted porous sandstones, J. Struct. Geol., 63, 50–67, 2014.
Faulkner, D. R., Mitchell, T. M., Jensen, E., and Cembrano, J.: Scaling of fault damage zones with displacement and the implications for fault growth processes, J. Geophys. Res., 116, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JB007788, 2011.
Field, B., Pollock, R., and Browne, G.: Outcrop analog study of turbidites of the Miocene Whakataki Formation, New Zealand: Significance for reservoir volumetrics and modeling, in: Reservoir Characterization: Integrating Technology and Business Practices, edited by: Slatt, R. M., Rosen, N. C., Bowman, M., Castagna, J., Good, T., Loucks, R., Latimer, R., Scheihing, M., and Smith, R., 26th Annual GCSSEPM Foundation Bob F. Perkins Research Conference, https://doi.org/10.5724/gcs.06.26, 2006.
Field, B. D.: Cyclicity in turbidites of the Miocene Whakataki Formation, Castlepoint, North Island, and implications for hydrocarbon reservoir modelling, New Zeal. J. Geol. Geop., 48, 135–146, 2005.
Fisher, Q. and Knipe, R.: Fault sealing processes in siliciclastic sediments, Geol. Soc. SP., 147, 117–134, 1998.
Fisher, Q. and Knipe, R.: The permeability of faults within siliciclastic petroleum reservoirs of the North Sea and Norwegian Continental Shelf, Mar. Pet. Geol., 18, 1063–1081, 2001.
Fossen, H. and Bale, A.: Deformation bands and their influence on fluid flow, AAPG Bull., 91, 1685–1700, 2007.
Fossen, H. and Hesthammer, J.: Possible absence of small faults in the Gullfaks Field, northern North Sea: implications for downscaling of faults in some porous sandstones, J. Struct. Geol., 22, 851–863, 2000.
Fossen, H., Schultz, R. A., Shipton, Z. K., and Mair, K.: Deformation bands in sandstone: a review, J. Geol. Soc., 164, 755–769, 2007.
Fossen, H., Schultz, R. A., and Torabi, A.: Conditions and implications for compaction band formation in the Navajo Sandstone, Utah, J. Struct. Geol., 33, 1477–1490, 2011.
Fossen, H., Zuluaga, L. F., Ballas, G., Soliva, R., and Rotevatn, A.: Contractional deformation of porous sandstone: Insights from the Aztec Sandstone, SE Nevada, USA, J. Struct. Geol., 74, 172–184, 2015.
Fossen, H., Soliva, R., Ballas, G., Trzaskos, B., Cavalcante, C., and Schultz, R. A.: A review of deformation bands in reservoir sandstones: geometries, mechanisms and distribution, Geol. Soc. SP., 459, 9–33, 2018.
Fulljames, J., Zijerveld, L., Franssen, R., Møller-Pedersen, P., and Koestler, A.: Fault seal processes: systematic analysis of fault seals over geological and production time scales, NPF Sp. Publ., 7, 51–59, 1997.
Gross, M. R.: The origin and spacing of cross joints: examples from the Monterey Formation, Santa Barbara Coastline, California, J. Struct. Geol., 15, 737–751, 1993.
Grujic, D. and Mancktelow, N. S.: Folds with axes parallel to the extension direction: an experimental study, J. Struct. Geol., 17, 279–291, 1995.
Healy, D. and Jupp, P.: Bimodal or quadrimodal? Statistical tests for the shape of fault patterns, Solid Earth, 9, 1051–1060, https://doi.org/10.5194/se-9-1051-2018, 2018.
Healy, D., Blenkinsop, T. G., Timms, N. E., Meredith, P. G., Mitchell, T. M., and Cooke, M. L.: Polymodal faulting: time for a new angle on shear failure, J. Struct. Geol., 80, 57–71, 2015.
Hessler, A. M. and Sharman, G. R.: Subduction zones and their hydrocarbon systems, Geosphere, 14, 2044–2067, 2018.
Hu, Y. and Wang, K.: Bending-like behavior of wedge-shaped thin elastic fault blocks, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 111, B06409, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003987, 2006.
Jones, R. R., Holdsworth, R. E., McCaffrey, K. J., Clegg, P., and Tavarnelli, E.: Scale dependence, strain compatibility and heterogeneity of three-dimensional deformation during mountain building: a discussion, J. Struct. Geol., 27, 1190–1204, 2005.
