Articles | Volume 13, issue 1
Solid Earth, 13, 1–14, 2022

Special issue: Virtual geoscience education resources (SE/GC inter-journal...

Solid Earth, 13, 1–14, 2022

Method article 04 Jan 2022

Method article | 04 Jan 2022

Virtual field trip to the Esla Nappe (Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain): delivering traditional geological mapping skills remotely using real data

Manuel I. de Paz-Álvarez et al.

Related subject area

Subject area: Tectonic plate interactions, magma genesis, and lithosphere deformation at all scales | Editorial team: Structural geology and tectonics, rock physics, experimental deformation | Discipline: Structural geology
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Investigating spatial heterogeneity within fracture networks using hierarchical clustering and graph distance metrics
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Cited articles

Alonso, J. L.: Sequences of thrusts and displacement transfer in the superposed duplexes of the Esla Nappe Region (Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain), J. Struct. Geol., 9, 969–983,, 1987. 
Alonso, J. L., Marcos, A., and Suárez, A.: Paleogeographic inversion resulting from large out of sequence breaching thrusts: The León Fault (Cantabrian Zone, NW Iberia), A new picture of the external Variscan Thrust Belt in the Ibero-Armorican Arc, Geol. Acta, 7, 451–473,, 2009. 
Arboleya, M. L.: Estudio estructural del manto del Esla (Cordillera Cantábrica, León), Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 227 pp., 1978. 
Arrowsmith, C., Counihan, A., and McGreevy, D.: Development of a multi-scaled virtual field trip for the teaching and learning of geospatial science, Int. J. Educ. Dev., 1, 42–56, 2005. 
Arrowsmith, C., Bagoly-Simó, P., Finchum, A., Oda, K., and Pawson, E.: Student employability and its implications for geography curricula and learning practices, J. Geogr. Higher Educ., 35, 365–377,, 2011. 
Short summary
We describe a virtual geological mapping course implemented in response to travelling and social restrictions derived from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The course was designed to replicate a physical mapping exercise as closely as possible with the aid of real field data and photographs collected by the authors during previous years in the Cantabrian Zone (NW Spain). The course is delivered through Google Earth via a KMZ file with outcrop descriptions and links to GitHub-hosted photographs.