Karig, D. and Lundberg, N.: Deformation bands from the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 95, 9099–9109, 1990.
Kim, Y. S., Peacock, D. C. P., and Sanderson, D. J.: Fault damage zones, J. Struct. Geol., 26, 503–517, 2004.
Klimczak, C., Soliva, R., Schultz, R. A., and Chéry, J.: Sequential growth of deformation bands in a multilayer sequence, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 116, B09209, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JB008365, 2011.
Knipe, R., Fisher, Q., Jones, G., Clennell, M., Farmer, A., Harrison, A., Kidd, B., McAllister, E., Porter, J., and White, E.: Fault seal analysis: successful methodologies, application and future directions, NPF Sp. Publ., 7, 15–40, 1997.
Knipe, R. J., Jones, G., and Fisher, Q.: Faulting, fault sealing and fluid flow in hydrocarbon reservoirs: an introduction, Geol. Soc. SP., 147, 7–21, 1998.
Knott, S. D., Beach, A., Brockbank, P. J., Brown, J. L., McCallum, J. E., and Welbon, A. I.: Spatial and mechanical controls on normal fault populations, J. Struct. Geol., 18, 359–372, 1996.
Kristensen, M. B., Childs, C., Olesen, N. Ø., and Korstgård, J. A.: The microstructure and internal architecture of shear bands in sand-clay sequences, J. Struct. Geol., 46, 129–141, 2013.
Labaume, P., Maltman, A. J., Bolton, A., Teissier, D., Ogawa, Y., and Takizawa, S.: Scaly fabrics in sheared clays from the décollement zone of the Barbados accretionary prism, edited by: Shipley, T. H., Ogawa, Y., Blum, P., Bahr, J. M., Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, scientific results, Vol 156, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, 59–77, 1997.
Laubach, S. E., Olson, J. E., and Gross, M. R.: Mechanical and fracture stratigraphy, AAPG Bull., 93, 1413–1426, 2009.
Laubach, S. E., Lamarche, J., Gauthier, B. D., Dunne, W. M., and Sanderson, D. J.: Spatial arrangement of faults and opening-mode fractures, J. Struct. Geol., 108, 2–15, 2018.
Leckie, D., Morgans, H., Wilson, G., Cutten, H., Uruski, C., and Francis, D.: Potential Reservoirs and Source Rocks in Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene Sediment of the East Coast Basin, North Island, New Zealand, Calgary: Western Canadian and International Expertise [Program book with expanded abstracts]., 106–107, 1994.
Lee, J. and Begg, J.: Geology of the Wairarapa area, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences 1 : 250,000 geological map, 11, Institute of Geological Nuclear Sciences Limited, Lower Hutt, New Zealand, 2002.
Liu, J. and Regenauer-Lieb, K.: Application of percolation theory to microtomography of structured media: Percolation threshold, critical exponents, and upscaling, Phys. Rev. E, 83, 016106, https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.83.016106, 2011.
Lucas, S. E. and Moore, J. C.: Cataclastic deformation in accretionary wedges: Deep-Sea Drilling Project Leg 66, southern Mexico, and on-land examples from Barbados and Kodiak Islands, edited by: J. C. Moore, Structural fabrics in Deep-Sea Drilling Project cores from forearcs: Geological Society of America Memoir, 166, 89–103, 1986.
Luyendyk, B. P.: Hypothesis for Cretaceous rifting of east Gondwana caused by subducted slab capture, Geology, 23, 373–376, 1995.
Maerten, L., Maerten, F., Lejri, M., and Gillespie, P.: Geomechanical paleostress inversion using fracture data, J. Struct. Geol., 89, 197–213, 2016.
Main, I. G., Kwon, O., Ngwenya, B. T., and Elphick, S. C.: Fault sealing during deformation-band growth in porous sandstone, Geology, 28, 1131–1134, 2000.
Mair, K., Main, I., and Elphick, S.: Sequential growth of deformation bands in the laboratory, J. Struct. Geol., 22, 25–42, 2000.
Maison, T., Potel, S., Malié, P., Ferreiro-Mählmann, R., Chanier, F., Mahieux, G., and Bailleul, J.: Low-grade evolution of clay minerals and organic matter in fault zones of the Hikurangi prism (New Zealand), Clay Miner., 53, 579–602, 2018.
Malie, P., Bailleul, J., Chanier, F., Toullec, R., Mahieux, G., Caron, V., Field, B., Mählmann, R. F., and Potel, S.: Spatial distribution and tectonic framework of fossil tubular concretions as onshore analogues of cold seep plumbing systems, North Island of New Zealand, Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr., 188, 25, https://doi.org/10.1051/bsgf/2017192, 2017.
Maltman, A. J.: Deformation structures from the toes of active accretionary prisms, J. Geol. Soc., 155, 639–650, 1998.
Martel, S. J.: Mechanical controls on fault geometry, J. Struct. Geol., 21, 585–596, 1999.
Mathworks, T.: Optimization Toolbox User's Guide, The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA, 305 pp., 2011.
McCoy-West, A. J., Bennett, V. C., Puchtel, I. S., and Walker, R. J.: Extreme persistence of cratonic lithosphere in the southwest Pacific: Paleoproterozoic Os isotopic signatures in Zealandia, Geology, 41, 231–234, 2013.
Mortimer, N., Campbell, H. J., Tulloch, A. J., King, P. R., Stagpoole, V. M., Wood, R. A., Rattenbury, M. S., Sutherland, R., Adams, C. J., Collot, J., and Seton, M.: Zealandia: Earth's hidden continent, GSA today, 27, 27–35, 2017.
Neef, G.: Geology of the Akitio area (1 : 50 000 metric sheet U25BD, east), northeastern Wairarapa, New Zealand, New Zeal. J. Geol. Geop., 35, 533–548, 1992a.
Neef, G.: Turbidite deposition in five Miocene, bathyal formations along an active plate margin, North Island, New Zealand: with notes on styles of deposition at the margins of east coast bathyal basins, Sediment. Geol., 78, 111–136, 1992b.
Neef, G.: Cretaceous and Cenozoic geology east of the Tinui Fault Complex in northeastern Wairarapa, New Zealand, New Zeal. J. Geol. Geop., 38, 375–394, 1995.
Nicol, A. and Childs, C.: Cataclasis and silt smear on normal faults in weakly lithified turbidites, J. Struct. Geol., 117, 44–57, 2018.
Nicol, A., Van Dissen, R., Vella, P., Alloway, B., and Melhuish, A.: Growth of contractional structures during the last 10 m.y. at the southern end of the emergent Hikurangi forearc basin, New Zealand, New Zeal. J. Geol. Geop., 45, 365–385, 2002.
Nicol, A., Mazengarb, C., Chanier, F., Rait, G., Uruski, C., and Wallace, L.: Tectonic evolution of the active Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand, since the Oligocene, Tectonics, 26, TC4002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006TC002090, 2007.
Nicol, A., Childs, C., Walsh, J. J., and Schafer, K. W.: A geometric model for the formation of deformation band clusters, J. Struct. Geol., 55, 21–33, 2013.
Ogilvie, S., Orribo, J., and Glover, P.: The influence of deformation bands upon fluid flow using profile permeametry and positron emission tomography, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 61–64, 2001.
Ogilvie, S. R. and Glover, P. W.: The petrophysical properties of deformation bands in relation to their microstructure, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 193, 129–142, 2001.
Okubo, C. H. and Schultz, R. A.: Evolution of damage zone geometry and intensity in porous sandstone: insight gained from strain energy density, J. Geol. Soc., 162, 939–949, 2005.
Olsson, W. and Holcomb, D.: Compaction localization in porous rock, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3537–3540, 2000.
Peacock, D. C. P., Dimmen, V., Rotevatn, A., and Sanderson, D. J.: A broader classification of damage zones, J. Struct. Geol., 102, 179–192, 2017.
Pecher, I. A., Henrys, S. A., Wood, W. T., Kukowski, N., Crutchley, G. J., Fohrmann, M., Kilner, J., Senger, K., Gorman, A. R., and Coffin, R. B.: Focussed fluid flow on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand – Evidence from possible local upwarping of the base of gas hydrate stability, Mar. Geol., 272, 99–113, 2010.
Pizzati, M., Balsamo, F., Storti, F., and Iacumin, P.: Physical and chemical strain-hardening during faulting in poorly lithified sandstone: The role of kinematic stress field and selective cementation, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 132, 1183–1200, 2020.
Pollard, D. D. and Aydin, A.: Progress in understanding jointing over the past century, Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 100, 1181–1204, 1988.
Qu, D., Tveranger, J., and Fachri, M.: Influence of deformation-band fault damage zone on reservoir performance, Interpretation, 5, 41–56, 2017.
Raine, J., Beu, A., Boyes, A., Campbell, H., Cooper, R., Crampton, J., Crundwell, M., Hollis, C., Morgans, H., and Mortimer, N.: New Zealand geological timescale NZGT 2015/1, New Zeal. J. Geol. Geop., 58, 398–403, 2015.
Rait, G., Chanier, F., and Waters, D. W.: Landward-and seaward-directed thrusting accompanying the onset of subduction beneath New Zealand, Geology, 19, 230–233, 1991.
Regenauer-Lieb, K., Veveakis, M., Poulet, T., Wellmann, F., Karrech, A., Liu, J., Hauser, J., Schrank, C., Gaede, O., and Fusseis, F.: Multiscale coupling and multiphysics approaches in earth sciences: Applications, Journal of Coupled Systems and Multiscale Dynamics, 1, 281–323, 2013a.
Regenauer-Lieb, K., Veveakis, M., Poulet, T., Wellmann, F., Karrech, A., Liu, J., Hauser, J., Schrank, C., Gaede, O., and Trefry, M.: Multiscale coupling and multiphysics approaches in earth sciences: Theory, Journal of Coupled Systems and Multiscale Dynamics, 1, 49–73, 2013b.
Rotevatn, A., Torabi, A., Fossen, H., and Braathen, A.: Slipped deformation bands: A new type of cataclastic deformation bands in Western Sinai, Suez rift, Egypt, J. Struct. Geol., 30, 1317–1331, 2008.
Rudnicki, J. W.: Compaction bands in porous rock, in: Bifurcations and Instabilities in Geomechanics, edited by: Labuz, J. F. and Drescher, A., A. A. Balkema, Brookfield, Vt, 29–39, 2003.
Saillet, E. and Wibberley, C. A.: Evolution of cataclastic faulting in high-porosity sandstone, Bassin du Sud-Est, Provence, France, J. Struct. Geol., 32, 1590–1608, 2010.
Sanderson, D. J. and Peacock, D. C.: Line sampling of fracture swarms and corridors, J. Struct. Geol., 122, 27–37, 2019.
Schindelin, J., Arganda-Carreras, I., Frise, E., Kaynig, V., Longair, M., Pietzsch, T., Preibisch, S., Rueden, C., Saalfeld, S., and Schmid, B.: Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis, Nat. Methods, 9, 676–682, https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2019, 2012.
Schueller, S., Braathen, A., Fossen, H., and Tveranger, J.: Spatial distribution of deformation bands in damage zones of extensional faults in porous sandstones: Statistical analysis of field data, J. Struct. Geol., 52, 148–162, 2013.
Schultz, R. A.: Geologic Fracture Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2019.
Schultz, R. A. and Siddharthan, R.: A general framework for the occurrence and faulting of deformation bands in porous granular rocks, Tectonophysics, 411, 1–18, 2005.
Shipton, Z. K. and Cowie, P. A.: Damage zone and slip-surface evolution over m to km scales in high-porosity Navajo sandstone, Utah, J. Struct. Geol., 23, 1825–1844, 2001.
Shipton, Z. K. and Cowie, P. A.: A conceptual model for the origin of fault damage zone structures in high-porosity sandstone, J. Struct. Geol., 25, 333–344, 2003.
Soliva, R. and Benedicto, A.: Geometry, scaling relations and spacing of vertically restricted normal faults, J. Struct. Geol., 27, 317–325, 2005.
Soliva, R., Benedicto, A., and Maerten, L.: Spacing and linkage of confined normal faults: importance of mechanical thickness, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 111, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JB003507, 2006.
Soliva, R., Schultz, R. A., Ballas, G., Taboada, A., Wibberley, C., Saillet, E., and Benedicto, A.: A model of strain localization in porous sandstone as a function of tectonic setting, burial and material properties; new insight from Provence (southern France), J. Struct. Geol., 49, 50–63, 2013.
Soliva, R., Ballas, G., Fossen, H., and Philit, S.: Tectonic regime controls clustering of deformation bands in porous sandstone, Geology, 44, 423–426, 2016.
Solum, J. G., Brandenburg, J., Naruk, S. J., Kostenko, O. V., Wilkins, S. J., and Schultz, R. A.: Characterization of deformation bands associated with normal and reverse stress states in the Navajo Sandstone, Utah, AAPG Bull., 94, 1453–1475, 2010.
Spörli, K. B.: New Zealand and oblique-slip margins: tectonic development up to and during the Cainozoic, edited by: Ballance, P. F. and Reading, H. G., Sedimentation in oblique-slip mobile zones, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, Oxford, Blackwell Scientific, 4, 147–170, 1980.
Sternlof, K. R., Karimi-Fard, M., Pollard, D. D., and Durlofsky, L. J.: Flow and transport effects of compaction bands in sandstone at scales relevant to aquifer and reservoir management, Water Resour. Res., 42, 16, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005WR004664, 2006.
Strogen, D. P., Seebeck, H., Nicol, A., and King, P. R.: Two-phase Cretaceous-Paleocene rifting in the Taranaki Basin region, New Zealand, implications for Gondwana break-up, J. Geol. Soc., 174, 929–946, 2017.
Świerczewska, A. and Tokarski, A. K.: Deformation bands and the history of folding in the Magura nappe, Western Outer Carpathians (Poland), Tectonophysics, 297, 73–90, 1998.
Torabi, A., Fossen, H., and Braathen, A.: Insight into petrophysical properties of deformed sandstone reservoirs, AAPG Bull., 97, 619–637, 2013.
Tueckmantel, C., Fisher, Q. J., Knipe, R. J., Lickorish, H., and Khalil, S. M.: Fault seal prediction of seismic-scale normal faults in porous sandstone: A case study from the eastern Gulf of Suez rift, Egypt, Mar. Petrol. Geol., 27, 334–350, 2010.
Ujiie, K., Maltman, A. J., and Sánchez-Gómez, M.: Origin of deformation bands in argillaceous sediments at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism, southwest Japan, J. Struct. Geol., 26, 221–231, 2004.
Walcott, R.: The kinematics of the plate boundary zone through New Zealand: a comparison of short- and long-term deformations, Geophys. J. Int., 79, 613–633, 1984.
Walcott, R. I.: Geodetic strain and the deformational history of the North Island of New Zealand during the late Cainozoic, Philos. T. R. Soc. Lond., 321, 163–181, 1987.
Wang, K. and Bilek, S. L.: Invited review paper: Fault creep caused by subduction of rough seafloor relief, Tectonophysics, 610, 1–24, 2014.
Wang, K. and Hu, Y.: Accretionary prisms in subduction earthquake cycles: The theory of dynamic Coulomb wedge, J. Geophys. Res., 111, B06410, doi:10.1029/2005JB004094, 2006.
Wells, P.: Burial history of late Neogene sedimentary basins on part of the New Zealand convergent plate margin, Basin Res., 2, 145–160, 1989.
Wong, T.-F. and Baud, P.: The brittle-ductile transition in porous rock: A review, J. Struct. Geol., 44, 25–53, 2012.
Wong, T.-F., Szeto, H., and Zhang, J.: Effect of loading path and porosity on the failure mode of porous rocks, Appl. Mech. Rev., 45, 281–293, 1992.
Wong, T.-F., David, C., and Zhu, W.: The transition from brittle faulting to cataclastic flow in porous sandstones: Mechanical deformation, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 102, 3009–3025, 1997.
Wu, T.: Permeability prediction and drainage capillary pressure simulation in sandstone reservoirs, PhD thesis, University: Texas A&M University 183 pp., 2004.
Xu, S. Q., Ben-Zion, Y., and Ampuero, J. P.: Properties of inelastic yielding zones generated by in-plane dynamic ruptures, Model description and basic results, Geophys. J. Int., 191, 1325–1342, 2012.
Yielding, G., Freeman, B., and Needham, D. T.: Quantitative fault seal prediction, AAPG Bull., 81, 897–917, 1997.
Zhang, J., Wong, T.-F., and Davis, D. M.: Micromechanics of pressure-induced grain crushing in porous rocks, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 341–352, https://doi.org/10.1029/JB095iB01p00341, 1990.
Zuza, A. V., Yin, A., Lin, J., and Sun, M.: Spacing and strength of active continental strike-slip faults, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 457, 49–62, 2017.
- Full-text XML
We analysed a sedimentary rock package located in Castlepoint, New Zealand, to test the control of the tectonic setting on the observed deformation structures. In extension and contraction, we observed faults and small fault-like structures characterised by complex spatial patterns and a reduction in porosity and grain size compared with the host rock. With these properties, the structures are likely to act as barriers to fluid flow and cause compartmentalisation of the sedimentary sequence.
We analysed a sedimentary rock package located in Castlepoint, New Zealand, to test the control...